Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 306: Field assessment methods for electronic visual displays (ISO 9241-306:2018)

This document establishes optical, geometrical and visual inspection methods for the assessment of a display in various contexts of use according to ISO 9241‑303.

Ergonomie der Mensch-System-Interaktion - Teil 306: Vor-Ort-Bewertungsverfahren für elektronische optische Anzeigen (ISO 9241-306:2018)

Ergonomie de l'interaction homme-système - Partie 306: Méthodes d'appréciation sur le terrain des écrans de visualisation électroniques (ISO 9241-306:2018)

Le présent document établit les méthodes d'ajustement optique, géométrique et visuel pour l'évaluation d'un dispositif d'affichage dans divers contextes d'utilisation conformément à l'ISO 9241‑303.

Ergonomija medsebojnega vpliva človek-sistem - 306. del: Metode ocenjevanja polja elektronskih slikovnih zaslonov (ISO 9241-306:2018)

Ta dokument obravnava vse pomembne nevarnosti, nevarne okoliščine ter dogodke iz točke 4 v zvezi z odsesovalnimi sistemi za lesne odrezke in prah za notranjo uporabo, ki so predvideni za priključitev na stroje, zasnovane za rezanje masivnega lesa (vključno s trdim lesom), lesnih materialov ter lesu podobnih materialov, kadar se uporabljajo v skladu s predvidenim namenom in v pogojih, ki jih predvidi proizvajalec, vključno z razumno pričakovano nepravilno uporabo.
Ta evropski standard se ne uporablja za:
a) odsesovalne sisteme z nazivnim pretokom nad 8000 m³/h in/ali prostornino s prahom obremenjenega predela izločevalnika prahu nad 3,5 m³;
b) sesalnike v skladu s standardom EN 60335-2-69/A2:2013;
c) odsesovalne sisteme z ventilatorji, nameščenimi v predelu, obremenjenem s prahom;
d) odsesovalno opremo (npr. odsesovalni pokrovi, vodi) v notranjosti lesnoobdelovalnega stroja, tj. do in vključno z odvodom, na katerega je priključen odsesovalni sistem;
e) odsesovalne sisteme, zasnovane za prah z vrednostmi KST nad 200 bar ms-1, najmanjšo vžigno energijo pod 10 mJ in/ali nižjo stopnjo eksplozivnosti pod 30 g/m³;
f) odsesovalne sisteme, zasnovane za aspiracijo eksplozivnih atmosfer, npr. obremenitev prahu > 50 % nižje stopnje eksplozivnosti;
g) sisteme, zasnovane za izločanje iz strojev z večjim tveganjem povzročitve virov vžiga;
h) silose.
Ta evropski standard se ne uporablja za stroje, ki so bili proizvedeni pred objavo tega dokumenta kot standarda EN.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
01-Sep-2017
Publication Date
13-Nov-2018
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
25-Sep-2018
Due Date
30-Nov-2018
Completion Date
14-Nov-2018

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 9241-306:2018
01-december-2018
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN ISO 9241-306:2009
(UJRQRPLMDPHGVHERMQHJDYSOLYDþORYHNVLVWHPGHO0HWRGHRFHQMHYDQMD
SROMDHOHNWURQVNLKVOLNRYQLK]DVORQRY ,62
Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 306: Field assessment methods for
electronic visual displays (ISO 9241-306:2018)

Ergonomie der Mensch-System-Interaktion - Teil 306: Vor-Ort-Bewertungsverfahren für

elektronische optische Anzeigen (ISO 9241-306:2018)

Ergonomie de l'interaction homme-système - Partie 306: Méthodes d'appréciation sur le

terrain des écrans de visualisation électroniques (ISO 9241-306:2018)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 9241-306:2018
ICS:
13.180 Ergonomija Ergonomics
35.180 Terminalska in druga IT Terminal and other
periferna oprema IT peripheral equipment
SIST EN ISO 9241-306:2018 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 9241-306:2018
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SIST EN ISO 9241-306:2018
EN ISO 9241-306
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
September 2018
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.180; 35.180 Supersedes EN ISO 9241-306:2008
English Version
Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 306: Field
assessment methods for electronic visual displays (ISO
9241-306:2018)

Ergonomie de l'interaction homme-système - Partie Ergonomie der Mensch-System-Interaktion - Teil 306:

306: Méthodes d'appréciation sur le terrain des écrans Vor-Ort-Bewertungsverfahren für elektronische

de visualisation électroniques (ISO 9241-306:2018) optische Anzeigen (ISO 9241-306:2018)

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 3 August 2018.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 9241-306:2018 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 9241-306:2018
EN ISO 9241-306:2018 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 9241-306:2018
EN ISO 9241-306:2018 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 9241-306:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 153

"Valves" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 122 “Ergonomics” the secretariat of which

is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by March 2019, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by March 2019.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 9241-306:2008.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 9241-306:2018 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 9241-306:2018 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 9241-306:2018
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SIST EN ISO 9241-306:2018
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 9241-306
Second edition
2018-08
Ergonomics of human-system
interaction —
Part 306:
Field assessment methods for
electronic visual displays
Ergonomie de l'interaction homme-système —
Partie 306: Méthodes d'appréciation sur le terrain des écrans de
visualisation électroniques
Reference number
ISO 9241-306:2018(E)
ISO 2018
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SIST EN ISO 9241-306:2018
ISO 9241-306:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 9241-306:2018
ISO 9241-306:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Preparation for assessment ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4.1 Cleaning ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4.2 Set-up .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

4.3 Display warm-up ................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.4 Control settings of the visual display ................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Assessment methods ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.1 Viewing conditions .............................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.1.1 Design viewing distance ............................................................................................................................................ 3

5.1.2 Design viewing direction .......................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1.3 Gaze and head tilt angles .......................................................................................................................................... 5

5.1.4 Virtual images .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2 Luminance .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.2.1 Illuminance ........................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2.2 Display luminance .......................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2.3 Luminance balance and glare ............................................................................................................................... 5

5.2.4 Luminance adjustment ............................................................................................................................................... 6

5.3 Special physical environments .................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.3.1 Vibration ................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.3.2 Wind and rain ..................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.3.3 Excessive temperatures ............................................................................................................................................. 6

5.4 Visual artefacts ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.4.1 Luminance non-uniformity ..................................................................................................................................... 6

5.4.2 Colour non-uniformity ................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.4.3 Contrast non-uniformity ........................................................................................................................................... 7

5.4.4 Geometric distortions .................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.4.5 Pixel faults ............................................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.4.6 Temporal instability (flicker) ................................................................................................................................ 7

5.4.7 Spatial instability (jitter) .......................................................................................................................................... 7

5.4.8 Moiré effects ........................................................................................................................................................................ 7

5.4.9 Other instabilities............................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.4.10 Unwanted reflections ................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.4.11 Unintended depth effects ......................................................................................................................................... 8

5.5 Legibility and readability ............................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.5.1 Luminance contrast ....................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.5.2 Image polarity .................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.5.3 Character height ............................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.5.4 Text size constancy .....................................................................................................................................................10

5.5.5 Character stroke width ............................................................................................................................................10

5.5.6 Character width-to-height ratio .......................................................................................................................10

5.5.7 Character format ...........................................................................................................................................................10

5.5.8 Between-character spacing .................................................................................................................................10

5.5.9 Between-word spacing ............................................................................................................................................10

5.5.10 Between-line spacing ................................................................................................................................................10

5.6 Legibility of information coding ...........................................................................................................................................10

5.6.1 Luminance coding ........................................................................................................................................................10

5.6.2 Absolute luminance coding .................................................................................................................................10

5.6.3 Blink coding ......................................................................................................................................................................11

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 9241-306:2018(E)

5.6.4 Colour coding ...................................................................................................................................................................11

5.6.5 Geometrical coding .....................................................................................................................................................11

5.7 Legibility of graphics.......................................................................................................................................................................11

5.7.1 Monochrome and multicolour object size ..............................................................................................11

5.7.2 Contrast for object legibility ...............................................................................................................................11

5.7.3 Grey and colour considerations for graphics .......................................................................................11

5.7.4 Background and surround image effects .................................................................................................11

5.7.5 Number of colours .......................................................................................................................................................11

5.8 Fidelity ........................................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.8.1 Grey scale and gamma ........................................................................................................................................... ...12

5.8.2 Rendering of moving images ..............................................................................................................................12

5.8.3 Colour misconvergence ...........................................................................................................................................12

5.8.4 Image formation time (IFT) ................................................................................................................................12

5.8.5 Spatial resolution .........................................................................................................................................................13

6 Other considerations ....................................................................................................................................................................................13

6.1 Isotropic surface .................................................................................................................................................................................13

6.2 Anisotropic surfaces ........................................................................................................................................................................13

6.3 Viewing angle range ........................................................................................................................................................................13

6.4 Adjustability ...........................................................................................................................................................................................13

6.5 Controllability .......................................................................................................................................................................................13

6.6 Luminous environment ................................................................................................................................................................14

Annex A (informative) Overview of the ISO 9241 series ...............................................................................................................15

Annex B (informative) Influences on ergonomics parameters of visual displays ..............................................16

Annex C (informative) Unwanted reflections ...........................................................................................................................................19

Annex D (informative) Definition and application of test charts for display output

linearization for eight different ambient light reflections at office work places ...........................22

Annex E (informative) Considerations for Cathode ray tube (CRT) displays ...........................................................53

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................55

iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 9241-306:2018
ISO 9241-306:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 159, Ergonomics, Subcommittee SC 4,

Ergonomics of human-system interaction.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 9241-306:2008), which has been

technically revised. The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— cathode ray tubes (CRT) displays have been added to a new informative Annex E;

— definitions of five chromatic text charts for elementary or device hue output have been added to

Annex D.
A list of all parts in the ISO 9241 series can be found on the ISO website.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 9241-306:2018
ISO 9241-306:2018(E)
Introduction

This document is part of the ISO 9241 series which establishes requirements for the ergonomic design

of electronic visual displays. At the same time, this “300” subseries replaces either partially or fully

certain previously published parts of ISO 9241 as well as several other International Standards (see the

Forewords of the respective parts for the details).
— An introduction to the subseries is given by ISO 9241-300.

— Terms and definitions related to electronic visual displays have been transferred to, and collected

in, ISO 9241-302.

— While the areas previously covered in ISO 9241 and by ISO 13406 remain essentially unchanged, test

methods and requirements have been updated to account for advances in science and technology.

— All generic ergonomic requirements have been incorporated into ISO 9241-303.

— The application of those requirements to different display technologies, application areas and

environmental conditions — including test methods and pass/fail criteria — are specified in

ISO 9241-307.

— Methods for performing formal display measurements to determine display characteristics and

verify technical specifications (tests that can be very costly and time-consuming and that are

normally performed under rigorous test conditions with a new device) are given in ISO 9241-305

and ISO 9241-307.

— In addition, guidance on the design of SED (surface-conduction electron-emitter displays) and OLED

(organic light-emitting diode) displays is given in ISO/TR 9241-308 and ISO/TR 9241-309.

The overall modular structure of the subseries facilitates its revision and amendment, as ongoing

technological development enables new forms of display interaction.

This document is concerned with ergonomic workplace assessment and is aimed at providing a means

of assessing whether or not the visual ergonomic requirements specified in ISO 9241-303 are satisfied

within a specified task setting. The intention is not necessarily to produce a perfect display with

optimum visual characteristics, but rather to ensure that the needed qualities to perform the visual

task satisfactorily are indeed present.

During the lifetime of a display, the context in which it is used can often vary; “ageing” normally takes

place as the display is used and, as a result, the performance of the display can be reduced over time.

The lighting conditions under which a display is used also often vary.

In actual VDT workstation use, the main ergonomic concerns are the visual task being performed and

the input devices being used to accomplish the task.

There are several factors that make the performance of a visual task using a VDT different from that in

many other non-VDT or paper tasks. These factors are related to the positioning of the various elements

needed for performing the visual task.

The ergonomic goal is to be able to read the information on the display comfortably, easily, accurately

and quickly (where necessary) — as when a paper “hardcopy” placed on the work desk is read.

One consideration is what can be called the positional sensitivity of the screen. If positioned poorly,

displays are susceptible to external light sources: these can be reflected back to the viewer and can

contribute to reduced legibility of the information on the screen. In more compelling environments,

these light sources can give rise to glare. They can come from either natural light from windows or

from artificial lighting systems such as overhead mounted luminaries in offices.

Given the size and dimensions of most displays, a display is typically oriented in a vertical rather than

horizontal position. This orientation and position of the information to be read is considerably different

than that when a book or paper placed on the desk is read. The line of sight from the eye to the visual

vi © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 9241-306:2018
ISO 9241-306:2018(E)

task is raised up to 45°, giving rise to a quite different visual background, often with a varying luminous

background arising from walls and other objects in the environment. These factors can affect the

working posture of a user trying to compensate between the line of sight angle to the display needed to

be maintained and the distance to the visual task.

These, and other, considerations demonstrate that the positioning of a display is much more important

than the mere positioning of paper or other hardcopy reading materials. They give rise to the need to be

able to adjust the display for orientation and height and to have the flexibility to set up the workstation

equipment so that the needs of a specific user can be met. The combination of display, lighting

environment and workstation equipment are the basics for an ergonomically well-designed workplace.

Unlike most visual task materials, displays are intended to be used for several years. Many other kinds

of work materials are used only once or a few times, or are renewed or refreshed when visibility is too

low or possibly too uncertain (e.g. safety instructions or warnings), or else simply remain unchanged

over time.

The display assessment methods presented in this document do not, in most cases, require expensive

measuring equipment and can generally be carried out easily in a working field environment. In

conducting these assessments, it ought to be possible to determine whether a problem is related to:

a) the display itself (or the display in combination with the graphic adapter);
b) the application software; or
c) physical environmental conditions.

In cases involving the display, it is beneficial that the workstation set-up be reviewed to determine

whether it meets the supplier’s recommendations; if it does not, another assessment is

...

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