Measurement of quartz crystal unit parameters - Part 6: Measurement of drive level dependence (DLD) (IEC 60444-6:2021)

This part of IEC 60444 applies to the measurements of drive level dependence (DLD) of quartz
crystal units. Two test methods (A and C) and one referential method (B) are described. “Method
A”, based on the π-network according to IEC 60444-5, can be used in the complete frequency
range covered by this part of IEC 60444. “Reference Method B”, based on the π-network or
reflection method according to IEC 60444-5 or IEC 60444-8 can be used in the complete
frequency range covered by this part of IEC 60444. “Method C”, an oscillator method, is suitable
for measurements of fundamental mode crystal units in larger quantities with fixed conditions.
NOTE The measurement methods specified in this document are not only applicable to AT-cut, but also to other
crystal cuts and vibration modes, such as doubly rotated cuts (IT,SC) and to tuning fork crystal units (by using a high
impedance test fixture).

Messung von Schwingquarz-Parametern - Teil 6: Messung der Belastungsabhängigkeit (DLD) (IEC 60444-6:2021)

Mesure des paramètres des résonateurs à quartz - Partie 6: Mesure de la dépendance du niveau d'excitation (DNE) (IEC 60444-6:2021)

Merjenje parametrov kvarčnih kristalov - 6. del: Merjenje odvisnosti od ravni napajanja (DLD) (IEC 60444-6:2021)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
27-Oct-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
22-Oct-2021
Due Date
27-Dec-2021
Completion Date
28-Oct-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN IEC 60444-6:2021
01-december-2021
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 60444-6:2014
Merjenje parametrov kvarčnih kristalov - 6. del: Merjenje odvisnosti od ravni
napajanja (DLD) (IEC 60444-6:2021)

Measurement of quartz crystal unit parameters - Part 6: Measurement of drive level

dependence (DLD) (IEC 60444-6:2021)
Messung von Schwingquarz-Parametern - Teil 6: Messung der Belastungsabhängigkeit
(DLD) (IEC 60444-6:2021)

Mesure des paramètres des résonateurs à quartz - Partie 6: Mesure de la dépendance

du niveau d'excitation (DNE) (IEC 60444-6:2021)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN IEC 60444-6:2021
ICS:
31.140 Piezoelektrične naprave Piezoelectric devices
SIST EN IEC 60444-6:2021 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN IEC 60444-6:2021
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SIST EN IEC 60444-6:2021
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN IEC 60444-6
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
October 2021
ICS 31.140 Supersedes EN 60444-6:2013 and all of its amendments
and corrigenda (if any)
English Version
Measurement of quartz crystal unit parameters - Part 6:
Measurement of drive level dependence (DLD)
(IEC 60444-6:2021)

Mesure des paramètres des résonateurs à quartz - Partie 6: Messung von Schwingquarz-Parametern - Teil 6: Messung

Mesure de la dépendance du niveau d'excitation (DNE) der Belastungsabhängigkeit (DLD)

(IEC 60444-6:2021) (IEC 60444-6:2021)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2021-10-06. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN IEC 60444-6:2021 E
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SIST EN IEC 60444-6:2021
EN IEC 60444-6:2021 (E)
European foreword

The text of document 49/1374/FDIS, future edition 3 of IEC 60444-6, prepared by IEC/TC 49

“Piezoelectric, dielectric and electrostatic devices and associated materials for frequency control,

selection and detection” was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and approved by

CENELEC as EN IEC 60444-6:2021.
The following dates are fixed:

• latest date by which the document has to be implemented at national (dop) 2022–07–06

level by publication of an identical national standard or by endorsement

• latest date by which the national standards conflicting with the (dow) 2024–10–06

document have to be withdrawn

This document supersedes EN 60444-6:2013 and all of its amendments and corrigenda (if any).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national committee. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CENELEC website.
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 60444-6:2021 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following note has to be added for the standard indicated:

IEC 60444-1 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60444-1
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SIST EN IEC 60444-6:2021
EN IEC 60444-6:2021 (E)
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

NOTE 1 Where an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the

relevant EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available

here: www.cenelec.eu.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60444-5 - Measurement of quartz crystal units EN 60444-5 -
parameters - Part 5: Methods for the
determination of equivalent electrical
parameters using automatic network
analyser techniques and error correction
IEC 60444-8 - Measurement of quartz crystal unit EN 60444-8 -
parameters - Part 8: Test fixture for surface
mounted quartz crystal units
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SIST EN IEC 60444-6:2021
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SIST EN IEC 60444-6:2021
IEC 60444-6
Edition 3.0 2021-09
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Measurement of quartz crystal unit parameters –
Part 6: Measurement of drive level dependence (DLD)
Mesure des paramètres des résonateurs à quartz –
Partie 6: Mesure de la dépendance du niveau d’excitation (DNE)
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 31.140 ISBN 978-2-8322-1014-4

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
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SIST EN IEC 60444-6:2021
– 2 – IEC 60444-6:2021 © IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ......................................................................................................................... 3

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 6

2 Normative references..................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 6

4 DLD effects ................................................................................................................... 6

4.1 Reversible changes in frequency and resistance .................................................... 6

4.2 Irreversible changes in frequency and resistance ................................................... 7

4.3 Causes of DLD effects ........................................................................................... 7

5 Drive levels for DLD measurement ................................................................................. 7

6 Test methods ................................................................................................................. 8

6.1 Method A (fast standard measurement method) ..................................................... 8

6.1.1 Testing at two drive levels .............................................................................. 8

6.1.2 Testing according to specification ................................................................... 9

6.2 Method B (Multi-level reference measurement method) ........................................ 10

Annex A (normative) Relationship between electrical drive level and mechanical

displacement of quartz crystal units ..................................................................................... 12

Annex B (normative) Method C: DLD measurement with oscillation circuit ........................... 15

Bibliography ....................................................................................................................... 20

Figure 1 – Maximum tolerable resistance ratio for the drive level dependence as a

function of the resistances R or R .................................................................................... 9

12 13

Figure B.1 – Insertion of a quartz crystal unit in an oscillator ............................................... 15

Figure B.2 – Crystal unit loss resistance as a function of dissipated power ........................... 16

Figure B.3 – Behaviour of the R of a quartz crystal unit ..................................................... 17

Figure B.4 – Block diagram of circuit system ....................................................................... 17

Figure B.5 – Installed −R in scanned drive level range ..................................................... 18

osc

Figure B.6 – Drive level behaviour of a quartz crystal unit if −R = 70 Ω is used as

osc

test limit in the Annex B test ................................................................................................ 18

Figure B.7 – Principal schematic diagram of the go/no-go test circuit ................................... 19

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SIST EN IEC 60444-6:2021
IEC 60444-6:2021 © IEC 2021 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
MEASUREMENT OF QUARTZ CRYSTAL UNIT PARAMETERS –
Part 6: Measurement of drive level dependence (DLD)
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and

in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports,

Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC Publication(s)”). Their

preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with

may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising

with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for

Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence between

any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

IEC 60444-6 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 49: Piezoelectric, dielectric and

electrostatic devices and associated materials for frequency control, selection and detection. It

is an International Standard.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition published in 2013. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:
a) some equations have been removed and corrected;

b) it has been specified in the note of the Scope that the measurement methods specified in

this document are not only applicable to AT-cut but also to other crystal cuts and vibration

modes.
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SIST EN IEC 60444-6:2021
– 4 – IEC 60444-6:2021 © IEC 2021
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
49/1374/FDIS 49/1377/RVD

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this International Standard is English.

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement, available

at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by IEC are

described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/standardsdev/publications.

A list of all parts in the IEC 60444 series, published under the general title Measurement of

quartz crystal unit parameters, can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
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SIST EN IEC 60444-6:2021
IEC 60444-6:2021 © IEC 2021 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

The drive level (expressed as power/voltage across or current through the crystal unit) forces

the resonator to produce mechanical oscillations by way of piezoelectric effect. In this process,

the acceleration work is converted to kinetic and elastic energy and the power loss to heat. The

latter conversion is due to the inner and outer friction of the quartz resonator.

The frictional losses depend on the velocity of the vibrating masses and increase when the

oscillation is no longer linear or when critical velocities, elongations or strains, excursions or

accelerations are attained in the quartz resonator or at its surfaces and mounting points (see

Annex A). This causes changes in resistance and frequency, as well as further changes due to

the temperature dependence of these parameters.

At “high” drive levels (e.g. above 1 mW or 1 mA for AT-cut crystal units) changes are observed

by all crystal units and these also can result in irreversible amplitude and frequency changes.

Any further increase of the drive level may could destroy the resonator.

Apart from this effect, changes in frequency and resistance are observed at “low” drive levels

in some crystal units (e.g. below 1 μW or 50 μA for AT-cut crystal units). In this case, if the loop

gain is not sufficient, the start-up of the oscillation is difficult. In crystal filters, the transducer

attenuation and ripple will change.

Furthermore, the coupling between a specified mode of vibration and other modes (e.g. of the

resonator itself, the mounting and the back-fill gas) also depends on the level of drive.

Due to the differing temperature response of these modes, these couplings give rise to changes

of frequency and resistance of the specified mode within narrow temperature ranges. These

changes increase with increasing drive level. However, this effect will not be considered further

in this part of IEC 60444.

In this new edition, the concept of DLD in IEC 60444-6:2013 is maintained. However, the more

suitable contents for the user’s severe requirements have been introduced.
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SIST EN IEC 60444-6:2021
– 6 – IEC 60444-6:2021 © IEC 2021
MEASUREMENT OF QUARTZ CRYSTAL UNIT PARAMETERS –
Part 6: Measurement of drive level dependence (DLD)
1 Scope

This part of IEC 60444 applies to the measurements of drive level dependence (DLD) of quartz

crystal units. Two test methods (A and C) and one referential method (B) are described. “Method

A”, based on the π-network according to IEC 60444-5, can be used in the complete frequency

range covered by this part of IEC 60444. “Reference Method B”, based on the π-network or

reflection method according to IEC 60444-5 or IEC 60444-8 can be used in the complete

frequency range covered by this part of IEC 60444. “Method C”, an oscillator method, is suitable

for measurements of fundamental mode crystal units in larger quantities with fixed conditions.

NOTE The measurement methods specified in this document are not only applicable to AT-cut, but also to other

crystal cuts and vibration modes, such as doubly rotated cuts (IT,SC) and to tuning fork crystal units (by using a high

impedance test fixture).
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.

IEC 60444-5, Measurement of quartz crystal unit parameters – Part 5: Methods for the

determination of equivalent electrical parameters using automatic network analyzer techniques

and error correction

IEC 60444-8, Measurement of quartz crystal unit parameters – Part 8: Test fixture for surface

mounted quartz crystal units
3 Terms and definitions
No terms and definitions are listed in this document.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
4 DLD effects
4.1 Reversible changes in frequency and resistance

Reversible changes are changes in frequency and resistance occurring under the same drive

levels after repeated measurements made alternatively at low and high levels, or after

continuous or quasi-continuous measurements from the lowest to the highest level and back, if

these changes remain within the limits of the measurement accuracy.
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SIST EN IEC 60444-6:2021
IEC 60444-6:2021 © IEC 2021 – 7 –
4.2 Irrever
...

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