Solid biofuels - Determination of self-heating of pelletized biofuels - Part 1: Isothermal calorimetry (ISO 20049-1:2020)

This International Standard presents analytical methods for determination of the self-heating of solid biofuel pellets. The
standard specifies the applicability and use of the analytical methods. It further establishes special procedures for sampling
and sample handling of biofuels pellets prior to the analysis of self-heating. Guidance on the applicability and use of the
data on self-heating from the analytical methods is given.

Biogene Festbrennstoffe - Bestimmung der Selbsterhitzung von Pellets aus biogenen Brennstoffen - Teil 1: Isotherme Kalorimetrie (ISO 20049-1:2020)

Dieses Dokument
a) legt ein allgemeines Prüfverfahren zur quantitativen Bestimmung der spontanen Wärmeerzeugung von Pellets aus biogenen Festbrennstoffen unter Anwendung der isothermen Kalorimetrie fest;
b) legt ein Screening Prüfverfahren für Holzpellets unter Anwendung einer Gerätetemperatur von 60 °C fest;
c) legt Verfahren für die Probenahme und Handhabung von Proben von Pellets aus biogenen Fest-brennstoffen vor der Analyse der spontanen Wärmeerzeugung fest; und
d) liefert Hinweise zur Anwendbarkeit und Anwendung der isothermen Kalorimetrie für die Berechnung der Nettoreaktionsgeschwindigkeit der wärmeerzeugenden Reaktionen von Pellets aus biogenen Fest¬brennstoffen.
Mit dem in diesem Dokument angeführten Prüfverfahren wird die thermische Leistung (der Wärmestrom) der Probe während der Prüfung quantitativ bestimmt. Die Quelle der Selbsterhitzung in der analysierten Prüfmenge wird nicht ermittelt.
Die unter Anwendung dieses Dokuments ermittelten Daten zur spontanen Wärmeerzeugung sind nur mit der spezifischen Qualität und dem Alter des Probenmaterials verbunden. Die Ergebnisse sind produkt¬spezifisch.
Dieses Dokument ist anzuwenden für Pellets aus biogenen Festbrennstoffen.
Die Informationen, die unter Anwendung dieses Dokuments abgeleitet werden, sind für die Verwendung bei der Qualitätssteuerung und Beurteilungen von Gefährdungen und Risiken im Zusammenhang mit den in ISO 20024:2020 angegebenen Verfahren bestimmt.

Biocombustibles solides - Détermination de l'auto-échauffement des granulés de biocombustibles - Partie 1: Détermination calorimétrique isotherme (ISO 20049-1:2020)

Le présent document:
a) spécifie un mode opératoire d'essai général pour la quantification, à l'aide de la détermination calorimétrique isotherme, de la production spontanée de chaleur par les granulés de biocombustibles solides;
b) spécifie un mode opératoire d'essai de présélection pour les granulés de bois utilisant une température d'appareil de 60 °C;
c) établit des procédures d'échantillonnage et de manipulation des échantillons de granulés de biocombustibles solides avant l'analyse de la production spontanée de chaleur; et
d) fournit des recommandations relatives à l'applicabilité et à l'utilisation de la détermination calorimétrique isotherme pour le calcul de la vitesse de réaction nette des réactions productrices de chaleur des granulés de biocombustibles solides.
Le mode opératoire d'essai fourni dans le présent document quantifie la puissance thermique (flux thermique) de l'échantillon pendant l'essai; il n'identifie pas la source de l'auto-échauffement dans la prise d'essai analysée.
Les données relatives à la production spontanée de chaleur déterminées à l'aide du présent document sont uniquement associées à la qualité et à l'âge spécifiques de l'échantillon de matériau. Les résultats sont propres au produit.
Le présent document s'applique exclusivement aux granulés de biocombustibles solides.
Les informations déduites à l'aide du présent document sont destinées à être utilisées dans le contrôle qualité et dans l'identification des dangers et l'évaluation des risques associés aux procédures fournies dans l'ISO 20024:2020.

Trdna biogoriva - Določanje samosegrevanja peletiziranih biogoriv - 1. del: Izotermalna kalorimetrija (ISO 20049-1:2020)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
29-Sep-2019
Publication Date
08-Jun-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
03-Jun-2020
Due Date
08-Aug-2020
Completion Date
09-Jun-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 20049-1:2020
01-julij-2020
Trdna biogoriva - Določanje samosegrevanja peletiziranih biogoriv - 1. del:
Izotermalna kalorimetrija (ISO 20049-1:2020)

Solid biofuels - Determination of self-heating of pelletized biofuels - Part 1: Isothermal

calorimetry (ISO 20049-1:2020)

Biogene Festbrennstoffe - Bestimmung der Selbsterhitzung von Pellets aus biogenen

Brennstoffen - Teil 1: Isotherme Kalorimetrie (ISO 20049-1:2020)
Biocombustibles solides - Détermination de l'auto-échauffement des granulés de

biocombustibles - Partie 1: Détermination calorimétrique isotherme (ISO 20049-1:2020)

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 20049-1:2020
ICS:
75.160.40 Biogoriva Biofuels
SIST EN ISO 20049-1:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 20049-1:2020
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SIST EN ISO 20049-1:2020
EN ISO 20049-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
May 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 27.190; 75.160.40
English Version
Solid biofuels - Determination of self-heating of pelletized
biofuels - Part 1: Isothermal calorimetry (ISO 20049-
1:2020)

Biocombustibles solides - Détermination de l'auto- Biogene Festbrennstoffe - Bestimmung der

échauffement des granulés de biocombustibles - Partie Selbsterhitzung von Pellets aus biogenen Brennstoffen

1: Détermination calorimétrique isotherme (ISO - Teil 1: Isotherme Kalorimetrie (ISO 20049-1:2020)

20049-1:2020)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 1 May 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 20049-1:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 20049-1:2020
EN ISO 20049-1:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 20049-1:2020
EN ISO 20049-1:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 20049-1:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 238 "Solid

biofuels" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 335 “Solid biofuels” the secretariat of

which is held by SIS.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by November 2020, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by November 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 20049-1:2020 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 20049-1:2020 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 20049-1:2020
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SIST EN ISO 20049-1:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 20049-1
First edition
2020-05
Solid biofuels — Determination of
self-heating of pelletized biofuels —
Part 1:
Isothermal calorimetry
Biocombustibles solides — Détermination de l'auto-échauffement des
granulés de biocombustibles —
Partie 1: Détermination calorimétrique isotherme
Reference number
ISO 20049-1:2020(E)
ISO 2020
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SIST EN ISO 20049-1:2020
ISO 20049-1:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 20049-1:2020
ISO 20049-1:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6 Sample handling ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2 Sampling ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.3 Sample transport and storage .................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.4 Sample preparation ............................................................................................................................................................................ 4

7 Test procedure ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

7.1 Temperature stabilisation ............................................................................................................................................................. 5

7.2 Sample vial preparation .................................................................................................................................................................. 5

7.2.1 Preparation procedure ............................................................................................................................................... 5

7.2.2 Procedure to find proper test portion mass in case of influence from

oxygen deficiency ............................................................................................................................................................ 5

7.3 Reference vial preparation ........................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.4 Measurement ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

7.4.1 First baseline measurement .................................................................................................................................. 6

7.4.2 Sample measurement .................................................................................................................................................. 6

7.4.3 Second baseline measurement ............................................................................................................................ 6

7.4.4 Measurement data file ................................................................................................................................................ 6

8 Results ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

8.1 Test data ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

8.2 Reported data ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

9 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

10 Repeatability and reproducibility ...................................................................................................................................................... 8

Annex A (normative) Calibration of the calorimeter........................................................................................................................... 9

Annex B (informative) Examples of screening data ...........................................................................................................................11

Annex C (informative) Determination of reaction kinetics ........................................................................................................13

Annex D (informative) Information on the Interlaboratory study (ILS) ......................................................................21

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................27

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 20049-1:2020
ISO 20049-1:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 238, Solid biofuels.
A list of all parts in the ISO 20049 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 20049-1:2020
ISO 20049-1:2020(E)
Introduction

There is a continuous global growth in production, storage, handling, bulk transport and use of solid

biofuels especially in the form of pelletized biofuels.

The specific physical and chemical characteristics of solid biofuels, their handling and storage can lead

to a risk of fire and/or explosion, as well as health risks such as intoxication due to exposure to carbon-

monoxide, asphyxiation due to oxygen depletion or allergic reactions.

Heat can be generated in solid biofuel by exothermic biological, chemical and physical processes.

Biological processes include the metabolism of fungus and bacteria and occur at lower temperatures;

the oxidation of wood constituents increases with temperature and dominates at higher temperatures;

the heat production from biological and chemical processes leads to transport of moisture in the bulk

material, with associated sorption and condensation of water, which both are exothermic processes.

In, for example, a heap of stored forest fuel or a heap of moist wood chips, all of these processes can be

present and contribute to heat production.
[1]

Solid biofuels such as wood pellets, however, are intrinsically sterile due to the conditions during

manufacturing (exposure to severe heat during drying, fragmentation during hammermilling and

pressure during extrusion) but can attract microbes if becoming wet during handling and storage

resulting in metabolism and generation of heat. Leakage of water into a storage of wood pellets can

also lead to the physical processes mentioned above. Non-compressed wood like feedstock and chips

typically have a fauna of microbes which under certain circumstances will result in heating. All the

processes mentioned above contribute to what is called self-heating although oxidation is likely to be

one of the main contributing factors in the temperature range under which most biofuels are stored.

The heat build-up can be significant in large bulk stores as the heat conduction in the material is low.

Under certain conditions the heat generation can lead to thermal runaway and spontaneous ignition.

The potential for self-heating seems to vary considerably for different types of solid biofuel pellets. The

raw material used, and the properties of these raw materials have proven to influence the propensity

for self-heating of the produced wood pellets. However, the production process (e.g. the drying process)

also influences the potential for self-heating. It is therefore important to be able to identify solid biofuel

pellets with high heat generation potential to avoid fires in stored materials.

Two intrinsically different types of tests methods can be used to estimate the potential of self-heating;

a) In the isothermal calorimetry method described in this document, the heat flow generated from

the test portion is measured directly.

b) In basket heating tests, the temperature of the test portion is being monitored and the critical

ambient temperature (CAT), where the temperature of the test portion just does not increase

significantly due to self-heating, is used for indirect assessment of self-heating.

These two methods are applied at different analysis temperature regimes. The operating temperature

for an isothermal calorimeter is normally in the range 5 °C to 90 °C whereas basket heating tests are

conducted at higher analysis (oven) temperatures. For basket heating tests with wood pellets, CATs are

found for a 1 l sample portion in the range 150 °C to 200 °C.

The application of the test data should thus be identified before selecting the appropriate analytical

method.

NOTE 1 The two types of test methods referred to above do not measure heat production from physical

processes such as transport of moisture.

NOTE 2 It is likely that oxidation reactions taking place in the low respective high temperature regimes for

solid biofuel pellets are of different character and thus have different reaction rates and heat production rates.

In such a case, extrapolation of the data from a high temperature test series can lead to non-conservative results

and might not be applicable without taking the low temperature reactions into account. In the general case of

two reactions with different activation energies, the high activation energy is “frozen out” at low temperatures

[2]
and the low activation energy reaction is “swamped” at higher temperatures .
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 20049-1:2020
ISO 20049-1:2020(E)

NOTE 3 It has been shown for a limited number of different types of wood pellets that the reaction rates in the

lower temperature regime measured by isothermal calorimetry were higher compared to the reaction rate data

[3]
determined from basket heating tests in the higher temperature regime .

Isothermal calorimetry is used for determination of the thermal activity or heat flow of chemical,

physical and biological processes. The method described in this document is developed for the

measurement of heat flow from the self-heating of solid biofuel pellets, but the technique is most

[3] to [7]

commonly used in the fields of pharmaceuticals, energetic materials, and cement .

Data from the isothermal calorimetry screening test procedure included in this document is intended

for comparison of the spontaneous heat generation (self-heating) of solid biofuel pellets (Annex B).

Guidance is additionally given on the use of isothermal calorimetry test data for the calculation of the

overall reaction rate of the heat producing reactions (Annex C).
vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 20049-1:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 20049-1:2020(E)
Solid biofuels — Determination of self-heating of pelletized
biofuels —
Part 1:
Isothermal calorimetry
1 Scope
This document:

a) specifies a general test procedure for quantification of the spontaneous heat generation from solid

biofuel pellets using isothermal calorimetry;

b) specifies a screening test procedure for wood pellets using an instrument temperature of 60 °C;

c) establishes procedures for sampling and sample handling of solid biofuel pellets prior to the

analysis of spontaneous heat generation; and

d) gives guidance on the applicability and use of isothermal calorimetry for calculation of the net

reaction rate of the heat producing reactions of solid biofuel pellets.

The test procedure given in this document quantifies the thermal power (heat flow) of the sample

during the test, it does not identify the source of self-heating in the test portion analysed.

Data on spontaneous heat generation determined using this document is only associated with the

specific quality and age of the sample material. The results are product specific.

This document is applicable to solid biofuel pellets only.

The information derived using this document is for use in quality control and in hazard and risk

assessments related to the procedures given in ISO 20024:2020.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 14780, Solid biofuels — Sample preparation
ISO 16559, Solid biofuels — Terminology, definitions and descriptions
ISO 18135, Solid Biofuels — Sampling

ISO 18846, Solid biofuels — Determination of fines content in quantities of pellets

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 16559 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 20049-1:2020
ISO 20049-1:2020(E)
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
analysis temperature
temperature of the analysis environment, i.e. the calorimeter temperature
3.2
self-heating

rise in temperature in a material resulting from an exothermic reaction within the material

[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.341, modified — “” omitted at the beginning of the definition.]

3.3
spontaneous ignition
ignition caused by an internal exothermic reaction
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.24]
Note 1 to entry: See definitions of ignition in ISO 13943.
3.4
test portion
sub-sample either of a laboratory sample (3.6) or a test sample (3.5)
[SOURCE: ISO 16559:2014, 4.202]
3.5
test sample
laboratory sample (3.6) after an appropriate preparation made by the laboratory
[SOURCE: ISO 16559:2014, 4.203]
3.6
laboratory sample
combined sample or a sub-sample of a combined sample for use in a laboratory
[SOURCE: ISO 16559:2014, 4.124]
3.7
thermal power

heat rate produced by the sample during the test and commonly expressed, with reference to the unit

mass of pelletized biofuel, in W/g or J/(s · g)

[SOURCE: CEN/TR 16632:2014, 8.3, modified — substitution of "cement" with " pelletized biofuel".]

4 Principle

Isothermal calorimetry is a sensitive technique for studying heat production or heat consumption from

samples of different kinds. It is non-destructive and non-invasive to the sample. When heat is produced

in a sample, an isothermal heat conduction calorimeter (here isothermal calorimeter) measures the

thermal power (heat flow). The sample is placed in an ampoule that is in contact with a heat flow

sensor that is also in contact with a heat sink. When heat is produced or consumed by any process, a

temperature gradient is developed across the sensor. This will generate a voltage, which is measured.

The voltage is proportional to the heat flow across the sensor and to the rate of the process taking place

in the sample ampoule. This signal is recorded continuously and in real time.

NOTE 1 A commercial instrument for isothermal calorimetry normally has multiple channels and can thus be

used for measurements of several samples simultaneously.

For each sample (channel) there is an inert reference that is on a parallel heat flow sensor. During

the time that the heat flow is monitored, any temperature fluctuations entering the instrument will

2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 20049-1:2020
ISO 20049-1:2020(E)

influence both the sample and the reference sensors equally. This architecture allows a very accurate

determination of heat that is produced or consumed by the sample alone while other non-sample related

heat disturbances are efficiently removed. The measured heat flow is normalized against the weight of

the sample and the result is expressed in mW/g.

NOTE 2 The operating temperature for an isothermal calorimeter is normally in the range 5 °C to 90 °C.

However, there are calorimeters with somewhat higher span for operating temperature.

NOTE 3 The moisture content of the bio pellet sample could have an impact on the test result. The extent of

this impact is not known at the time of publication of this document.
5 Apparatus
The usual laboratory apparatus and, in particular, the following.

5.1 Isothermal calorimeter, consisting of a sample holder for the sample vial and the reference vial,

each thermally connected to heat flow sensors, which are thermally connected to a constant temperature

sink. See example in Figure 1.
Key
1 thermostat 4 reference
2 heat sink 5 heat flow sensors
3 sample
Figure 1 — Schematic drawing of an isothermal calorimeter

The calorimeter shall be calibrated at the analysis temperature (see Annex A). The analysis temperature

for the screening test procedure shall be 60 °C.

The baseline shall exhibit a low random noise level and be stable against drift (see Annex A).

The minimum sensitivity for measuring power output shall be 100 µW.

The data acquisition equipment shall be capable of performing continues logging of the calorimeter

output measured at minimum time interval of 10 s.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 20049-1:2020
ISO 20049-1:2020(E)

5.2 Vials, made of glass with a minimum volume of 20 ml and provided with an air tight lid with an

inert seal.

Vials with volumes other than 20 ml can be used if the sample loading is scaled accordingly (see 7.2.1).

In such cases this deviation from the standard procedure shall be noted in the test report.

5.3 Balance, with a resolution of at least 10 mg.
6 Sample handling
6.1 General

Correct sample handling is important in maintaining the properties of solid biofuel pellets samples. The

transport and storage (see 6.3) are of special importance for self-heating properties as the reactivity

of the sample will be reduced from prolonged exposure to air oxygen. This is further accentuated at

exposure to elevated temperatures.

The sample history and the conditions for sample handling should be stated as thoroughly as possible

in the test report.
6.2 Sampling

Sampling of solid biofuel pellets shall be made according to procedures prescribed in ISO 18135.

The minimum size of the laboratory sample is 500 ml.
6.3 Sample transport and storage

The laboratory sample shall be transported in a closed airtight sample container.

NOTE 1 An airtight container is used to limit the amount of available oxygen in order to reduce oxidation

reactions with the sample.
The container shall be completely filled with sample.

NOTE 2 A completely filled container limits the amount of air in the container (i.e. the amount of oxygen) and

further reduces deteriorations of the sample from physical wear (i.e. reduces the amount of fine fraction).

The time between sampling and analysis shall be minimized and elevated temperatures shall be

avoided.

NOTE 3 It has been seen that a sample can be stored for several months without any significant changes in

reactivity if put in a freezer directly after received at the analysis lab.
6.4 Sample preparation

Any fine fraction shall be removed from the laboratory sample to create a test sample before extracting

test portions. The fine fraction can be removed by gentle hand sieving using sieve size 3,15 mm in

accordance with ISO 18846.
NOTE Fine fraction are removed to avoid that fine fraction produced du
...

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