Solid biofuels - Fuel specifications and classes - Part 1: General requirements (ISO 17225-1:2021)

This document determines the fuel quality classes and specifications for solid biofuels of raw and
processed materials originating from
a) forestry and arboriculture;
b) agriculture and horticulture;
c) aquaculture.
Chemically treated material may not include halogenated organic compounds or heavy metals at levels
higher than those in typical virgin material values (see Annex B) or higher than typical values of the
country of origin.
NOTE Raw and processed material includes woody, herbaceous, fruit, aquatic biomass and biodegradable
waste originating from above sectors.

Biogene Festbrennstoffe - Brennstoffspezifikationen und -klassen - Teil 1: Allgemeine Anforderungen (ISO 17225-1:2021)

Dieses Dokument legt die qualitätsbezogenen Brennstoffklassen und Spezifikationen für biogene Festbrennstoffe aus Rohmaterial und verarbeitetem Material fest, die aus folgenden Quellen stammen:
a)   Forstwirtschaft und Baumkultur;
b)   Landwirtschaft und Gartenbau;
c)   Aquakultur.
Chemisch behandeltes Material darf keine halogen-organischen Verbindungen oder Schwermetalle in Konzentrationen enthalten, die über denen der typischen Werte für naturbelassenes Material (siehe Anhang B) oder der typischen Werte für das Herkunftsland liegen.
ANMERKUNG   Roh- und verarbeitetes Material umfasst holzartige Biomasse, halmgutartige Biomasse, Biomasse von Früchten, aquatische Biomasse und biologisch abbaubaren Abfall aus den vorstehend genannten Bereichen.

Biocombustibles solides - Classes et spécifications des combustibles - Partie 1: Exigences générales (ISO 17225-1:2021)

Le présent document détermine les classes de qualité et les spécifications des biocombustibles solides issus de matières premières et de matières transformées provenant de:
a) la sylviculture et l'arboriculture;
b) l'agriculture et l'horticulture;
c) l'aquaculture.
Les niveaux de composés organiques halogénés ou de métaux lourds inclus dans les matériaux traités chimiquement ne peuvent pas dépasser les valeurs des matériaux vierges (voir Annexe B) ou les valeurs types du pays d'origine.
NOTE       Les matières premières et les matières transformées comprennent une biomasse ligneuse, herbacée, fruitière et aquatique ainsi que des déchets biodégradables provenant des secteurs cités ci-dessus.

Trdna biogoriva - Specifikacije goriv in razredi - 1. del: Splošne zahteve (ISO 17225-1:2021)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
03-May-2020
Publication Date
16-Aug-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
14-Jul-2021
Due Date
18-Sep-2021
Completion Date
17-Aug-2021

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Standards Content (Sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 17225-1:2021
01-september-2021
Nadomešča:
SIST EN ISO 17225-1:2014

Trdna biogoriva - Specifikacije goriv in razredi - 1. del: Splošne zahteve (ISO 17225

-1:2021)

Solid biofuels - Fuel specifications and classes - Part 1: General requirements (ISO

17225-1:2021)

Biogene Festbrennstoffe - Brennstoffspezifikationen und -klassen - Teil 1: Allgemeine

Anforderungen (ISO 17225-1:2021)
Biocombustibles solides - Classes et spécifications des combustibles - Partie 1:
Exigences générales (ISO 17225-1:2021)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 17225-1:2021
ICS:
75.160.40 Biogoriva Biofuels
SIST EN ISO 17225-1:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 17225-1:2021
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SIST EN ISO 17225-1:2021
EN ISO 17225-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
June 2021
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 27.190; 75.160.40 Supersedes EN ISO 17225-1:2014
English Version
Solid biofuels - Fuel specifications and classes - Part 1:
General requirements (ISO 17225-1:2021)

Biocombustibles solides - Classes et spécifications des Biogene Festbrennstoffe - Brennstoffspezifikationen

combustibles - Partie 1: Exigences générales (ISO und -klassen - Teil 1: Allgemeine Anforderungen (ISO

17225-1:2021) 17225-1:2021)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 2 March 2021.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 17225-1:2021 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 17225-1:2021
EN ISO 17225-1:2021 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 17225-1:2021
EN ISO 17225-1:2021 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 17225-1:2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 238 "Solid

biofuels" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 335 “Solid biofuels” the secretariat of

which is held by SIS.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by December 2021, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by December 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 17225-1:2014.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 17225-1:2021 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 17225-1:2021 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 17225-1:2021
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SIST EN ISO 17225-1:2021
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 17225-1
Second edition
2021-06
Solid biofuels — Fuel specifications
and classes —
Part 1:
General requirements
Biocombustibles solides — Classes et spécifications des
combustibles —
Partie 1: Exigences générales
Reference number
ISO 17225-1:2021(E)
ISO 2021
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SIST EN ISO 17225-1:2021
ISO 17225-1:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 17225-1:2021
ISO 17225-1:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

6 Classification of origin and sources of solid biofuels ..................................................................................................... 4

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2 Woody biomass ....................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.2.1 Forest, plantation and other virgin wood................................................................................................10

6.2.2 By-products and residues from wood processing industry.....................................................10

6.2.3 Used wood ..........................................................................................................................................................................10

6.2.4 Blends and mixtures ..................................................................................................................................................10

6.3 Herbaceous biomass .......................................................................................................................................................................10

6.3.1 Herbaceous biomass from agriculture and horticulture ............................................................10

6.3.2 By-products and residues from food and herbaceous processing industry ..............10

6.3.3 Blends and mixtures ..................................................................................................................................................10

6.4 Fruit biomass .........................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.4.1 Orchard and horticulture fruit ..........................................................................................................................11

6.4.2 By-products and residues from food and fruit processing industry ................................11

6.4.3 Blends and mixtures ..................................................................................................................................................11

6.5 Aquatic biomass ..................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.6 Biomass blends and mixtures .................................................................................................................................................11

7 Specification of solid biofuels based on traded forms and properties .....................................................11

7.1 Traded forms of solid biofuels ................................................................................................................................................11

7.2 Specification of properties of solid biofuels ...............................................................................................................12

Annex A (informative) Illustrations of typical forms of wood fuels and examples of particles

sizes for wood chips and hog fuel ....................................................................................................................................................38

Annex B (informative) Typical values of solid biomass fuels ..................................................................................................43

Annex C (informative) Examples of possible causes for deviant levels for different

properties and of consequences of handling and treatments for the properties of

biomass .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................55

Annex D (informative) Calculation of the net calorific value at different bases and energy

density as received ..........................................................................................................................................................................................58

Annex E (informative) Comparison of moisture content as received and dry basis ........................................61

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................63

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 17225-1:2021
ISO 17225-1:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 238, Solid biofuels.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition ISO 17225-1:2014, which has been technically

revised. The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— particle size distribution for wood chips and hog fuel updated
— Table 15 for undensified thermally treated biomass deleted
A list of all parts in the ISO 17225 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 17225-1:2021
ISO 17225-1:2021(E)
Introduction

The objective of the ISO 17225 series is to provide unambiguous and clear classification principles

for solid biofuels and to serve as a tool to enable efficient trading of biofuels and to enable good

understanding between seller and buyer as well as a tool for communication with equipment

manufacturers. It will also facilitate authority permission procedures and reporting.

The ISO 17225 series is made for all stakeholders.

Solid biomass covers organic, non-fossil material of biological origin which may be used as fuel for heat

and electrical generation.

Figure 1 describes the bioenergy utilization chain from sources of biomass, to biofuel production to

final use of bioenergy. Although biomass can be used for energy generation it has many other primary

uses (non-fuels) as a raw material for construction, furniture, packaging, paper products, etc.

Figure 1 — ISO TC 238 within the biomass — Biofuel — Bioenergy field

The classifications given in this document are provided with the objective of using biomass as a solid

biofuel and therefore do not deal with all other uses.

Although the product standards starting from Part 2 of the ISO 17225 series may be obtained separately,

they require a general understanding of the standards based on and supporting ISO 17225-1. It is

recommended to obtain and use ISO 17225-1 in conjunction with these standards.

In the product standards, graded means that solid biofuel is used either in commercial applications,

such as in households and small commercial and public sector buildings or industrial applications,

which demand the use of fuels with specified quality (properties) expressed by quality classes like A1,

A2 or B.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 17225-1:2021
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SIST EN ISO 17225-1:2021
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 17225-1:2021(E)
Solid biofuels — Fuel specifications and classes —
Part 1:
General requirements
1 Scope

This document determines the fuel quality classes and specifications for solid biofuels of raw and

processed materials originating from
a) forestry and arboriculture;
b) agriculture and horticulture;
c) aquaculture.

Chemically treated material may not include halogenated organic compounds or heavy metals at levels

higher than those in typical virgin material values (see Annex B) or higher than typical values of the

country of origin.

NOTE Raw and processed material includes woody, herbaceous, fruit, aquatic biomass and biodegradable

waste originating from above sectors.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 14780, Solid biofuels — Sample preparation
ISO 16559, Solid biofuels — Terminology, definitions and descriptions

ISO 16948, Solid biofuels — Determination of total content of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen

ISO 16967, Solid biofuels — Determination of major elements — Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, P, K, Si, Na and Ti

ISO 16968, Solid biofuels — Determination of minor elements

ISO 16993, Solid biofuels — Conversion of analytical results from one basis to another

ISO 16994, Solid biofuels — Determination of total content of sulfur and chlorine

ISO 17827-1, Solid biofuels — Determination of particle size distribution for uncompressed fuels — Part 1:

Oscillating screen method using sieves with apertures of 3,15 mm and above

ISO 17827-2, Solid biofuels — Determination of particle size distribution for uncompressed fuels — Part 2:

Vibrating screen method using sieves with aperture of 3,15 mm and below
ISO 17828, Solid biofuels — Determination of bulk density
ISO 17829, Solid Biofuels — Determination of length and diameter of pellets
ISO 17830, Solid biofuels — Particle size distribution of disintegrated pellets
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 17225-1:2021
ISO 17225-1:2021(E)

ISO 17831-1, Solid biofuels — Determination of mechanical durability of pellets and briquettes — Part 1:

Pellets

ISO 17831-2, Solid biofuels — Determination of mechanical durability of pellets and briquettes — Part 2:

Briquettes
ISO 18122, Solid biofuels — Determination of ash content
ISO 18123, Solid biofuels — Determination of the content of volatile matter
ISO 18125, Solid biofuels — Determination of calorific value

ISO 18134-1, Solid biofuels — Determination of moisture content — Oven dry method — Part 1: Total

moisture — Reference method

ISO 18134-2, Solid biofuels — Determination of moisture content — Oven dry method — Part 2: Total

moisture — Simplified method
ISO 18135, Solid Biofuels — Sampling

ISO 18847, Solid biofuels — Determination of particle density of pellets and briquettes

ISO 21945, Solid biofuels — Simplified sampling method for small scale applications

ISO 21404, Solid biofuels — Determination of ash melting behaviour

ISO 18846, Solid biofuels — Determination of fines content in quantities of pellets

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 16559 and the following

terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
chemical treatment
any treatment with chemicals other than air, water or heat

Note 1 to entry: Examples of chemical treatments are listed in informative Annex C.

3.2
commercial application

facility that utilize solid biofuel burning appliances or equipment that have similar fuel requirements as

residential appliances

Note 1 to entry: Commercial applications should not be confused with industrial applications, which can utilize a

much wider array of materials and have vastly different fuel requirements.
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms

The symbols and abbreviated terms used in this document conform with the SI system of units as far as

possible,
2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 17225-1:2021
ISO 17225-1:2021(E)
A Designation for ash content on dry basis A [% in mass]
ar as received
BD Designation for bulk density as received [kg/m (loose volume)]
C Designation for fixed carbon on dry basis C [% in mass]

CPF Designation for amount of coarse pellet fines as reived [% in mass, particles ≥ 3,15 mm and

< 5,6 mm]
D Designation for diameter as received, D [mm]
DE Designation for particle density as received [g/cm ]
DT Designation for deformation temperature of the fuel ash [°C]
DU Designation for mechanical durability as received [% in mass]
d dry (dry basis)
daf dry, ash-free
3 3

E Designation for energy density as received, E [MJ/m or kWh/m loose or stacked volume]

(amount of energy/volume unit)
EM Designation for amount of heavy extraneous material on dry basis [% in mass]
F Designation for amount of fines (< 3,15 mm) as determined [% in mass]
Fs Designation for amount of small fines (< 1 mm) as determined (% in mass)
FT Designation for flow temperature of the fuel ash [°C]
HT Designation for hemisphere temperature of the fuel ash [°C]
L Designation for length as received, L [mm]
M Designation for moisture content as received, M [% in mass]
P Designation for particle size distribution on analysis moisture basis

Q Designation for net calorific value at constant pressure as received, Q [MJ/kg or kWh/kg]

p,net,ar
Q Gross calorific value at constant volume on dry basis [MJ/kg or kWh/kg]
V,gr,d
Q Net calorific value at constant pressure on dry basis [MJ/kg or kWh/kg]
p,net,d
SST Designation for shrinkage starting temperature of the fuel ash [°C]
s Designation for small-scale and commercial use in particle size distribution
U Designation for moisture content as received on dry basis U [% in mass]
VM Designation for volatile matter on dry basis [% in mass]

NOTE 1 Fixed carbon (%) is calculated by the following: 100 – (moisture [% in mass] + ash [% in mass] +

volatile matter [% in mass]). All percentages are on the same moisture basis.

NOTE 2 1 MJ/kg equals 1 GJ/t or 0,277 8 kWh/kg (1 kWh/kg equals 1 MWh/t and 1 MWh/t is 3,6 MJ/kg). 1 g/

3 3
cm equals 1 kg/dm . 1 mg/kg equals 0,000 1 %
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 17225-1:2021
ISO 17225-1:2021(E)

NOTE 3 Designation symbols are used in combination with a number to specify property levels in Tables 3 to

15. For designation of chemical properties, chemical symbols such as S (sulfur), Cl (chlorine), and N (nitrogen) are

used and the property class is added at the end of the symbol.
5 Principle
Solid biofuels are specified by:
a) origin and source, Clause 6;
b) major traded forms and properties, Clause 7.

For specification of origin and source, see Table 1. For major traded forms, see Table 2.

For specification of properties see Tables 3 to 15. The major traded forms of solid biofuels are covered

by Tables 3 to 14. Table 15 is a general master table to be used for a specification of solid biofuels not

covered by Tables 3 to 14.

Tables 3 to 15 list the normative properties, which shall be specified and informative properties, which

are voluntary. Normative properties vary depending on both origin and traded form.

EXAMPLE OF SPECIFICATION
Origin: Logging residues (1.1.4)
Traded form: Wood chips
Properties: Dimensions P45, Fines F05, Moisture M40, Ash A1.5

In the case of wood chips and hog fuel (Table 5) the properties of dimensions, fines, moisture and ash

are normative in the specification. Other properties are informative.

Product standards for graded solid biofuels are given in other parts of this ISO series.

6 Classification of origin and sources of solid biofuels
6.1 General

The classification is based on the biofuel origin and source. In the hierarchical classification system

(Table 1) the main origin-based solid biofuel groups are:
a) woody biomass;
b) herbaceous biomass;
c) fruit biomass;
d) aquatic biomass;
e) blends and mixtures.
Woody biomass is biomass from trees, bushes and shrubs.

Herbaceous biomass is from plants that have a non-woody stem and which die back at the end of the

growing season. It includes grains and their by-products.

Fruit biomass is biomass from those parts of a plant which are from or hold seeds.

Aquatic biomass is from so called hydrophytic plants or hydrophytes, which are plants that have

adapted to living in or on aquatic environments.

If appropriate, also the actual species (e.g. spruce, wheat) of biomass should be stated.

4 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 17225-1:2021
ISO 17225-1:2021(E)

The term “Blends and mixtures” in Table 1 refers to material of various origin within the given box

in the classification table and appears on all four classification levels. Blends are intentionally mixed

biofuels, whereas mixtures are unintentionally mixed biofuels. The origin of the blend and mixture

shall be described using Table 1.

If a solid biofuel blend or mixture contains chemically treated material it shall be stated.

The second level of classification in Table 1 describes fuels from different sources within the main

groups, primarily stating whether the biomass is a virgin material, a by-product or a residue from the

industry.

Groups in Table 1 are further divided into third and fourth level sub-groups. The purpose of Table 1

is to allow the possibility to differentiate and specify biofuel material based on origin with as much

detail as needed. With the help of typical values from informative Annex B information on physical and

chemical properties can be deduced.
Examples for classification according to Table 1:
a) Whole trees without roots from birch (1.1.1.1);

b) Blend (1.1.1.5) of broad-leaf and coniferous whole trees without roots (1.1.1.1, 1.1.1.2);

c) Oil palm stem (1.1.3.3);
d) Logging residues (1.1.4);
e) Oil palm branches (1.1.4.1);
f) Logging residues from spruce stands (1.1.4.2);
g) Sawdust from broad-leaf (1.2.1.1);
h) Plywood from coniferous (1.2.2.1);
i) Plywood residues (1.2.2.1);
j) Grinding dust from furniture industry (1.2.2.1);
k) Lignin (1.2.2.4);
l) Unpainted and untreated construction wood (1.3.1.1);
m) Pallets (1.3.1.1 or 1.3.2.1);
n) Demolition wood (1.3.2.1)
o) Straw from wheat, barley, oat, rye (2.1.1.2);
p) Rice husk (2.1.1.4);
q) Reed canary grass (2.1.2.1);
r) Bamboo (2.1.2.5);
s) Grains or seeds crops from food processing industry (2.2.1.1);
t) Palm kernel or palm shell (3.1.2.3);
u) Oil palm fruit bunch (3.2.1.2);
v) Olive residues from olive pressing (3.2.2.4);
w) Kelp (4.3.2.4, Latin name to be stated);
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST EN ISO 17225-1:2021
ISO 17225-1:2021(E)

x) Blend (5.1); 80 % in mass sawdust from coniferous (1.2.1.2) and 20 % in mass reed canary grass

(2.1.2.1);

y) Mixture (1.1.1.5); whole trees without roots from birch (1.1.1.1), whole trees without roots from

spruce (1.1.1.2);

z) Blend (1.2.3); 99 % in mass sawdust (1.2.1), 1 % in mass glued wood (glue content of whole mass

0,1 % in mass) (1.2.2).
Table 1 — Classification of origin and sources of solid biofuels

1. Woody bio- 1.1 Forest, plantation 1.1.1 Whole trees without 1.1.1.1 Broad-leaf

mass and other virgin wood roots
1.1.1.2 Coniferous
1.1.1.3 Short rotation coppice
1.1.1.4 Bushes
1.1.1.5 Blends and mixtures
1.1.2 Whole trees with roots 1.1.2.1 Broad-leaf
1.1.2.2 Coniferous
1.1.2.3 Short rotation coppice
1.1.2.4 Bushes
1.1.2.5 Blends and mixtures
1.1.3 Stemwood 1.1.3.1 Broad-leaf with bark
1.1.3.2 Coniferous with bark
1.1.3.3 Broad-leaf without bark
1.1.3.4 Coniferous without bark
1.1.3.5 Blends and mixtures
1.1.4 Logging residues 1.1.4.1 Fresh/Green, Broad-leaf (includ-
ing leaves)
1.1.4.2 Fresh/Green, Coniferous (in-
cluding needles)
1.1.4.3 Stored, Broad-leaf
1.1.4.4 Stored, Coniferous
1.1.4.5 Blends and mixtures
1.1.5 Stumps/roots 1.1.5.1 Broad-leaf
1.1.5.2 Coniferous
1.1.5.3 Short rotation coppice
1.1.5.4 Bushes
1.1.5.5 Blends and mixtures
1.1.6 Bark (from forestry operations)
1.1.7 Segregated wood from gardens, parks, roadside maintenance,
vineyards, fruit orchards and driftwood from freshwater
1.1.8 Blends and mixtures
6 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN ISO 17225-1:2020
01-april-2020

Trdna biogoriva - Specifikacije goriv in razredi - 1. del: Splošne zahteve (ISO/DIS

17225-1:2020)

Solid biofuels - Fuel specifications and classes - Part 1: General requirements (ISO/DIS

17225-1:2020)

Biogene Festbrennstoffe - Brennstoffspezifikationen und -klassen - Teil 1: Allgemeine

Anforderungen (ISO/DIS 17225-1:2020)
Biocombustibles solides - Classes et spécifications des combustibles - Partie 1:
Exigences générales (ISO/DIS 17225-1:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN ISO 17225-1
ICS:
75.160.40 Biogoriva Biofuels
oSIST prEN ISO 17225-1:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN ISO 17225-1:2020
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oSIST prEN ISO 17225-1:2020
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 17225-1
ISO/TC 238 Secretariat: SIS
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2020-02-19 2020-05-13
Solid biofuels — Fuel specifications and classes —
Part 1:
General requirements
Biocombustibles solides — Classes et spécifications des combustibles —
Partie 1: Exigences générales
ICS: 27.190; 75.160.40
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 17225-1:2020(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2020
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oSIST prEN ISO 17225-1:2020
ISO/DIS 17225-1:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
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Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
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Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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oSIST prEN ISO 17225-1:2020
ISO/DIS 17225-1:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

6 Classification of origin and sources of solid biofuels ..................................................................................................... 4

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2 Woody biomass ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2.1 Forest, plantation and other virgin wood................................................................................................... 9

6.2.2 By-products and residues from wood processing industry........................................................ 9

6.2.3 Used wood ............................................................................................................................................................................. 9

6.2.4 Blends and mixtures ..................................................................................................................................................10

6.3 Herbaceous biomass .......................................................................................................................................................................10

6.3.1 Herbaceous biomass from agriculture and horticulture ............................................................10

6.3.2 By-products and residues from food and herbaceous processing industry ..............10

6.3.3 Blends and mixtures ..................................................................................................................................................10

6.4 Fruit biomass .........................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.4.1 Orchard and horticulture fruit ..........................................................................................................................10

6.4.2 By-products and residues from food and fruit processing industry ................................10

6.4.3 Blends and mixtures ..................................................................................................................................................10

6.5 Aquatic biomass ..................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.6 Biomass blends and mixtures .................................................................................................................................................10

7 Specification of solid biofuels based on traded forms and properties .....................................................11

7.1 Traded forms of solid biofuels ................................................................................................................................................11

7.2 Specification of properties of solid biofuels ...............................................................................................................11

Annex A (informative) Illustrations of typical forms of wood fuels and examples of particles

sizes for wood chips and hog fuel ....................................................................................................................................................41

Annex B (informative) Typical values of solid biomass fuels ..................................................................................................45

Annex C (informative) Examples of possible causes for deviant levels for different

properties and of consequences of handling and treatments for the properties of

biomass .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................56

Annex D (informative) Calculation of the net calorific value at different bases and energy

density as received ..........................................................................................................................................................................................58

Annex E (informative) Comparison of moisture content as received and dry basis ........................................61

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................63

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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oSIST prEN ISO 17225-1:2020
ISO/DIS 17225-1:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 238, Solid biofuels.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition ISO 17225-1:2014, which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— particle size distribution for wood chips and hog fuel updated
— Table 15 for undensified thermally treated biomass deleted
A list of all parts in the ISO 17225 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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oSIST prEN ISO 17225-1:2020
ISO/DIS 17225-1:2020(E)
Introduction

The objective of the ISO 17225 series is to provide unambiguous and clear classification principles

for solid biofuels and to serve as a tool to enable efficient trading of biofuels and to enable good

understanding between seller and buyer as well as a tool for communication with equipment

manufacturers. It will also facilitate authority permission procedures and reporting.

The ISO 17225 series is made for all stakeholders.

Solid biomass covers organic, non-fossil material of biological origin which may be used as fuel for heat

and electrical generation.

Figure 1 describes the bioenergy utilization chain from sources of biomass, to biofuel production to

final use of bioenergy. Although biomass can be used for energy generation it has many other primary

uses (non-fuels) as a raw material for construction, furniture, packaging, paper products, etc.

Figure 1 — ISO TC 238 within the biomass — Biofuel — Bioenergy field

The classifications given in this International Standard are provided with the objective of using biomass

as a solid biofuel and therefore do not deal with all other uses.

Although the product standards from Part 2 of the ISO 17225 series may be obtained separately,

they require a general understanding of the standards based on and supporting ISO 17225-1. It is

recommended to obtain and use ISO 17225-1 in conjunction with these standards.

In the product standards, graded means that solid biofuel is used either in commercial applications,

such as in households and small commercial and public sector buildings or industrial applications,

which demand the use of fuels with specified quality (properties) expressed by quality classes like A1,

A2 or B.
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oSIST prEN ISO 17225-1:2020
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oSIST prEN ISO 17225-1:2020
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 17225-1:2020(E)
Solid biofuels — Fuel specifications and classes —
Part 1:
General requirements
1 Scope

This part of ISO 17225 determines the fuel quality classes and specifications for solid biofuels of raw

and processed materials originating from
a) forestry and arboriculture;
b) agriculture and horticulture;
c) aquaculture.

Chemically treated material may not include halogenated organic compounds or heavy metals at levels

higher than those in typical virgin material values (see Annex B) or higher than typical values of the

country of origin.

NOTE Raw and processed material includes woody, herbaceous, fruit, aquatic biomass and biodegradable

waste originating from above sectors.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 14780, Solid biofuels — Sample preparation
ISO 16559, Solid biofuels — Terminology, definitions and descriptions

ISO 16948, Solid biofuels — Determination of total content of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen

ISO 16967, Solid biofuels — Determination of major elements — Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, P, K, Si, Na and Ti

ISO 16968, Solid biofuels — Determination of minor elements

ISO 16993, Solid biofuels — Conversion of analytical results from one basis to another

ISO 16994, Solid biofuels — Determination of total content of sulfur and chlorine

ISO 17827-1, Solid biofuels — Determination of particle size distribution for uncompressed fuels — Part 1:

Oscillating screen method using sieves with apertures of 3,15 mm and above

ISO 17827-2, Solid biofuels — Determination of particle size distribution for uncompressed fuels — Part 2:

Vibrating screen method using sieves with aperture of 3,15 mm and below
ISO 17828, Solid biofuels — Determination of bulk density
ISO 17829, Solid Biofuels — Determination of length and diameter of pellets
ISO 17830, Solid biofuels — Particle size distribution of disintegrated pellets
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oSIST prEN ISO 17225-1:2020
ISO/DIS 17225-1:2020(E)

ISO 17831-1, Solid biofuels — Determination of mechanical durability of pellets and briquettes —

Part 1: Pellets

ISO 17831-2, Solid biofuels — Determination of mechanical durability of pellets and briquettes — Part 2:

Briquettes
ISO 18122, Solid biofuels — Determination of ash content
ISO 18123, Solid biofuels — Determination of the content of volatile matter
ISO 18125, Solid biofuels — Determination of calorific value

ISO 18134-1, Solid biofuels — Determination of moisture content — Oven dry method — Part 1: Total

moisture — Reference method

ISO 18134-2, Solid biofuels — Determination of moisture content — Oven dry method — Part 2: Total

moisture — Simplified method
ISO 18135, Solid Biofuels — Sampling

ISO 18846-1, Solid biofuels — Determination of fines content — Part 1: Reference method

ISO 18846-2, Solid biofuels — Determination of fines content — Part 2: Simplified method

ISO 18847, Solid biofuels — Determination of particle density of pellets and briquettes

ISO 19743, Solid biofuels — Determination of content of heavy extraneous materials larger than 3,15 mm

ISO 21404, Solid biofuels — Determination of ash melting behaviour

ISO 21945, Solid biofuels — Simplified sampling method for small scale applications and stores

3 Terms and definitions

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
chemical treatment
any treatment with chemicals other than air, water or heat

Note 1 to entry: Examples of chemical treatments are listed in informative Annex C.

3.2
commercial application

facility that utilize solid biofuel burning appliances or equipment that have similar fuel requirements

as residential appliances Note 1 to entry: Commercial applications should not be confused with

industrial applications, which can utilize a much wider array of materials and have vastly different fuel

requirements.
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms

The symbols and abbreviated terms used in this part of ISO 17225 comply with the SI system of units as

far as possible,
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oSIST prEN ISO 17225-1:2020
ISO/DIS 17225-1:2020(E)
A Designation for ash content on dry basis A [w-%]
ar as received
BD Designation for bulk density as received [kg/m loose]
C Designation for fixed carbon on dry basis C [w-%]
D Designation for diameter as received, D [mm]
DE Designation for particle density as received [g/cm ]
DT Designation for deformation temperature of the fuel ash [°C]
DU Designation for mechanical durability as received [w-%]
d dry (dry basis)
daf dry, ash-free
3 3

E Designation for energy density as received, E [MJ/m or kWh/m loose or stacked volume]

(amount of energy/volume unit)
F Designation for amount of fines (< 3,15 mm) on analysis moisture basis [w-%]
FT Designation for flow temperature of the fuel ash [°C]
HT Designation for hemisphere temperature of the fuel ash [°C]
L Designation for length as received, L [mm]
M Designation for moisture content as received, M [w-%]
P Designation for particle size distribution on analysis moisture basis
q Gross calorific value at constant volume on dry basis [MJ/kg or kWh/kg]
V,gr, d
q Net calorific value at constant pressure on dry basis [MJ/kg or kWh/kg]
p,net,d

Q Designation for net calorific value as received, q [MJ/kg or kWh/kg] at constant pressure

p,net,ar
s Designation for small-scale and commercial use in particle size distribution
SST Designation for shrinkage starting temperature of the fuel ash [°C]
U Designation for moisture content as received on dry basis U [w-%]
VM Designation for volatile matter on dry basis [w-%]
w-% weight-percentage

NOTE 1 Fixed carbon (%) is calculated by the following: 100 - [moisture (w-%) + ash (w-%)+volatile matter

(w-%)]. All percentages are on the same moisture base.

NOTE 2 1 MJ/kg equals 1 GJ/t or 0,277 8 kWh/kg (1 kWh/kg equals 1 MWh/t and 1 MWh/t is 3,6 MJ/kg). 1 g/

3 3
cm equals 1 kg/dm . 1 mg/kg equals 0,000 1 % or 1 ppm.

NOTE 3 Designation symbols are used in combination with a number to specify property levels in Tables 3 to

15. For designation of chemical properties, chemical symbols such as S (sulfur), Cl (chlorine), and N (nitrogen) are

used and the property class is added at the end of the symbol.
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oSIST prEN ISO 17225-1:2020
ISO/DIS 17225-1:2020(E)
5 Principle
Solid biofuels are specified by:
a) origin and source, Clause 6;
b) major traded forms and properties, Clause 7.

For specification of origin and source, see Table 1. For major traded forms, see Table 2.

For specification of properties see Tables 3 to 15. The major traded forms of solid biofuels are covered

by Tables 3 to 14. Table 15 is a general master table to be used for a specification of solid biofuels not

covered by Tables 3 to 14.

Tables 3 to 15 list the normative properties, which shall be specified and informative properties, which

are voluntary. Normative properties vary depending on both origin and traded form.

EXAMPLE OF SPECIFICATION
Origin: Logging residues (1.1.4)
Traded form: Wood chips
Properties: Dimensions P45, Fines F05, Moisture M40, Ash A1.5

In the case of wood chips (Table 5) the properties of dimensions, fines, moisture and ash are normative

in the specification. Other properties are informative.

Product standards for graded solid biofuels are given in other parts of this ISO series.

6 Classification of origin and sources of solid biofuels
6.1 General

The classification is based on the biofuel origin and source. In the hierarchical classification system

(Table 1) the main origin-based solid biofuel groups are:
a) woody biomass;
b) herbaceous biomass;
c) fruit biomass;
d) aquatic biomass;
e) blends and mixtures.
Woody biomass is biomass from trees, bushes and shrubs.

Herbaceous biomass is from plants that have a non-woody stem and which die back at the end of the

growing season. It includes grains and their by-products such as cereals.

Fruit biomass is biomass from those parts of a plant which are from or hold seeds.

Aquatic biomass is from so called hydrophytic plants or hydrophytes, which are plants that have

adapted to living in or on aquatic environments.

If appropriate, also the actual species (e.g. spruce, wheat) of biomass should be stated.

The term “Blends and mixtures” in Table 1 refers to material of various origin within the given box

in the classification table and appears on four levels. Blends are intentionally mixed biofuels, whereas

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oSIST prEN ISO 17225-1:2020
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mixtures are unintentionally mixed biofuels. The origin of the blend and mixture shall be described

using Table 1.

If a solid biofuel blend or mixture contains chemically treated material it shall be stated.

The second level of classification in Table 1 describes fuels from different sources within the main

groups, primarily stating whether the biomass is a virgin material, a by-product or a residue from the

industry.

Groups in Table 1 are further divided into third and fourth level sub-groups. The purpose of Table 1

is to allow the possibility to differentiate and specify biofuel material based on origin with as much

detail as needed. With the help of typical values from informative Annex B information on physical and

chemical properties can be deduced.
Examples for classification according to Table 1:
a) Whole trees without roots from birch (1.1.1.1);

b) Blend (1.1.1.5) of broad-leaf and coniferous whole trees without roots (1.1.1.1, 1.1.1.2 );

c) Oil palm stem (1.1.3.3);
d) Logging residues (1.1.4);
e) Oil palm branches (1.1.4.1);
f) Logging residues from spruce stands (1.1.4.2);
g) Sawdust from broad-leaf (1.2.1.1);
h) Plywood from coniferous (1.2.2.1);
i) Plywood residues (1.2.2.1);
j) Grinding dust from furniture industry (1.2.2.1);
k) Lignin (1.2.2.4);
l) Unpainted and untreated construction wood (1.3.1.1);
m) Pallets (1.3.2.1);
n) Demolition wood (1.3.2.1)
o) Straw from wheat, barley, oat, rye (2.1.1.2);
p) Rice husk (2.1.1.4);
q) Reed canary grass (2.1.2.1);
r) Bamboo (2.1.2.5);
s) Grains or seeds crops from food processing industry (2.2.1.1);
t) Palm kernel or palm shell (3.1.2.3);
u) Oil palm fruit bunch (3.2.1.2);
v) Olive residues from olive pressing (3.2.2.4);
w) Kelp (4.3.2.4, Latin name to be stated);

x) Blend (5.1); 80w-% sawdust from coniferous (1.2.1.2) and 20 w-% reed canary grass (2.1.2.1);

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oSIST prEN ISO 17225-1:2020
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y) Mixture (1.1.1.5); whole trees without roots from birch (1.1.1.1), whole trees without roots from

spruce (1.1.1.2);

z) Blend (1.2.3); 99 w-% sawdust (1.2.1), 1 w-% glued wood (glue content of whole mass 0,1 w-%)

(1.2.2).
Table 1 — Classification of origin and sources of solid biofuels
1. Woody 1.1 Forest, plantation and 1.1.1 Whole trees without 1.1.1.1 Broad-leaf
biomass other virgin wood roots
1.1.1.2 Coniferous
1.1.1.3 Short rotation coppice
1.1.1.4 Bushes
1.1.1.5 Blends and mixtures
1.1.2 Whole trees with roots 1.1.2.1 Broad-leaf
1.1.2.2 Coniferous
1.1.2.3 Short rotation coppice
1.1.2.4 Bushes
1.1.2.5 Blends and mixtures
1.1.3 Stemwood 1.1.3.1 Broad-leaf with bark
1.1.3.2 Coniferous with bark
1.1.3.3 Broad-leaf without bark
1.1.3.4 Coniferous without bark
1.1.3.5 Blends and mixtures
1.1.4 Logging residues 1.1.4.1 Fresh/Green, Broad-leaf (includ-
ing leaves)
1.1.4.2 Fresh/Green, Coniferous (in-
cluding needles)
1.1.4.3 Stored, Broad-leaf
1.1.4.4 Stored, Coniferous
1.1.4.5 Blends and mixtures
1.1.5 Stumps/roots 1.1.5.1 Broad-leaf
1.1.5.2 Coniferous
1.1.5.3 Short rotation coppice
1.1.5.4 Bushes
1.1.5.5 Blends and mixtures
1.1.6 Bark (from forestry operations)
1.1.7 Segregated wood from gardens, parks, roadside maintenance,
vineyards, fruit orchards and driftwood from freshwater
1.1.8 Blends and mixtures

1.2 By-products and resi- 1.2.1 Chemically untreated 1.2.1.1 Broad-leaf with bark

dues from wood process- wood by-products and residues
1.2.1.2 Coniferous with bark
ing industry
1.2.1.3 Broad-leaf without bark
1.2.1.4 Coniferous without bark
1.2.1.5 Bark (from industry operations)
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oSIST prEN ISO 17225-1:2020
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Table 1 (continued)
1.2.2 Chemically treated wood 1.2.2.1 Without bark
by-products, residues, fibres
1.2.2.2 With bark
and wood constituents
1.2.2.3 Bark (from industry operations)
1.2.2.4 Fibres and wood constituents
1.2.3 Blends and mixtures
1.3 Used wood 1.3.1 Chemically untreated 1.3.1.1 Without bark
used wood
1.3.1.2 With bark
1.3.1.3 Bark
1.3.2 Chemically treated 1.3.2.1 Without bark
used wood
1.3.2.2 With bark
1.3.2.3 Bark
1.3.3 Blends and mixtures
1.4 Blends and mixtures
2. Her- 2.1 Herbaceous biomass 2.1.1 Cereal crops 2.1.1.1 Whole plant
baceous from agriculture and
2.1.1.2 Straw parts
biomass horticulture
2.1.1.3 Grains or seeds
2.1.1.4 Husks or shells
2.1.1.5 Blends and mixtures
2.1.2 Grasses 2.1.2.1 Whole plant
2.1.2.2 Straw parts
2.1.2.3 Seeds
2.1.2.4 Shells
2.1.2.5 Bamboo
2.1.2.6 Blends and mixtures
2.1.3 Oil seed crops 2.1.3.1 Whole plant
2.1.3.2 Stalks and leaves
2.1.3.3 Seeds
2.1.3.4 Husks or shells
2.1.3.5 Blends and mixtures
2.1.4 Root crops 2.1.4.1 Whole plant
2.1.4.2 Stalks and leaves
2.1.4.3 Root
2.1.4.4 Blends and mixtures
2.1.5 Legume crops 2.1.5.1 Whole plant
2.1.5.2 Stalks and leaves
2.1.5.3 Fruit
2.1.5.4 Pods
2.1.5.5 Blends and mixtures
2.1.6 Flowers 2.1.6.1 Whole plant
2.1.6.2 Stalks and leaves
2.1.6.3 Seeds
2.1.6.4 Blends and mixtures
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oSIST prEN ISO 17225-1:2020
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Table 1 (continued)
2.1.7 Segregated herbaceous biomass from gardens, parks, roadside
maintenance, vineyards and fruit orchards
2.1.8 Blends and mixtures
2.2 By-products and 2.2.1 Chemically untreated 2.2.1.1 Cereal crops and grasses
residues from food and herbaceous residues
2.2.1.2 Oil seed crops
herbaceous processing
industry 2.2.1.3 Root crops
2.2.1.4 Legume crops
2.2.1.5 Flowers
2.2.1.6 Blends and mixtures
2.2.2 Chemically treated her- 2.2.2.1 Cereal crops and grasses
baceous residues
2.2.2.2 Oil seed crops
2.2.2.3 Root crops
2.2.2.4 Legume crops
2.2.2.5 Flowers
2.2.2.6 Blends and mixtures
2.2.3 Blends and mixtures
2.3 Blends and mixtures
3. Fruit 3.1 Orchard and horticul- 3.1.1 Berries 3.1.1.1 Whole berries
biomass ture fruit
3.1.1.2 Flesh
3.1.1.3 Seeds
3.1.1.4 Blends and mixtures
3.1.2 Stone/kernel fruits 3.1.2.1 Whole fruit
3.1.2.2 Flesh
3.1.2.3 Stone/kernel/fruit fibre
3.1.2.4 Blends and mixtures
3.1.3 Nuts and acorns 3.1.3.1 Whole nuts
3.1.3.2 Shells/husks
3.1.3.3 Kernels
3.1.3.4 Blends and mixtures
3.1.4 Blends and mixtures
3.2 By-products and res- 3.2.1 Chemically un- 3.2.1.1 Berries
idues from food and fruit treated fruit residues
3.2.1.2 Stone/kernel fruits/fruit fibre
processing industry
3.2.1.3 Nuts and acorns
3.2.1.4 Crude olive cake
3.2.1.5 Blends and mixtures
3.2.2 Chemically treat- 3.2.2.1 Berries
ed fruit residues
3.2.2.2 Stone/kernel fruits
3.2.2.3 Nuts and acorns
3.2.2.4 Exhausted olive cake
3.2.2.5 Blends and mixtures
3.2.3 Blends and mixtures
...

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