This document specifies detailed manufacturing requirements for circular steel and nickel alloy
compact flanged connections and associated seal rings, for designated pressures and temperatures
in class designations CL 150 (PN 20) to CL 1500 (PN 260) for nominal sizes from DN 15 (NPS ½) to
DN 1200 (NPS 48), and for CL 2500 (PN 420) for nominal sizes from DN 15 (NPS ½) to DN 600 (NPS 24).
NOTE NPS is expressed in accordance with ASME B36.10M and ASME B36.19M.
This document is applicable to welding neck flanges, blind flanges, paddle spacers and spacer blinds
(paddle blanks), valve/equipment integral flanges, orifice spacers, reducing threaded flanges and rigid
interfaces for use in process piping for the petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries.
This document is applicable within a temperature range from −196 °C to +250 °C.
This document is not applicable for external pressure.

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This document gives requirements and recommendations for the selection and qualification of CRAs
(corrosion-resistant alloys) and other alloys for service in equipment used in oil and natural gas
production and natural gas treatment plants in H2S-containing environments whose failure can pose
a risk to the health and safety of the public and personnel or to the environment. It can be applied to
help avoid costly corrosion damage to the equipment itself. It supplements, but does not replace, the
materials requirements of the appropriate design codes, standards, or regulations.
This document addresses the resistance of these materials to damage that can be caused by sulfide
stress cracking (SSC), stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and galvanically induced hydrogen stress
cracking (GHSC).
This document is concerned only with cracking. Loss of material by general (mass loss) or localized
corrosion is not addressed.
Table 1 provides a non-exhaustive list of equipment to which this document is applicable, including
exclusions.
This document applies to the qualification and selection of materials for equipment designed and
constructed using load controlled design methods. For design utilizing strain-based design methods,
see ISO 15156-1:2020, Clause 5.
This document is not necessarily suitable for application to equipment used in refining or downstream
processes and equipment.

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This document describes general principles and gives requirements and recommendations for the
selection and qualification of metallic materials for service in equipment used in oil and gas production
and in natural-gas sweetening plants in H2S-containing environments, where the failure of such
equipment can pose a risk to the health and safety of the public and personnel or to the environment.
It can be applied to help to avoid costly corrosion damage to the equipment itself. It supplements, but
does not replace, the materials requirements given in the appropriate design codes, standards, or
regulations.
This document addresses all mechanisms of cracking that can be caused by H2S, including sulfide stress
cracking, stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen-induced cracking and stepwise cracking, stress-oriented
hydrogen-induced cracking, soft zone cracking, and galvanically induced hydrogen stress cracking.
Table 1 provides a non-exhaustive list of equipment to which this document is applicable, including
exclusions.
This document applies to the qualification and selection of materials for equipment designed and
constructed using load controlled design methods. For design utilizing strain-based design methods,
see Clause 5.
This document is not necessarily applicable to equipment used in refining or downstream processes
and equipment.

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This document gives requirements and recommendations for the selection and qualification of carbon
and low-alloy steels for service in equipment used in oil and natural gas production and natural gas
treatment plants in H2S-containing environments, whose failure can pose a risk to the health and safety
of the public and personnel or to the environment. It can be applied to help to avoid costly corrosion
damage to the equipment itself. It supplements, but does not replace, the materials requirements of the
appropriate design codes, standards or regulations.
This document addresses the resistance of these steels to damage that can be caused by sulfide stress
cracking (SSC) and the related phenomena of stress-oriented hydrogen-induced cracking (SOHIC) and
soft-zone cracking (SZC).
This document also addresses the resistance of these steels to hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) and its
possible development into stepwise cracking (SWC).
This document is concerned only with cracking. Loss of material by general (mass loss) or localized
corrosion is not addressed.
Table 1 provides a non-exhaustive list of equipment to which this document is applicable, including
exclusions.
This document applies to the qualification and selection of materials for equipment designed and
constructed using load controlled design methods. For design utilizing strain-based design methods,
see ISO 15156-1:2020, Clause 5.
Annex A lists SSC-resistant carbon and low alloy steels, and A.2.4 includes requirements for the use of
cast irons.
This document is not necessarily suitable for application to equipment used in refining or downstream
processes and equipment.

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This document gives requirements and recommendations for the selection and qualification of carbon and low-alloy steels for service in equipment used in oil and natural gas production and natural gas treatment plants in H2S-containing environments, whose failure can pose a risk to the health and safety of the public and personnel or to the environment. It can be applied to help to avoid costly corrosion damage to the equipment itself. It supplements, but does not replace, the materials requirements of the appropriate design codes, standards or regulations. This document addresses the resistance of these steels to damage that can be caused by sulfide stress cracking (SSC) and the related phenomena of stress-oriented hydrogen-induced cracking (SOHIC) and soft-zone cracking (SZC). This document also addresses the resistance of these steels to hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) and its possible development into stepwise cracking (SWC). This document is concerned only with cracking. Loss of material by general (mass loss) or localized corrosion is not addressed. Table 1 provides a non-exhaustive list of equipment to which this document is applicable, including exclusions. This document applies to the qualification and selection of materials for equipment designed and constructed using load controlled design methods. For design utilizing strain-based design methods, see ISO 15156-1:2020, Clause 5. Annex A lists SSC-resistant carbon and low alloy steels, and A.2.4 includes requirements for the use of cast irons. This document is not necessarily suitable for application to equipment used in refining or downstream processes and equipment.

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This document describes general principles and gives requirements and recommendations for the selection and qualification of metallic materials for service in equipment used in oil and gas production and in natural-gas sweetening plants in H2S-containing environments, where the failure of such equipment can pose a risk to the health and safety of the public and personnel or to the environment. It can be applied to help to avoid costly corrosion damage to the equipment itself. It supplements, but does not replace, the materials requirements given in the appropriate design codes, standards, or regulations. This document addresses all mechanisms of cracking that can be caused by H2S, including sulfide stress cracking, stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen-induced cracking and stepwise cracking, stress-oriented hydrogen-induced cracking, soft zone cracking, and galvanically induced hydrogen stress cracking. Table 1 provides a non-exhaustive list of equipment to which this document is applicable, including exclusions. This document applies to the qualification and selection of materials for equipment designed and constructed using load controlled design methods. For design utilizing strain-based design methods, see Clause 5. This document is not necessarily applicable to equipment used in refining or downstream processes and equipment.

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This document gives requirements and recommendations for the selection and qualification of CRAs (corrosion-resistant alloys) and other alloys for service in equipment used in oil and natural gas production and natural gas treatment plants in H2S-containing environments whose failure can pose a risk to the health and safety of the public and personnel or to the environment. It can be applied to help avoid costly corrosion damage to the equipment itself. It supplements, but does not replace, the materials requirements of the appropriate design codes, standards, or regulations. This document addresses the resistance of these materials to damage that can be caused by sulfide stress cracking (SSC), stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and galvanically induced hydrogen stress cracking (GHSC). This document is concerned only with cracking. Loss of material by general (mass loss) or localized corrosion is not addressed. Table 1 provides a non-exhaustive list of equipment to which this document is applicable, including exclusions. This document applies to the qualification and selection of materials for equipment designed and constructed using load controlled design methods. For design utilizing strain-based design methods, see ISO 15156‑1:2020, Clause 5. This document is not necessarily suitable for application to equipment used in refining or downstream processes and equipment.

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This document specifies the requirements for a heavy-duty series of bolted bonnet steel gate valves for
petroleum refinery and related applications where corrosion, erosion and other service conditions can
indicate a need for full port openings, heavy wall sections and large stem diameters.
This document sets forth the requirements for the following gate valve features:
— bolted bonnet;
— outside screw and yoke;
— rising stems;
— non-rising handwheels;
— single or double gate;
— wedge or parallel seating;
— metallic seating surfaces;
— flanged or butt-welding ends.
It covers valves of the nominal sizes DN:
— 25; 32; 40; 50; 65; 80; 100; 150; 200; 250; 300; 350; 400; 450; 500; 600;
corresponding to nominal pipe sizes NPS:
— 1; 1¼; 1½; 2; 2½; 3; 4; 6; 8; 10; 12; 14; 16; 18; 20; 24;
applies for pressure Class designations:
— 150; 300; 600; 900; 1 500; 2 500;
and applies for pressure PN designations:
— 16, 25, 40, 63, 100, 160, 250 and 400.

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This document specifies minimum requirements for the design, testing and production testing of valves, including appropriate fittings, which are connected to mobile or static LPG pressure vessels above 150 l water capacity. Pressure relief valves and their ancillary equipment, contents gauges and automotive LPG components are outside the scope of this document.
This document does not apply to refineries or other process plants.

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This document establishes a procedure for verifying that the manufacturer of special materials for
the petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries has sufficient competence and experience
of the relevant material grades of metal, and the necessary facilities and equipment, to manufacture
these materials in the required shapes and sizes with acceptable properties according to the applicable
standard, material specification and/or material data sheet specified by the purchaser.
This document is applicable to manufacturers of various materials, product forms and manufacturing
processes when specified by the purchaser. This document has been established considering especially,
but not exclusively:
a) duplex stainless steel;
b) high alloyed austenitic stainless steel;
c) nickel-based alloys;
d) titanium and its alloys.
This document is also applicable to the processes of induction bending and strain-hardened products.

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This document describes the concept of production assurance within the systems and operations associated with exploration drilling, exploitation, processing and transport of petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas resources. This document covers upstream (including subsea), midstream and downstream facilities, petrochemical and associated activities. It focuses on production assurance of oil and gas production, processing and associated activities and covers the analysis of reliability and maintenance of the components. This includes a variety of business categories and associated systems/equipment in the oil and gas value chain. Production assurance addresses not only hydrocarbon production, but also associated activities such as drilling, pipeline installation and subsea intervention.
This document provides processes and activities, requirements and guidelines for systematic management, effective planning, execution and use of production assurance and reliability technology. This is to achieve cost-effective solutions over the life cycle of an asset development project structured around the following main elements:
— production assurance management for optimum economy of the facility through all of its life cycle phases, while also considering constraints arising from health, safety, environment, and quality;
— planning, execution and implementation of reliability technology;
— application of reliability and maintenance data;
— reliability-based technology development, design and operational improvement.
The IEC 60300-3 series addresses equipment reliability and maintenance performance in general.
This document designates 12 processes, of which seven are defined as core production assurance processes and addressed in this document. The remaining five processes are denoted as interacting processes and are outside the scope of this document. The interaction of the core production assurance processes with these interacting processes, however, is within the scope of this document as the information flow to and from these latter processes is required to ensure that production assurance requirements can be fulfilled.
The only requirement mandated by this document is the establishment and execution of the production assurance programme (PAP). It is important to reflect the PAP in the overall project management in the project for which it applies.
This document recommends that the listed processes and activities be initiated only if they can be considered to add value.

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This document establishes a procedure for verifying that the manufacturer of special materials for the petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries has sufficient competence and experience of the relevant material grades of metal, and the necessary facilities and equipment, to manufacture these materials in the required shapes and sizes with acceptable properties according to the applicable standard, material specification and/or material data sheet specified by the purchaser.
This document is applicable to manufacturers of various materials, product forms and manufacturing processes when specified by the purchaser. This document has been established considering especially, but not exclusively:
a) duplex stainless steel;
b) high alloyed austenitic stainless steel;
c) nickel-based alloys;
d) titanium and its alloys.
This document is also applicable to the processes of induction bending and strain-hardened products.

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This document describes the concept of production assurance within the systems and operations associated with exploration drilling, exploitation, processing and transport of petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas resources. This document covers upstream (including subsea), midstream and downstream facilities, petrochemical and associated activities. It focuses on production assurance of oil and gas production, processing and associated activities and covers the analysis of reliability and maintenance of the components. This includes a variety of business categories and associated systems/equipment in the oil and gas value chain. Production assurance addresses not only hydrocarbon production, but also associated activities such as drilling, pipeline installation and subsea intervention. This document provides processes and activities, requirements and guidelines for systematic management, effective planning, execution and use of production assurance and reliability technology. This is to achieve cost-effective solutions over the life cycle of an asset development project structured around the following main elements: — production assurance management for optimum economy of the facility through all of its life cycle phases, while also considering constraints arising from health, safety, environment, and quality; — planning, execution and implementation of reliability technology; — application of reliability and maintenance data; — reliability-based technology development, design and operational improvement. The IEC 60300-3 series addresses equipment reliability and maintenance performance in general. This document designates 12 processes, of which seven are defined as core production assurance processes and addressed in this document. The remaining five processes are denoted as interacting processes and are outside the scope of this document. The interaction of the core production assurance processes with these interacting processes, however, is within the scope of this document as the information flow to and from these latter processes is required to ensure that production assurance requirements can be fulfilled. The only requirement mandated by this document is the establishment and execution of the production assurance programme (PAP). It is important to reflect the PAP in the overall project management in the project for which it applies. This document recommends that the listed processes and activities be initiated only if they can be considered to add value.

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This document specifies quality control testing methods and test conditions for the characterization
of microstructure in relation to relevant properties in ferritic/austenitic (duplex) stainless steel
components supplied in the solution annealed condition and fabrication welds in the as welded
condition.
This document supplements the relevant product and fabrication standards with respect to destructive
testing methods including sampling of test specimens, test conditions and test acceptance criteria to
show freedom from deleterious intermetallic phases and precipitates in duplex stainless steels. In
addition, this document specifies the documentation of testing and test results by the testing laboratory.
NOTE 1 This document is based upon experience with duplex stainless steels in offshore oil and gas industry
applications including topside and subsea hydrocarbon service, sea water service, as well as structural use.
NOTE 2 The austenite spacing is relevant to the susceptibility of duplex stainless steels to hydrogen-induced
stress cracking (HISC) in subsea applications where cathodic protection is applied. This falls outside the scope of
this document. Reference is made to DNV/GL RP-F112[4].

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ISO 17781:2017 specifies quality control testing methods and test conditions for the characterization of microstructure in relation to relevant properties in ferritic/austenitic (duplex) stainless steel components supplied in the solution annealed condition and fabrication welds in the as welded condition.
ISO 17781:2017 supplements the relevant product and fabrication standards with respect to destructive testing methods including sampling of test specimens, test conditions and test acceptance criteria to show freedom from deleterious intermetallic phases and precipitates in duplex stainless steels. In addition, this document specifies the documentation of testing and test results by the testing laboratory.
NOTE 1 This document is based upon experience with duplex stainless steels in offshore oil and gas industry applications including topside and subsea hydrocarbon service, sea water service, as well as structural use.
NOTE 2 The austenite spacing is relevant to the susceptibility of duplex stainless steels to hydrogen-induced stress cracking (HISC) in subsea applications where cathodic protection is applied. This falls outside the scope of this document. Reference is made to DNV/GL RP-F112[4].

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ISO 17781:2017 specifies quality control testing methods and test conditions for the characterization of microstructure in relation to relevant properties in ferritic/austenitic (duplex) stainless steel components supplied in the solution annealed condition and fabrication welds in the as welded condition. ISO 17781:2017 supplements the relevant product and fabrication standards with respect to destructive testing methods including sampling of test specimens, test conditions and test acceptance criteria to show freedom from deleterious intermetallic phases and precipitates in duplex stainless steels. In addition, this document specifies the documentation of testing and test results by the testing laboratory. NOTE 1 This document is based upon experience with duplex stainless steels in offshore oil and gas industry applications including topside and subsea hydrocarbon service, sea water service, as well as structural use. NOTE 2 The austenite spacing is relevant to the susceptibility of duplex stainless steels to hydrogen-induced stress cracking (HISC) in subsea applications where cathodic protection is applied. This falls outside the scope of this document. Reference is made to DNV/GL RP-F112[4].

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This International Standard provides a comprehensive basis for the collection of reliability and maintenance (RM) data in a standard format for equipment in all facilities and operations within the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemical industries during the operational life cycle of equipment. It describes data collection principles and associated terms and definitions that constitute a “reliability language” that can be useful for communicating operational experience. The failure modes defined in the normative part of this International Standard can be used as a “reliability thesaurus” for various quantitative as well as qualitative applications. This International Standard also describes data quality control and assurance practices to provide guidance for the user.
Standardization of data collection practices facilitates the exchange of information between parties, e.g. plants, owners, manufacturers and contractors. This International Standard establishes requirements that any in-house or commercially available RM data system is required to meet when designed for RM data exchange. Examples, guidelines and principles for the exchange and merging of such RM data are addressed. This International Standard also provides a framework and guidelines for establishing performance objectives and requirements for equipment reliability and availability performance.
Annex A contains a summary of equipment that is covered by this International Standard.
This International Standard defines a minimum amount of data that is required to be collected, and it focuses on two main issues:
— data requirements for the categories of data to be collected for use in various analysis methodologies;
— standardized data format to facilitate the exchange of reliability and maintenance data between plants, owners, manufacturers and contractors.
The following main categories of data are to be collected:
a) equipment data, e.g. equipment taxonomy, equipment attributes;
b) failure data, e.g. failure cause, failure consequence;
c) maintenance data, e.g. maintenance action, resources used, maintenance consequence, down time.
NOTE Clause 9 gives further details on data content and data format.
The main areas where such data are used are the following:
1) reliability, e.g. failure events and failure mechanisms;
2) availability/efficiency, e.g. equipment availability, system availability, plant production availability;
3) maintenance, e.g. corrective and preventive maintenance, maintenance plan, maintenance supportability;
4) safety and environment, e.g. equipment failures with adverse consequences for safety and/or environment.
This International Standard does not apply to the following:
i.   data on (direct) cost issues;
ii.    data from laboratory testing and manufacturing (e.g. accelerated lifetime testing), see also 5.2;
iii.    complete equipment data sheets (only data seen relevant for assessing the reliability performance are included);
iv.   additional on-service data that an operator, on an individual basis, can consider useful for operation and maintenance;
v.   methods for analysing and applying RM data (however, principles for how to calculate some basic
vi.   reliability and maintenance parameters are included in the annexes).

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ISO 14224:2016 provides a comprehensive basis for the collection of reliability and maintenance (RM) data in a standard format for equipment in all facilities and operations within the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemical industries during the operational life cycle of equipment. It describes data collection principles and associated terms and definitions that constitute a "reliability language" that can be useful for communicating operational experience. The failure modes defined in the normative part of this International Standard can be used as a "reliability thesaurus" for various quantitative as well as qualitative applications. This International Standard also describes data quality control and assurance practices to provide guidance for the user.
Standardization of data collection practices facilitates the exchange of information between parties, e.g. plants, owners, manufacturers and contractors. This International Standard establishes requirements that any in-house or commercially available RM data system is required to meet when designed for RM data exchange. Examples, guidelines and principles for the exchange and merging of such RM data are addressed. This International Standard also provides a framework and guidelines for establishing performance objectives and requirements for equipment reliability and availability performance.
Annex A contains a summary of equipment that is covered by this International Standard.
ISO 14224:2016 defines a minimum amount of data that is required to be collected, and it focuses on two main issues:
- data requirements for the categories of data to be collected for use in various analysis methodologies;
- standardized data format to facilitate the exchange of reliability and maintenance data between plants, owners, manufacturers and contractors.
The following main categories of data are to be collected:
a) equipment data, e.g. equipment taxonomy, equipment attributes;
b) failure data, e.g. failure cause, failure consequence;
c) maintenance data, e.g. maintenance action, resources used, maintenance consequence, down time.
NOTE Clause 9 gives further details on data content and data format.
The main areas where such data are used are the following:
1) reliability, e.g. failure events and failure mechanisms;
2) availability/efficiency, e.g. equipment availability, system availability, plant production availability;
3) maintenance, e.g. corrective and preventive maintenance, maintenance plan, maintenance supportability;
4) safety and environment, e.g. equipment failures with adverse consequences for safety and/or environment.
ISO 14224:2016 does not apply to the following:
i. data on (direct) cost issues;
ii. data from laboratory testing and manufacturing (e.g. accelerated lifetime testing), see also 5.2;
iii. complete equipment data sheets (only data seen relevant for assessing the reliability performance are included);
iv. additional on-service data that an operator, on an individual basis, can consider useful for operation and maintenance;
v. methods for analysing and applying RM data (however, principles for how to calculate some basic reliability and maintenance parameters are included in the annexes).

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ISO 14224:2016 provides a comprehensive basis for the collection of reliability and maintenance (RM) data in a standard format for equipment in all facilities and operations within the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemical industries during the operational life cycle of equipment. It describes data collection principles and associated terms and definitions that constitute a "reliability language" that can be useful for communicating operational experience. The failure modes defined in the normative part of this International Standard can be used as a "reliability thesaurus" for various quantitative as well as qualitative applications. This International Standard also describes data quality control and assurance practices to provide guidance for the user. Standardization of data collection practices facilitates the exchange of information between parties, e.g. plants, owners, manufacturers and contractors. This International Standard establishes requirements that any in-house or commercially available RM data system is required to meet when designed for RM data exchange. Examples, guidelines and principles for the exchange and merging of such RM data are addressed. This International Standard also provides a framework and guidelines for establishing performance objectives and requirements for equipment reliability and availability performance. Annex A contains a summary of equipment that is covered by this International Standard. ISO 14224:2016 defines a minimum amount of data that is required to be collected, and it focuses on two main issues: - data requirements for the categories of data to be collected for use in various analysis methodologies; - standardized data format to facilitate the exchange of reliability and maintenance data between plants, owners, manufacturers and contractors. The following main categories of data are to be collected: a) equipment data, e.g. equipment taxonomy, equipment attributes; b) failure data, e.g. failure cause, failure consequence; c) maintenance data, e.g. maintenance action, resources used, maintenance consequence, down time. NOTE Clause 9 gives further details on data content and data format. The main areas where such data are used are the following: 1) reliability, e.g. failure events and failure mechanisms; 2) availability/efficiency, e.g. equipment availability, system availability, plant production availability; 3) maintenance, e.g. corrective and preventive maintenance, maintenance plan, maintenance supportability; 4) safety and environment, e.g. equipment failures with adverse consequences for safety and/or environment. ISO 14224:2016 does not apply to the following: i. data on (direct) cost issues; ii. data from laboratory testing and manufacturing (e.g. accelerated lifetime testing), see also 5.2; iii. complete equipment data sheets (only data seen relevant for assessing the reliability performance are included); iv. additional on-service data that an operator, on an individual basis, can consider useful for operation and maintenance; v. methods for analysing and applying RM data (however, principles for how to calculate some basic reliability and maintenance parameters are included in the annexes).

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ISO 16904:2016 specifies the design, minimum safety requirements and inspection and testing procedures for liquefied natural gas (LNG) marine transfer arms intended for use on conventional onshore LNG terminals, handling LNG carriers engaged in international trade. It can provide guidance for offshore and coastal operations. It also covers the minimum requirements for safe LNG transfer between ship and shore.
Although the requirements for power/control systems are covered, this International Standard does not include all the details for the design and fabrication of standard parts and fittings associated with transfer arms.
ISO 16904:2016 is supplementary to local or national standards and regulations and is additional to the requirements of ISO 28460.
ISO 16904:2016 needs not be applied to existing facilities.

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ISO 17348:2016 provides guidelines and requirements for material selection of both seamless casing and tubing, and downhole equipment for CO2 gas injection and gas production wells with high pressure and high CO2 content environments [higher than 10 % (molar) of CO2 and 1 MPa CO2 partial pressure]. Oil production wells are not covered in this International Standard. This International Standard only considers materials compatibility with the environment.
Guidance is given for the following:
- corrosion evaluation;
- materials selection;
- corrosion control.
ISO 17348:2016 is aimed at high CO2 content wells, where the threat of low pH and CO2 corrosion is greatest. However, many aspects are equally applicable to environments containing lower CO2 concentrations.
Materials selection is influenced by many factors and synergies and should be performed by either materials or corrosion engineer.

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This Technical Report aims to close the gap between the state-of-the-art and the application of probabilistic calculations for the safety systems of the petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries. It provides guidelines for reliability and safety system analysts and the oil and gas industries to:
• understand the correct meaning of the definitions used in the reliability field;
• identify
— the safety systems which may be concerned,
— the difficulties encountered when dealing with reliability modelling and calculation of safety systems,
— the relevant probabilistic parameters to be considered;
• be informed of effective solutions overcoming the encountered difficulties and allowing to undertake
the calculations of relevant probabilistic parameters;
• obtain sufficient knowledge of the principles and framework (e.g. the modelling power and limitations) of the well-established approaches currently used in the reliability field:
— analytical formulae;[1][2][13]
— Boolean:
• reliability block diagrams;[4]
• fault trees;[5]
— sequential: event trees,[8] cause consequence diagrams[10] and LOPA;[9]
— Markovian;[6]
— Petri nets;[7]
• obtain sufficient knowledge of the principles of probabilistic evaluations:
— analytical calculations (e.g. performed on Boolean or Markovian models);[1][2][3]
— and Monte Carlo simulation (e.g. performed on Petri nets[7]);
• select an approach suitable with the complexity of the related safety system and the reliability study
which is undertaken;
• handle safety and dependability (e.g. for production assurance purpose, see 3.1.1) within the same
reliability framework.
The elementary approaches (e.g. PHA, HAZID, HAZOP, FMECA) are out of the scope of this Technical Report. Yet they are of utmost importance and ought to be applied first as their results provide the input information essential to properly undertake the implementation of the approaches described in this Technical Report: analytical formulae, Boolean approaches (reliability block diagrams, fault trees, event
trees, etc.), Markov graphs and Petri nets.
This Technical Report is focused on probabilistic calculations of random failures and, therefore, the nonrandom (i.e. systematic failures as per the international reliability vocabulary IEV 191[14]) failures are out of the scope even if, to some extent, they are partly included into the reliability data collected from the field.

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ISO 16904:2016 specifies the design, minimum safety requirements and inspection and testing procedures for liquefied natural gas (LNG) marine transfer arms intended for use on conventional onshore LNG terminals, handling LNG carriers engaged in international trade. It can provide guidance for offshore and coastal operations. It also covers the minimum requirements for safe LNG transfer between ship and shore. Although the requirements for power/control systems are covered, this International Standard does not include all the details for the design and fabrication of standard parts and fittings associated with transfer arms. ISO 16904:2016 is supplementary to local or national standards and regulations and is additional to the requirements of ISO 28460. ISO 16904:2016 needs not be applied to existing facilities.

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ISO 17348:2016 provides guidelines and requirements for material selection of both seamless casing and tubing, and downhole equipment for CO2 gas injection and gas production wells with high pressure and high CO2 content environments [higher than 10 % (molar) of CO2 and 1 MPa CO2 partial pressure]. Oil production wells are not covered in this International Standard. This International Standard only considers materials compatibility with the environment. Guidance is given for the following: - corrosion evaluation; - materials selection; - corrosion control. ISO 17348:2016 is aimed at high CO2 content wells, where the threat of low pH and CO2 corrosion is greatest. However, many aspects are equally applicable to environments containing lower CO2 concentrations. Materials selection is influenced by many factors and synergies and should be performed by either materials or corrosion engineer.

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2014-08-21: CEN/BT C068 - derogation from Resolution BT 7/2006 to allow adoption of ISO/TR
2013-08-27: By mutual agreement, ISO/TC 67 and CEN/TC 12 decided to freeze the VA. The ISO/TR will be adopted by CEN/TC 62 once published in ISO.

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ISO 17292:2004 specifies the requirements for a series of metal ball valves suitable for petroleum, petrochemical, natural gas plants, and related industrial applications. It covers valves of the nominal sizes DN 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 32, 40, 50, 65, 80, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450 and 500, corresponding to nominal pipe sizes NPS 1/4, 3/8, 1/2, 3/4, 1, 1 1/4, 1 1/2, 2, 2 1/2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 and 20, and is applicable for pressure designations of Class 150, 300, 600 and 800 (the last applicable only for valves with reduced bore and with threaded and socket welding end), and PN 16, 25 and 40.

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ISO 17292:2015 specifies the requirements for a series of metal ball valves suitable for petroleum, petrochemical, natural gas plants, and related industrial applications.
It covers valves of the nominal sizes DN:
- 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 32, 40, 50, 65, 80, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, 600;
corresponding to nominal pipe sizes NPS:
- ¼, ⅜, ½, , 1, 1 ¼, 1 ½, 2, 2 ½, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 24;
and applies for pressure designations:
- Class 150; 300; 600; 800 (Class 800 applies only for valves with threaded and socket welding end);
- PN 16, 25, 40, 63, 100.
It includes provisions for testing and inspection and for valve characteristics as follows:
- flanged and butt-welded ends, in sizes 15 ≤ DN ≤ 600 (½ ≤ NPS ≤ 24);
- socket welding and threaded ends, in sizes 8 ≤ DN ≤ 50 (¼ ≤ NPS ≤ 2);
- body seat openings designated as full bore, reduced bore, and double reduced bore;
- materials.

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ISO 15156-1:2015 describes general principles and gives requirements and recommendations for the selection and qualification of metallic materials for service in equipment used in oil and gas production and in natural-gas sweetening plants in H2S-containing environments, where the failure of such equipment can pose a risk to the health and safety of the public and personnel or to the environment. It can be applied to help to avoid costly corrosion damage to the equipment itself. It supplements, but does not replace, the materials requirements given in the appropriate design codes, standards, or regulations. ISO 15156-1:2015 addresses all mechanisms of cracking that can be caused by H2S, including sulfide stress cracking, stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen-induced cracking and stepwise cracking, stress-oriented hydrogen-induced cracking, soft zone cracking, and galvanically induced hydrogen stress cracking. Table 1 provides a non-exhaustive list of equipment to which this part of ISO 15156 is applicable, including permitted exclusions. ISO 15156-1:2015 applies to the qualification and selection of materials for equipment designed and constructed using load controlled design methods. For design utilizing strain-based design methods, see Clause 5. ISO 15156-1:2015 is not necessarily applicable to equipment used in refining or downstream processes and equipment.

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ISO 15156-2:2015 gives requirements and recommendations for the selection and qualification of carbon and low-alloy steels for service in equipment used in oil and natural gas production and natural gas treatment plants in H2S-containing environments, whose failure can pose a risk to the health and safety of the public and personnel or to the environment. It can be applied to help to avoid costly corrosion damage to the equipment itself. It supplements, but does not replace, the materials requirements of the appropriate design codes, standards or regulations. ISO 15156-2:2015 addresses the resistance of these steels to damage that can be caused by sulfide stress-cracking (SSC) and the related phenomena of stress-oriented hydrogen-induced cracking (SOHIC) and soft-zone cracking (SZC). ISO 15156-2:2015 also addresses the resistance of these steels to hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) and its possible development into stepwise cracking (SWC). ISO 15156-2:2015 is concerned only with cracking. Loss of material by general (mass loss) or localized corrosion is not addressed. Table 1 provides a non-exhaustive list of equipment to which this part of ISO 15156 is applicable, including permitted exclusions. ISO 15156-2:2015 applies to the qualification and selection of materials for equipment designed and constructed using load controlled design methods. For design utilizing strain-based design methods, see ISO 15156-1:2015, Clause 5. Annex A lists SSC-resistant carbon and low alloy steels, and A.2.4 includes requirements for the use of cast irons. ISO 15156-2:2015 is not necessarily suitable for application to equipment used in refining or downstream processes and equipment.

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ISO 15156-3:2015 gives requirements and recommendations for the selection and qualification of CRAs (corrosion-resistant alloys) and other alloys for service in equipment used in oil and natural gas production and natural gas treatment plants in H2S-containing environments whose failure can pose a risk to the health and safety of the public and personnel or to the environment. It can be applied to help avoid costly corrosion damage to the equipment itself. It supplements, but does not replace, the materials requirements of the appropriate design codes, standards, or regulations. ISO 15156-3:2015 addresses the resistance of these materials to damage that can be caused by sulfide stress-cracking (SSC), stress-corrosion cracking (SCC), and galvanically induced hydrogen stress cracking (GHSC). ISO 15156-3:2015 is concerned only with cracking. Loss of material by general (mass loss) or localized corrosion is not addressed. Table 1 provides a non-exhaustive list of equipment to which this part of ISO 15156 is applicable, including permitted exclusions. ISO 15156-3:2015 applies to the qualification and selection of materials for equipment designed and constructed using load controlled design methods. For design utilizing strain-based design methods, see ISO 15156‑1:2015, Clause 5. ISO 15156-3:2015 is not necessarily suitable for application to equipment used in refining or downstream processes and equipment.

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This European Standard gives guidance on the characteristics of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and the cryogenic materials used in the LNG industry. It also gives guidance on health and safety matters. It is intended to act as a reference document for the implementation of other standards of CEN/TC 282 "Installations and equipment for liquefied natural gas". It is intended as a reference for use by persons who design or operate LNG facilities. (to be modified with the scope of ISO 16903)

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ISO 16903:2015 gives guidance on the characteristics of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and the cryogenic materials used in the LNG industry. It also gives guidance on health and safety matters. It is intended to act as a reference document for the implementation of other standards in the liquefied natural gas field. It is intended as a reference for use by persons who design or operate LNG facilities.

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ISO 16903:2015 gives guidance on the characteristics of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and the cryogenic materials used in the LNG industry. It also gives guidance on health and safety matters. It is intended to act as a reference document for the implementation of other standards in the liquefied natural gas field. It is intended as a reference for use by persons who design or operate LNG facilities.

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ISO/TS 16901:2015 provides a common approach and guidance to those undertaking assessment of the major safety hazards as part of the planning, design, and operation of LNG facilities onshore and at shoreline using risk-based methods and standards, to enable a safe design and operation of LNG facilities. The environmental risks associated with an LNG release are not addressed in this Technical Specification.

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ISO 10439-3:2015 specifies minimum requirements and gives recommendations for axial compressors, single-shaft and integrally geared process centrifugal compressors, and expander-compressors for special purpose applications that handle gas or process air in the petroleum, petrochemical, and natural gas industries. ISO 10439-4:2015 specifies integrally geared centrifugal compressors in conjunction with ISO 10439‑1.

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ISO 10439-4:2015 specifies minimum requirements and gives recommendations for axial compressors, single-shaft, and integrally geared process centrifugal compressors and expander-compressors for special purpose applications that handle gas or process air in the petroleum, petrochemical, and natural gas industries. ISO 10439‑4:2015 specifies requirements for expander-compressors, in addition to the general requirements specified in ISO 10439‑1:2015.

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ISO 10439 specifies minimum requirements and gives recommendations for axial compressors, single-shaft, and integrally geared process centrifugal compressors, and expander-compressors for special purpose applications that handle gas or process air in the petroleum, petrochemical, and natural gas industries. ISO 10439-1:2015 specifies general requirements applicable to all such machines.
ISO 10439-1:2015 does not apply to fans (these are covered by API 673) or blowers that develop less than 34 kPa (5 psi) pressure rise above atmospheric pressure. It also does not apply to packaged, integrally geared centrifugal plant, and instrument air compressors, which are covered by API 672. Hot gas expanders over 300 °C (570 °F) are not covered by ISO 10439-1:2015.
ISO 10439-1:2015 contains information pertinent to all equipment covered by the other parts of ISO 10439. It shall be used in conjunction with the following parts of ISO 10439, as applicable to the specific equipment covered:
ISO 10439‑2;
ISO 10439‑3
ISO 10439‑4

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ISO 10439-2:2015 specifies minimum requirements and gives recommendations for axial compressors, single-shaft, and integrally geared process centrifugal compressors and expander-compressors for special purpose applications that handle gas or process air in the petroleum, petrochemical, and natural gas industries. ISO 10439-2:2015 specifies requirements for non-integrally geared centrifugal and axial compressors, in addition to the general requirements specified in ISO 10439-1. These machines do not have gears integral with their casing but can have external gears.

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CEN/TS 16650 specifies requirements for couplings of 2 in (50,8 mm), 2½ in (63,5 mm), 3 in (76,2 mm) and 4 in (101,6 mm) nominal sizes with ribbed tails and hexagons for use at pressures not exceeding 1 550 kN/m (225 lbf/in). For assembly of coupling, see Figure 1. This document is applicable to couplings which have been designed primarily for aircraft refuelling purposes, but they may also be used for other general purposes.

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ISO/TR 12489:2013 aims to close the gap between the state-of-the-art and the application of probabilistic calculations for the safety systems of the petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries. It provides guidelines for reliability and safety system analysts and the oil and gas industries. The elementary approaches (e.g. PHA, HAZID, HAZOP, FMECA) are out of the scope of ISO/TR 12489:2013. Yet they are of utmost importance as their results provide the input information essential to properly undertake the implementation of the approaches described in ISO/TR 12489:2013: analytical formulae, Boolean approaches (reliability block diagrams, fault trees, event trees, etc.), Markov graphs and Petri nets. ISO/TR 12489:2013 is focused on probabilistic calculations of random failures and, therefore, the non-random failures are out of the scope even if, to some extent, they are partly included into the reliability data collected from the field.

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2010-05-11 EMA: Following resolution BT C23/2010: Adoption of new work items with the active participation of a minimum of 3 CEN members (instead of 5), for projects to be developed in ISO/TC 67, ISO lead, (71% of the weighted votes needed!!!).

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ISO 23936 describes general principles and gives requirements and recommendations for the selection and qualification of non-metallic materials for service in equipment used in oil and gas production environments, where the failure of such equipment could pose a risk to the health and safety of the public and personnel, or to the environment. It can be applied to help avoid failures of the equipment itself. It supplements, but does not replace, the material requirements given in the appropriate design codes, standards or regulations.
ISO 23936-2:2011 describes the requirements and procedures for qualification of elastomeric material used in equipment for oil and gas production.

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ISO 23936 describes general principles and gives requirements and recommendations for the selection and qualification of non-metallic materials for service in equipment used in oil and gas production environments, where the failure of such equipment could pose a risk to the health and safety of the public and personnel, or to the environment. It can be applied to help avoid failures of the equipment itself. It supplements, but does not replace, the material requirements given in the appropriate design codes, standards or regulations. ISO 23936-2:2011 describes the requirements and procedures for qualification of elastomeric material used in equipment for oil and gas production.

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ISO 21457:2010 identifies the corrosion mechanisms and parameters for evaluation when performing selection of materials for pipelines, piping and equipment related to transport and processing of hydrocarbon production, including utility and injection systems. This includes all equipment from and including the well head, to and including pipelines for stabilized products. ISO 21457:2010 is not applicable to downhole components. Guidance is given for the following: corrosion evaluations; materials selection for specific applications, or systems, or both; performance limitations for specific materials; corrosion control. ISO 21457:2010 refers to materials that are generally available, with properties that are known and documented. It also allows other materials to be evaluated and qualified for use. ISO 21457:2010 does not provide detailed material requirements or guidelines for manufacturing and testing of equipment. Such information can be found in particular product and manufacturing standards.

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ISO 21457:2010 identifies the corrosion mechanisms and parameters for evaluation when performing selection of materials for pipelines, piping and equipment related to transport and processing of hydrocarbon production, including utility and injection systems. This includes all equipment from and including the well head, to and including pipelines for stabilized products. ISO 21457:2010 is not applicable to downhole components.
Guidance is given for the following:
corrosion evaluations;
materials selection for specific applications, or systems, or both;
performance limitations for specific materials;
corrosion control.
ISO 21457:2010 refers to materials that are generally available, with properties that are known and documented. It also allows other materials to be evaluated and qualified for use.
ISO 21457:2010 does not provide detailed material requirements or guidelines for manufacturing and testing of equipment. Such information can be found in particular product and manufacturing standards.

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ISO 23936 as a whole presents general principles and gives requirements and recommendations for the selection and qualification, and gives guidance for the quality assurance, of non-metallic materials for service in equipment used in oil and gas production environments, where the failure of such equipment could pose a risk to the health and safety of the public and personnel or to the environment. It can be applied to help to avoid costly corrosion failures of the equipment itself. It supplements, but does not replace, the material requirements given in the appropriate design codes, standards or regulations. This part of ISO 23936 addresses the resistance of thermoplastics to the deterioration in properties that can be caused by physical or chemical interaction with produced and injected oil and gas-field media, and with production and chemical treatment. Interaction with sunlight is included; however, ionizing radiation is excluded from the scope of this part of ISO 23936. Furthermore, this part of ISO 23936 is not necessarily suitable for application to equipment used in refining or downstream processes and equipment. The equipment considered includes, but is not limited to, non-metallic pipelines, piping, liners, seals, gaskets and washers.

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ISO 23936 as a whole presents general principles and gives requirements and recommendations for the selection and qualification, and gives guidance for the quality assurance, of non-metallic materials for service in equipment used in oil and gas production environments, where the failure of such equipment could pose a risk to the health and safety of the public and personnel or to the environment. It can be applied to help to avoid costly corrosion failures of the equipment itself. It supplements, but does not replace, the material requirements given in the appropriate design codes, standards or regulations.
ISO 23936-1:2009 addresses the resistance of thermoplastics to the deterioration in properties that can be caused by physical or chemical interaction with produced and injected oil and gas-field media, and with production and chemical treatment. Interaction with sunlight is included; however, ionizing radiation is excluded from the scope of ISO 23936-1:2009.
ISO 23936-1:2009 is not necessarily suitable for application to equipment used in refining or downstream processes and equipment.
The equipment considered includes, but is not limited to, non-metallic pipelines, piping, liners, seals, gaskets and washers.

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ISO 23936 as a whole presents general principles and gives requirements and recommendations for the selection and qualification, and gives guidance for the quality assurance, of non-metallic materials for service in equipment used in oil and gas production environments, where the failure of such equipment could pose a risk to the health and safety of the public and personnel or to the environment. It can be applied to help to avoid costly corrosion failures of the equipment itself. It supplements, but does not replace, the material requirements given in the appropriate design codes, standards or regulations. ISO 23936-1:2009 addresses the resistance of thermoplastics to the deterioration in properties that can be caused by physical or chemical interaction with produced and injected oil and gas-field media, and with production and chemical treatment. Interaction with sunlight is included; however, ionizing radiation is excluded from the scope of ISO 23936-1:2009. ISO 23936-1:2009 is not necessarily suitable for application to equipment used in refining or downstream processes and equipment. The equipment considered includes, but is not limited to, non-metallic pipelines, piping, liners, seals, gaskets and washers.

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