Petroleum and natural gas industries - Materials for use in H2S-containing environments in oil and gas production - Part 3: Cracking-resistant CRAs (corrosion-resistant alloys) and other alloys (ISO 15156-3:2020)

This document gives requirements and recommendations for the selection and qualification of CRAs
(corrosion-resistant alloys) and other alloys for service in equipment used in oil and natural gas
production and natural gas treatment plants in H2S-containing environments whose failure can pose
a risk to the health and safety of the public and personnel or to the environment. It can be applied to
help avoid costly corrosion damage to the equipment itself. It supplements, but does not replace, the
materials requirements of the appropriate design codes, standards, or regulations.
This document addresses the resistance of these materials to damage that can be caused by sulfide
stress cracking (SSC), stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and galvanically induced hydrogen stress
cracking (GHSC).
This document is concerned only with cracking. Loss of material by general (mass loss) or localized
corrosion is not addressed.
Table 1 provides a non-exhaustive list of equipment to which this document is applicable, including
exclusions.
This document applies to the qualification and selection of materials for equipment designed and
constructed using load controlled design methods. For design utilizing strain-based design methods,
see ISO 15156-1:2020, Clause 5.
This document is not necessarily suitable for application to equipment used in refining or downstream
processes and equipment.

Erdöl- und Erdgasindustrie - Werkstoffe für den Einsatz in H2S-haltiger Umgebung bei der Öl- und Gasgewinnung - Teil 3: Hochlegierte Stähle (CRAs) und andere Legierungen (ISO 15156-3:2020)

Dieses Dokument nennt Anforderungen und gibt Empfehlungen für die Auswahl und Qualifizierung von CRAs (korrosionsbeständigen Legierungen) und weiteren Legierungen für den Betrieb in Einrichtungen der Öl  und Gasgewinnung und in Erdgasbehandlungsanlagen im Bereich H2S haltiger Umgebungen, deren Versagen ein mögliches Gesundheits  und Sicherheitsrisiko für die Allgemeinheit und das Personal oder für die Umwelt darstellen kann. Es kann angewendet werden zur Vermeidung kostspieliger Beschädigungen infolge von Korrosion der Anlage selbst. Es ergänzt, ersetzt aber nicht, die in einschlägigen Konstruktionsrichtlinien, Normen oder Regelwerken enthaltenen Anforderungen an Werkstoffe.
Dieses Dokument behandelt die Beständigkeit dieser Werkstoffe gegen Beschädigungen, die durch H2S induzierte Spannungsrisskorrosion (SSC), Spannungsrisskorrosion (SCC) und galvanisch induzierte wasserstoffinduzierte Rissbildung (GHSC) verursacht werden können.
Dieses Dokument behandelt ausschließlich die Rissbildung. Er befasst sich nicht mit Werkstoffverlusten durch allgemeine (durch Massenverlust bedingte) oder örtliche Korrosion.
Tabelle 1 enthält als nicht erschöpfende Liste eine Übersicht von Ausrüstungen, die in den Anwendungsbereich dieses Dokument fallen, einschließlich Ausnahmen.
Dieses Dokument gilt für die Qualifizierung und Auswahl von Werkstoffen für Ausrüstungen, die unter Verwendung von lastgesteuerten Auslegungsverfahren ausgelegt und gebaut wurden. Für Konstruktionen, bei denen auf Dehnung beruhende Auslegungsverfahren zur Anwendung kommen, siehe ISO 15156 1:2020, Abschnitt 5.
Dieses Dokument ist nicht zwangsläufig auch für die Anwendung auf Ausrüstungen in Raffinierungs  oder nachgeschalteten Verfahren und Einrichtungen geeignet.

Industries du pétrole et du gaz naturel - Matériaux pour utilisation dans des environnements contenant de l'hydrogène sulfuré (H2S) dans la production de pétrole et de gaz - Partie 3: ARC (alliages résistants à la corrosion) et autres alliages résistants à la fissuration (ISO 15156-3:2020)

Industrija za predelavo nafte in zemeljskega plina - Materiali za uporabo v okoljih s H2S v proizvodnji olja in plina - 3. del: Visokolegirana jekla (CRAs) in druge zlitine (ISO 15156-3:2020)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
10-Sep-2020
Publication Date
08-Dec-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
03-Dec-2020
Due Date
07-Feb-2021
Completion Date
09-Dec-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 15156-3:2021
01-januar-2021
Nadomešča:
SIST EN ISO 15156-3:2015

Industrija za predelavo nafte in zemeljskega plina - Materiali za uporabo v okoljih s

H2S v proizvodnji olja in plina - 3. del: Visokolegirana jekla (CRAs) in druge zlitine

(ISO 15156-3:2020)

Petroleum and natural gas industries - Materials for use in H2S-containing environments

in oil and gas production - Part 3: Cracking-resistant CRAs (corrosion-resistant alloys)

and other alloys (ISO 15156-3:2020)

Erdöl- und Erdgasindustrie - Werkstoffe für den Einsatz in H2S-haltiger Umgebung bei

der Öl- und Gasgewinnung - Teil 3: Hochlegierte Stähle (CRAs) und andere Legierungen

(ISO 15156-3:2020)
Industries du pétrole et du gaz naturel - Matériaux pour utilisation dans des

environnements contenant de l'hydrogène sulfuré (H2S) dans la production de pétrole et

de gaz - Partie 3: ARC (alliages résistants à la corrosion) et autres alliages résistants à

la fissuration (ISO 15156-3:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 15156-3:2020
ICS:
75.180.10 Oprema za raziskovanje, Exploratory, drilling and
vrtanje in odkopavanje extraction equipment
77.060 Korozija kovin Corrosion of metals
SIST EN ISO 15156-3:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 15156-3:2021
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SIST EN ISO 15156-3:2021
EN ISO 15156-3
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
November 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 75.180.01 Supersedes EN ISO 15156-3:2015
English Version
Petroleum and natural gas industries - Materials for use in
H2S-containing environments in oil and gas production -
Part 3: Cracking-resistant CRAs (corrosion-resistant
alloys) and other alloys (ISO 15156-3:2020)

Industries du pétrole et du gaz naturel - Matériaux Erdöl- und Erdgasindustrie - Werkstoffe für den

pour utilisation dans des environnements contenant de Einsatz in H2S-haltiger Umgebung bei der Öl- und

l'hydrogène sulfuré (H2S) dans la production de Gasgewinnung - Teil 3: Hochlegierte Stähle (CRAs) und

pétrole et de gaz - Partie 3: ARC (alliages résistants à la andere Legierungen (ISO 15156-3:2020)

corrosion) et autres alliages résistants à la fissuration
(ISO 15156-3:2020)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 12 October 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 15156-3:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 15156-3:2021
EN ISO 15156-3:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 15156-3:2021
EN ISO 15156-3:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 15156-3:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 67

"Materials, equipment and offshore structures for petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries"

in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 12 “Materials, equipment and offshore structures

for petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries” the secretariat of which is held by NEN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2021, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by May 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 15156-3:2015.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 15156-3:2020 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 15156-3:2020 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 15156-3:2021
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SIST EN ISO 15156-3:2021
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 15156-3
Fourth edition
2020-11
Petroleum and natural gas
industries — Materials for use in H S-
containing environments in oil and
gas production —
Part 3:
Cracking-resistant CRAs (corrosion-
resistant alloys) and other alloys
Industries du pétrole et du gaz naturel — Matériaux pour utilisation
dans des environnements contenant de l'hydrogène sulfuré (H S) dans
la production de pétrole et de gaz —
Partie 3: ARC (alliages résistants à la corrosion) et autres alliages
résistants à la fissuration
Reference number
ISO 15156-3:2020(E)
ISO 2020
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SIST EN ISO 15156-3:2021
ISO 15156-3:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 15156-3:2021
ISO 15156-3:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 5

5 Factors affecting the cracking-resistance of CRAs and other alloys in H S-containing

environments ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6 Qualification and selection of CRAs and other alloys with respect to SSC, SCC, and

GHSC in H S-containing environments .......................................................................................................................................... 6

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2 Evaluation of materials properties ........................................................................................................................................ 7

6.2.1 Hardness of parent metals ...................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2.2 Cracking-resistance properties of welds..................................................................................................... 7

6.2.3 Cracking-resistance properties associated with other fabrication methods ............... 8

6.3 PREN ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

7 Purchasing information and marking ............................................................................................................................................ 9

7.1 Information that should be supplied for material purchasing ...................................................................... 9

7.2 Marking, labelling, and documentation ..........................................................................................................................10

Annex A (normative) Environmental cracking-resistant CRAs and other alloys (including

Table A.1 — Guidance on the use of the materials selection tables) ...........................................................11

Annex B (normative) Qualification of CRAs for H S-service by laboratory testing ...........................................57

Annex C (informative) Information that should be supplied for material purchasing .................................67

Annex D (informative) Nominated sets of test conditions ..........................................................................................................69

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................70

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 15156-3:2021
ISO 15156-3:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 67, Materials, equipment and offshore

structures for petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries, in collaboration with the European

Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 12, Materials, equipment and

offshore structures for petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries, in accordance with the

Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition (ISO 15156-3:2015), which has been

technically revised. The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— Table A.27 UNS S17400 (17-4PH SS) has new limits. The use of the alloy at the annotated environmental

conditions is now limited to applications where sustained stress is no more than 50 % of SMYS;

— Table A.32 new limits and annotations for UNS N09946 separate from UNS N09945;
— Table A.41 inclusion of UNS R55400 (new a-b Ti alloy);
— Table A.3 UNS S20910 (Nitronic 50) note modifications;

— Tables A.22, A.23, A.26 through A.30, and A.33 temperature conversion corrections;

— Table A.23 new note for maximum design tensile stress for UNS J91540;

— Table A.32 newly added UNS N07718 (high strength Alloy 718, with two-step aging cycle, meeting

API 6A CRA composition and a maximum hardness of 45 HRC) and UNS N09955 requirements and

note letters designation changes on UNS N09925, N09935, N09945 and N09946;
— Table A.40 title modification and note clarification;
— Clause A.13 Cladding, overlays, and wear-resistant alloys modifications;
— Table A.18 and Table A.19 (Martensitic SS) remarks modifications;

— Table A.24 Duplex SS Hot Isostatically Pressed (HIP) inclusion and remarks modification;

iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 15156-3:2021
ISO 15156-3:2020(E)

— the informative Annex D, "Materials chemical compositions and other information", has been

removed due to copyright reasons;
— additions to the bibliography.
A list of all parts in the ISO 15156 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 15156-3:2021
ISO 15156-3:2020(E)
Introduction

The consequences of sudden failures of metallic oil and gas field components associated with their

exposure to H S-containing production fluids led to the preparation of the first edition of NACE MR0175

which was published in 1975 by the National Association of Corrosion Engineers, now known as NACE

International.

The original and subsequent editions of NACE MR0175 established limits of H S partial pressure above

which precautions against sulfide stress cracking (SSC) were always considered necessary. They

also provided guidance for the selection and specification of SSC-resistant materials when the H S

thresholds were exceeded. In more recent editions, NACE MR0175 has also provided application limits

for some corrosion-resistant alloys in terms of environmental composition and pH, temperature, and

H S partial pressures.

In separate developments, the European Federation of Corrosion issued EFC Publication 16 in 1995 and

EFC Publication 17 in 1996. These documents are generally complementary to those of NACE, though

they differed in scope and detail.

In 2003, the publication of the ISO 15156 series and NACE MR0175/ISO 15156 was completed for the

first time. These technically identical documents utilized the above sources to provide requirements

and recommendations for materials qualification and selection for application in environments

containing wet H S in oil and gas production systems. They are complemented by NACE TM0177 and

NACE TM0284 test methods.

The revision of this document, i.e. ISO 15156, involves a consolidation of all changes agreed and published

in the Technical Circular 1, ISO 15156-3:2015/Cir.1:2016, the Technical Circular 2, ISO 15156-3:2015/

Cir.2:2018 and the Technical Circular 3, ISO 15156-3:2015/Cir.3:2019, published by the ISO 15156 series

Maintenance Agency secretariat at DIN.

The changes were developed by, and approved by the ballot of, representative groups from within

the oil and gas production industry. The great majority of these changes stem from issues raised by

document users. A description of the process by which these changes were approved can be found at

the ISO 15156 series maintenance website: www .iso .org/ iso15156maintenance.

When found necessary by oil and gas production industry experts, future interim changes to this

document will be processed in the same way and will lead to interim updates to this document in

the form of Technical Corrigenda or Technical Circulars. Document users should be aware that such

documents can exist and can impact the validity of the dated references in this document.

The ISO 15156 series Maintenance Agency at DIN was set up after approval by the ISO Technical

Management Board given in document 34/2007. This document describes the makeup of the agency,

which includes experts from NACE, EFC, and ISO/TC 67, and the process for approval of amendments.

It is available from the ISO 15156 series maintenance website and from the ISO/TC 67 Secretariat. The

website also provides access to related documents that provide more detail of the ISO 15156 series

maintenance activities.
vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 15156-3:2021
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 15156-3:2020(E)
Petroleum and natural gas industries — Materials
for use in H S-containing environments in oil and gas
production —
Part 3:
Cracking-resistant CRAs (corrosion-resistant alloys) and
other alloys

WARNING — CRAs (corrosion-resistant alloys) and other alloys selected using this document

are resistant to cracking in defined HS-containing environments in oil and gas production,

but not necessarily immune to cracking under all service conditions. It is the equipment user's

responsibility to select the CRAs and other alloys suitable for the intended service.

1 Scope

This document gives requirements and recommendations for the selection and qualification of CRAs

(corrosion-resistant alloys) and other alloys for service in equipment used in oil and natural gas

production and natural gas treatment plants in H S-containing environments whose failure can pose

a risk to the health and safety of the public and personnel or to the environment. It can be applied to

help avoid costly corrosion damage to the equipment itself. It supplements, but does not replace, the

materials requirements of the appropriate design codes, standards, or regulations.

This document addresses the resistance of these materials to damage that can be caused by sulfide

stress cracking (SSC), stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and galvanically induced hydrogen stress

cracking (GHSC).

This document is concerned only with cracking. Loss of material by general (mass loss) or localized

corrosion is not addressed.

Table 1 provides a non-exhaustive list of equipment to which this document is applicable, including

exclusions.

This document applies to the qualification and selection of materials for equipment designed and

constructed using load controlled design methods. For design utilizing strain-based design methods,

see ISO 15156-1:2020, Clause 5.

This document is not necessarily suitable for application to equipment used in refining or downstream

processes and equipment.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 15156-3:2021
ISO 15156-3:2020(E)
Table 1 — List of equipment
This document is applicable to materials used for the Exclusions
following equipment

Drilling, well construction, and well-servicing Equipment exposed only to drilling fluids of con-

equipment trolled
composition
Drill bits
Blowout-preventer (BOP) shear blades
Drilling riser systems
Work strings
Wireline and wireline equipment
Surface and intermediate casing
Wells including subsurface equipment, gas lift Sucker rod pumps and sucker rods
equipment, wellheads, and christmas trees
Electric submersible pumps
Other artificial lift equipment
Slips

Flow-lines, gathering lines, field facilities, and field Crude oil storage and handling facilities operating

processing plants at
a total absolute pressure below 0,45 MPa (65 psi)
Water-handling equipment Water-handling facilities operating at a total
absolute
pressure below 0,45 MPa (65 psi)
Water injection and water disposal equipment
Natural gas treatment plants —

Transportation pipelines for liquids, gases, and Lines handling gas prepared for general commer-

multi-phase fluids cial
and domestic use
For all equipment above Components loaded only in compression
See ISO 15156-2:2020, A.2.3.2.3 for more information.
See ISO 15156-2:2020, A.2.3.2.1 for more information.
Wireline lubricators and lubricator connecting devices are not excluded.
For sucker rod pumps and sucker rods, reference can be made to NACE MR0176.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 6507-1, Metallic materials — Vickers hardness test — Part 1: Test method
ISO 6508-1, Metallic materials — Rockwell hardness test — Part 1: Test method

ISO 6892-1, Metallic materials — Tensile testing — Part 1: Method of test at room temperature

ISO 10423, Petroleum and natural gas industries — Drilling and production equipment — Wellhead and

christmas tree equipment

ISO 11960, Petroleum and natural gas industries — Steel pipes for use as casing or tubing for wells

2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 15156-3:2021
ISO 15156-3:2020(E)

ISO 15156-1:2020, Petroleum and natural gas industries — Materials for use in H S-containing

environments in oil and gas production — Part 1: General principles for selection of cracking-resistant

materials

ISO 15156-2:2020, Petroleum and natural gas industries — Materials for use in H S-containing

environments in oil and gas production — Part 2: Cracking-resistant carbon and low alloy steels, and the

use of cast irons

ASTM A747/A747M , Standard Specification for Steel Castings, Stainless, Precipitation Hardening

ASTM E29, Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with

Specifications

ASTM E562, Standard Test Method for Determining Volume Fraction by Systematic Manual Point Count

EFC Publication 17 , Corrosion resistant alloys for oil and gas production: guidelines on general

requirements and test methods for H S service

NACE CORROSION/95 Paper 47, Test methodology for elemental sulfur-resistant advanced materials for oil

and gas field equipment

NACE TM0177: 2016, Laboratory testing of metals for resistance to sulfide stress cracking and stress

corrosion cracking in H S environments
SAE AMS-2430 , Shot Peening
SAE — ASTM, Metals and alloys in the Unified Numbering System
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 15156-1, ISO 15156-2 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
ageing

change in metallurgical properties that generally occurs slowly at room temperature (natural ageing)

and more rapidly at higher temperature (artificial ageing)
3.2
anneal

heat to and hold at a temperature appropriate for the specific material and then cool at a suitable rate

for such purposes as reducing hardness, improving machineability, or obtaining desired properties

3.3
austenite
face-centred cubic crystalline phase of iron-based alloys
1) www .astm .org
2) www .efcweb .org
3) www .sae .org
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 15156-3:2021
ISO 15156-3:2020(E)
3.4
duplex stainless steel
austenitic/ferritic stainless steel

stainless steel (3.13) whose microstructure at room temperature consists primarily of a mixture of

austenite (3.3) and ferrite (3.5)
3.5
ferrite
body-centred cubic crystalline phase of iron-based alloys
3.6
ferritic stainless steel

stainless steel (3.13) whose microstructure at room temperature consists predominantly of ferrite (3.5)

3.7
galvanically induced hydrogen stress cracking
GHSC

cracking that results due to the presence of hydrogen in a metal induced in the cathode of a galvanic

couple and tensile stress (residual and/or applied)
3.8
martensite

hard, supersaturated solid solution of carbon in iron characterized by an acicular (needle-like)

microstructure
3.9
martensitic steel

steel in which a microstructure of martensite (3.8) can be attained by quenching at a cooling rate fast

enough to avoid the formation of other microstructures
3.10
pitting-resistance equivalent number
PREN
PREN

number developed to reflect and predict the pitting resistance of a CRA based upon the proportions of

the elements Cr, Mo, W, and N in the chemical composition of the alloy
Note 1 to entry: See 6.3 for further information.
3.11
production environment

natural occurring produced fluids without contamination from chemicals that will temporarily or

continuously reduce the in situ pH

Note 1 to entry: Flow back of chemicals for stimulation and scale removal may temporarily reduce the pH

significantly and some continuously injected chemicals, such as scale inhibitors, can continuously reduce pH.

3.12
solid solution
single crystalline phase containing two or more elements
3.13
stainless steel

steel containing 10,5 % mass fraction or more chromium, possibly with other elements added to secure

special properties
4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 15156-3:2021
ISO 15156-3:2020(E)
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
AYS actual yield strength
bal balance of composition up to 100 %
BOP blowout preventer
CR c-ring
CRA corrosion-resistant alloy
DCB double cantilever beam (test)
FPB four-point bend (test)
GHSC galvanically induced hydrogen stress cracking
HAZ heat-affected zone
HBW Brinell hardness
HIC hydrogen-induced cracking
HIP hot isostatically pressed
HRB Rockwell hardness (scale B)
HRC Rockwell hardness (scale C)
HSC hydrogen stress cracking
HV Vickers hardness
NDS no data submitted
pCO partial pressure of CO
2 2
pH S partial pressure of H S
2 2
PREN pitting-resistance equivalent number
PWHT post-weld heat treatment
RSRT rippled strain rate test
S elemental sulfur
SCC stress-corrosion cracking
SMYS specified minimum yield strength
SOHIC stress-oriented hydrogen-induced cracking
SSC sulfide stress cracking
SSRT slow strain rate test
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST EN ISO 15156-3:2021
ISO 15156-3:2020(E)
SZC soft-zone cracking
UNS unified (alloy) numbering system
UT uniaxial tensile (test)
5 Factors affecting the cracking-resistance of CRAs and other alloys in H S-
containing environments

The cracking behaviour of CRAs and other alloys in H S-containing environments can be affected by

complex interactions of parameters including the following:

— chemical composition, strength, heat treatment, microstructure, method of manufacture, and

finished condition of the material;
— H S partial pressure or equivalent dissolved concentration in the water phase;
— acidity (in situ pH) of the water phase;
— chloride or other halide ion concentration;
— presence of oxygen, sulfur, or other oxidants;
— expo
...

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