Plastics - Thermogravimetry (TG) of polymers - Part 1: General principles (ISO 11358-1:2022)

This document specifies general conditions for the analysis of polymers using thermogravimetric techniques. It is applicable to liquids or solids. Solid materials can be in the form of pellets, granules or powders. Fabricated shapes reduced to appropriate specimen size can also be analysed by this method.
This document establishes methods for the investigation of physical effects and chemical reactions that are associated with changes of mass.
This document can be used to determine the temperature(s) and rate(s) of decomposition of polymers, and to measure at the same time the amounts of volatile matter, additives and/or fillers they contain.
This document is applicable to measurements in dynamic mode (mass change versus temperature or time under programmed temperature conditions) or isothermal mode (mass change versus time at constant temperature).
This document is applicable to measurements at different testing atmospheres, such as separation of decomposition in an inert atmosphere from oxidative degradation.

Kunststoffe - Thermogravimetrie (TG) von Polymeren - Teil 1: Allgemeine Grundsätze (ISO 11358-1:2022)

Dieses Dokument legt allgemeine Bedingungen für die thermogravimetrische Analyse von Polymeren fest. Sie ist anwendbar auf flüssige oder feste Stoffe. Die festen Stoffe dürfen als Pellets, Granulat oder Pulver vorliegen. Mit dem Verfahren dürfen ebenfalls auf eine geeignete Probekörpergröße reduzierte Fertigteile untersucht werden.
Dieses Dokument legt Verfahren zur Untersuchung von physikalischen Effekten und chemischen Reaktionen fest, die mit Massenänderungen verbunden sind.
Die Thermogravimetrie kann zur Bestimmung der Temperatur(en) und der Zersetzungsrate(n) von Polymeren und zur gleichzeitigen Messung der Menge der darin enthaltenen flüchtigen Anteile, Zusatzstoffe und/oder Füllstoffe angewendet werden.
Thermogravimetrische Messungen können mit einem dynamischen Verfahren (Massenänderung in Abhängigkeit von der Temperatur oder Zeit unter programmierten Temperaturbedingungen) oder einem isothermen Verfahren (Massenänderung in Abhängigkeit von der Zeit bei konstanter Temperatur) durchgeführt werden.
Thermogravimetrische Messungen können ebenfalls unter Anwendung unterschiedlicher Prüfatmosphären durchgeführt werden, um beispielsweise die Zersetzung in einer inerten Atmosphäre von der oxidativen Zersetzung zu trennen.

Plastiques - Thermogravimétrie (TG) des polymères - Partie 1: Principes généraux (ISO 11358-1:2022)

Le présent document spécifie les conditions générales d’analyse des polymères au moyen des techniques de thermogravimétrie. Il est applicable aux liquides et aux solides. Les matériaux solides peuvent se présenter sous forme de granulés, de grains ou de poudre. Cette méthode d’analyse est également applicable aux objets façonnés sur lesquels une éprouvette de dimensions appropriées est prélevée.
Le présent document établit des méthodes pour l’étude des effets physiques et des réactions chimiques qui sont associés aux variations de masse.
Le présent document peut être utilisé pour déterminer la/les température(s) et le(s) taux de décomposition des polymères et pour mesurer simultanément les quantités de matières volatiles, d’additifs et/ou de charges qu’ils contiennent.
Le présent document est applicable aux mesurages selon un mode dynamique (variation de masse en fonction de la température ou du temps, dans des conditions de température définies) ou un mode isotherme (variation de masse en fonction du temps, à température constante).
Le présent document est applicable aux mesurages en employant différentes atmosphères d’essai, tels que la séparation d’une décomposition dans une atmosphère inerte à partir d’une dégradation oxydative.

Polimerni materiali - Termogravimetrija (TG) polimerov - 1. del: Splošna načela (ISO 11358-1:2022)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
28-Feb-2021
Publication Date
08-May-2022
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
04-May-2022
Due Date
09-Jul-2022
Completion Date
09-May-2022

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 11358-1:2022
01-junij-2022
Nadomešča:
SIST EN ISO 11358-1:2014
Polimerni materiali - Termogravimetrija (TG) polimerov - 1. del: Splošna načela
(ISO 11358-1:2022)

Plastics - Thermogravimetry (TG) of polymers - Part 1: General principles (ISO 11358-

1:2022)

Kunststoffe - Thermogravimetrie (TG) von Polymeren - Teil 1: Allgemeine Grundsätze

(ISO 11358-1:2022)

Plastiques - Thermogravimétrie (TG) des polymères - Partie 1: Principes généraux (ISO

11358-1:2022)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 11358-1:2022
ICS:
83.080.01 Polimerni materiali na Plastics in general
splošno
SIST EN ISO 11358-1:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11358-1:2022
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11358-1:2022
EN ISO 11358-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
April 2022
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 83.080.01 Supersedes EN ISO 11358-1:2014
English Version
Plastics - Thermogravimetry (TG) of polymers - Part 1:
General principles (ISO 11358-1:2022)

Plastiques - Thermogravimétrie (TG) des polymères - Kunststoffe - Thermogravimetrie (TG) von Polymeren -

Partie 1: Principes généraux (ISO 11358-1:2022) Teil 1: Allgemeine Grundsätze (ISO 11358-1:2022)

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 6 January 2022.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2022 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 11358-1:2022 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11358-1:2022
EN ISO 11358-1:2022 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11358-1:2022
EN ISO 11358-1:2022 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 11358-1:2022) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 61 "Plastics"

in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 249 “Plastics” the secretariat of which is held by

NBN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2022, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by October 2022.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 11358-1:2014.

Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national standards

body/national committee. A complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CEN website.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 11358-1:2022 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 11358-1:2022 without any

modification.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11358-1:2022
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11358-1:2022
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 11358-1
Second edition
2022-03
Plastics — Thermogravimetry (TG) of
polymers —
Part 1:
General principles
Plastiques — Thermogravimétrie (TG) des polymères —
Partie 1: Principes généraux
Reference number
ISO 11358-1:2022(E)
© ISO 2022
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11358-1:2022
ISO 11358-1:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11358-1:2022
ISO 11358-1:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6 Test specimen preparation ....................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.2 Test specimens from finished products ........................................................................................................................... 3

6.3 Test specimen conditioning ........................................................................................................................................................ 3

6.4 Test specimen mass ........................................................................................................................................... ................................. 3

7 Calibration ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................3

7.1 Mass calibration .................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

7.2 Temperature calibration ................................................................................................................................................................ 3

8 Procedure ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................5

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

8.2 Temperature scanning mode ..................................................................................................................................................... 5

8.3 Isothermal mode ................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

8.4 Buoyancy correction ......................................................................................................................................................................... 6

9 Expression of results ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

9.1 Graphical representation .............................................................................................................................................................. 6

9.2 Determination of increase in mass ....................................................................................................................................... 6

9.3 Determination of loss in mass................................................................................................................................................... 7

9.3.1 Single-stage decrease in mass .............................................................................................................................. 7

9.3.2 Multi-stage decrease in mass ................................................................................................................................ 8

9.3.3 Determination of residue ......................................................................................................................................... 11

10 Test report ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................11

Annex A (informative) Calibration materials for Curie-point temperature calibration ...........................12

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

iii
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11358-1:2022
ISO 11358-1:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 61, Plastics, Subcommittee SC 5, Physical

chemical properties, in collaboration with the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical

Committee CEN/TC 249, Plastics, in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between

ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 11358-1:2014), which has been technically

revised. The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— a normative reference to ISO 472 has been added;
— definitions specified in ISO 472 have been removed;
— measurement under reactive atmosphere has been added;
— the apparatus specifications have been changed;
— the calibration procedures have been revised;
— buoyancy correction has been added;
— use of a differential thermogravimetric curve has been added.
A list of all parts in the ISO 11358 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11358-1:2022
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 11358-1:2022(E)
Plastics — Thermogravimetry (TG) of polymers —
Part 1:
General principles
1 Scope

This document specifies general conditions for the analysis of polymers using thermogravimetric

techniques. It is applicable to liquids or solids. Solid materials can be in the form of pellets, granules or

powders. Fabricated shapes reduced to appropriate specimen size can also be analysed by this method.

This document establishes methods for the investigation of physical effects and chemical reactions that

are associated with changes of mass.

This document can be used to determine the temperature(s) and rate(s) of decomposition of polymers,

and to measure at the same time the amounts of volatile matter, additives and/or fillers they contain.

This document is applicable to measurements in dynamic mode (mass change versus temperature or

time under programmed temperature conditions) or isothermal mode (mass change versus time at

constant temperature).

This document is applicable to measurements at different testing atmospheres, such as separation of

decomposition in an inert atmosphere from oxidative degradation.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 291, Plastics — Standard atmospheres for conditioning and testing
ISO 472, Plastics — Vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 472 and the following apply:

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardisation at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
dynamic mass-change determination

technique for recording the variation of the mass of a test specimen with temperature, T, which is

changing at a programmed rate
3.2
isothermal mass-change determination

technique for recording the variation of the mass of a test specimen with time t at constant temperature T

© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11358-1:2022
ISO 11358-1:2022(E)
3.3
Curie temperature

temperature at which a ferromagnetic material passes from the ferromagnetic state to the paramagnetic

state or vice versa
4 Principle

A test specimen is heated at specified rates with a controlled temperature programme, and the change

in mass is measured as a function of temperature (dynamic mass-change determination). Alternatively,

the specimen is kept at a given constant temperature and the change in mass is measured as a function

of time over a given period (isothermal mass-change determination).

During measurement, the test specimen is held in a controlled inert, oxidising or otherwise reactive

atmosphere.

In general, the reactions which cause the mass of a test specimen to change are decomposition or

oxidation reactions or the volatilisation of a component. In some cases, measurements with special

reaction gases may also be carried out.

The change in mass vs. temperature and/or time is recorded as a thermogravimetric (TG) curve.

The change in mass of a material as a function of temperature and the extent of this change are indicators

of the thermal stability of the material. TG data may therefore be used to evaluate the relative thermal

stability of polymers of the same generic family and polymer-polymer or polymer-additive interactions,

using measurements made under the same test conditions.

NOTE TG data can be used for process control, process development and material evaluation. Long-term

thermal stability is a complex function of service and environmental conditions. TG data alone cannot be able to

describe the long-term thermal stability of a polymer.
5 Apparatus

A number of commercial instruments suitable for thermogravimetric measurements are available. The

basic apparatus consists of the following.
5.1 Thermobalance, meeting the following requirements:

— capability to generate constant heating and cooling rates suitable for intended measurements;

— capability to maintain the test temperature constant (to within ±0,3 K or less for the duration of

measurement);
— capability to main
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN ISO 11358-1:2021
01-februar-2021
Polimerni materiali - Termogravimetrija (TG) polimerov - 1. del: Splošna načela
(ISO/DIS 11358-1:2020)

Plastics - Thermogravimetry (TG) of polymers - Part 1: General principles (ISO/DIS

11358-1:2020)

Kunststoffe - Thermogravimetrie (TG) von Polymeren - Teil 1: Allgemeine Grundsätze

(ISO/DIS 11358-1:2020)
Plastiques - Thermogravimétrie (TG) des polymères - Partie 1: Principes généraux
(ISO/DIS 11358-1:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN ISO 11358-1
ICS:
83.080.01 Polimerni materiali na Plastics in general
splošno
oSIST prEN ISO 11358-1:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 11358-1:2021
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 11358-1:2021
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 11358-1
ISO/TC 61/SC 5 Secretariat: DIN
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2020-12-09 2021-03-03
Plastics — Thermogravimetry (TG) of polymers —
Part 1:
General principles
Plastiques — Thermogravimétrie (TG) des polymères —
Partie 1: Principes généraux
ICS: 83.080.01
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 11358-1:2020(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 11358-1:2021
ISO/DIS 11358-1:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 11358-1:2021
ISO/DIS 11358-1:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6 Test specimen preparation ........................................................................................................................................................................ 3

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.2 Test specimens from finished products ............................................................................................................................. 3

6.3 Test specimen conditioning ......................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.4 Test specimen mass ............................................................................................................................................................................ 3

7 Calibration .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

7.1 Mass calibration ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

7.2 Temperature calibration ................................................................................................................................................................. 3

8 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

8.2 Temperature scanning mode ...................................................................................................................................................... 5

8.3 Isothermal mode ................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

8.4 Buoyancy correction .......................................................................................................................................................................... 6

9 Expression of results ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

9.1 Graphical representation ............................................................................................................................................................... 6

9.2 Determination of increase in mass ........................................................................................................................................ 6

9.3 Determination of loss in mass ................................................................................................................................................... 8

9.3.1 Single-stage decrease in mass (see Figure 3) .................. ........................................................................ 8

9.3.2 Multi-stage decrease in mass (see Figure 4) ........................................................................................... 9

9.3.3 Determination of residue ......................................................................................................................................11

10 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................11

Annex A (informative) Calibration materials for Curie-point temperature calibration ..............................12

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 11358-1:2021
ISO/DIS 11358-1:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 61, Plastics, Subcommittee SC 5, Physical

chemical properties.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 11358-1:2014), which has been technically

revised. The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— addition of ISO 472 to the Normative references clause and removal of definitions specified therein;

— addition of measurement under reactive atmosphere;
— revision of apparatus specifications;
— revision of calibration procedures;
— addition of buoyancy correction;
— addition of using a differential thermogravimetric curve.
A list of all parts in the ISO 11358 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 11358-1:2021
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 11358-1:2020(E)
Plastics — Thermogravimetry (TG) of polymers —
Part 1:
General principles
1 Scope

This document specifies general conditions for the analysis of polymers using thermogravimetric

techniques. It is applicable to liquids or solids. Solid materials may be in the form of pellets, granules or

powders. Fabricated shapes reduced to appropriate specimen size may also be analysed by this method.

This document establishes methods for the investigation of physical effects and chemical reactions that

are associated with changes of mass.

Thermogravimetry can be used to determine the temperature(s) and rate(s) of decomposition of

polymers, and to measure at the same time the amounts of volatile matter, additives and/or fillers they

contain.

Thermogravimetric measurements can be carried out in dynamic mode (mass change versus

temperature or time under programmed temperature conditions) or isothermal mode (mass change

versus time at constant temperature).

Thermogravimetric measurements can also be carried out using different testing atmospheres, e.g. to

separate decomposition in an inert atmosphere from oxidative degradation.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 291, Plastics — Standard atmospheres for conditioning and testing
ISO 472, Plastics — Vocabulary

ISO 11357-1, Plastics — Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) — Part 1: General principles

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 472 and the following apply:

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardisation at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
dynamic mass-change determination

technique for recording the variation of the mass of a test specimen with temperature T which is

changing at a programmed rate
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 11358-1:2021
ISO/DIS 11358-1:2020(E)
3.2
isothermal mass-change determination

technique for recording the variation of the mass of a test specimen with time t at constant temperature T

3.3
Curie temperature

temperature at which a ferromagnetic material passes from the ferromagnetic state to the paramagnetic

state or vice versa
4 Principle

A test specimen is heated at specified rates with a controlled temperature programme, and the change

in mass is measured as a function of temperature. Alternatively, the specimen is kept at a given constant

temperature and the change in mass is measured as a function of time over a given period.

During measurement the test specimen is held in a controlled inert, oxidising or otherwise reactive

atmosphere.

In general, the reactions which cause the mass of a test specimen to change are decomposition or

oxidation reactions or the volatilisation of a component. In some cases, measurements with special

reaction gases may also be carried out.

The change in mass vs. temperature and/or time is recorded as a thermogravimetric (TG) curve.

The change in mass of a material as a function of temperature and the extent of this change are

indicators of the thermal stability of the material. TG data can therefore be used to evaluate the relative

thermal stability of polymers of the same generic family and polymer-polymer or polymer-additive

interactions, using measurements made under the same test conditions.

NOTE TG data can be used for process control, process development and material evaluation. Long-term

thermal stability is a complex function of service and environmental conditions. TG data alone cannot be able to

describe the long-term thermal stability of a polymer.
5 Apparatus

A number of commercial instruments suitable for thermogravimetric measurements are available. The

basic apparatus consists of the following.
5.1 Thermobalance, meeting the following requirements:

— capability to generate constant heating and cooling rates suitable for intended measurements;

— capability to maintain the test temperature constant (to within ±0,3 K or less for the duration of

measurement);

— capability to maintain a constant purge gas flow rate controllable to within ±10 % over the range of

flow rates (e.g. 10 ml/min to 150 ml/min) required for intended measurements;
— temperature and mass range in line with experimental requirements;

— recording device capable of automatically recording the measured curve of mass versus temperature

and time;

NOTE Some instruments can also display differential thermogravimetric curves (DTG curves) for improved

evaluation of results.

— measurement of temperature signals with an accuracy of ±1 % of the absolute temperature

measured in K or better;
— measurement of time with an accuracy of ±1 s or better;
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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oSIST prEN ISO 11358-1:2021
ISO/DIS 11358-1:2020(E)
— measurement of mass with an accuracy of ±20 µg or better.

5.2 Purge gas, dry air or oxygen (oxidizing conditions) or a suitable inert gas with an oxygen content

of 0,001 % by volume or less (non-oxidizing conditions). In either case, the water content of the purge

gas shall be less than 0,001 % by mass.
6 Test specimen preparation
6.1 General

Test specimens may be liquids or solids. Solids may be in the form of powders, pellets, granules or cut

pieces. For finished products, the test specimen shall be in the form normally found in use.

6.2 Test specimens from finished products

Cut the test specimen to appropriate size for the specimen holder. Microtomes or razor blades are

suitable for this purpose.

NOTE Test specimen size and shape are generally dependent on the sample holder. Surface area affects the

overall results. For instance, in comparing a test specimen of large surf
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