Measuring method of the energy consumption of gas fired ovens

EN 15181:2007+A1specifies the method of test for determining the gas energy consumption in gas-fired domestic ovens when they are being used in one or more of the oven cooking modes defined in 3. 1. It applies to the gas-fired domestic ovens which are capable of utilizing gases of group H or group E !or third family gases", possibly after conversion according to instructions for use.This European Standard applies to these gas-fired domestic ovens, whether they are separate appliances or component parts of domestic cooking appliances.This European Standard also applies to domestic appliances that can utilize gas and/or electrical energy to provide heat for cooking when the ovens are utilizing gas energy to provide heat for cooking, but not when electric energy is used to provide any or all of the heat for cooking in the oven.It is not applicable to:- microwave combination ovens;- small cavities ovens (3.2);- oven cavities not provided with devices to detect and control the temperature for the preparation of food;- cooking modes others than defined in 3.1.1 and 3.1.2;- ovens connected to a chimney in which the gas energy for cooking provides, by design, also space and/or water heating;!Deleted text"This European Standard is concerned neither with safety nor with overall performance requirements.

Bestimmung des Energieverbrauchs von Gasbacköfen

Méthode de mesurage de la consommation d'énergie des fours à gaz

La présente Norme européenne spécifie la méthode d’essai permettant de déterminer la consommation d’énergie gazière des fours domestiques à gaz lorsqu’ils sont utilisés dans un ou plusieurs des modes de cuisson définis en 3.1. Il s’applique aux fours domestiques à gaz pouvant utiliser les gaz du groupe H ou du groupe E !ou les gaz de la troisième famille", après éventuelle conversion selon la notice d'utilisation.
La présente Norme européenne s’applique aux fours domestiques à gaz, qu’il s’agisse d’appareils isolés ou d’éléments d’appareils de cuisson domestiques.
La présente Norme européenne s’applique également aux appareils domestiques qui peuvent utiliser le gaz et/ou l’énergie électrique pour fournir la chaleur de cuisson lorsque les fours utilisent le gaz pour fournir la chaleur de cuisson, mais pas lorsque l’énergie électrique est utilisée pour fournir tout ou partie de la chaleur de cuisson dans le four.
Elle ne s’applique pas :
- aux fours micro-ondes combinés ;
- aux fours à petites cavités (3.2) ;
- aux cavités de four qui ne sont pas équipées de dispositifs permettant de détecter et de contrôler la température aux fins de la préparation de la nourriture ;
- aux modes de cuisson autres que ceux définis en 3.1.1 et 3.1.2 ;
- aux fours raccordés à un conduit de fumée pour lesquels le gaz utilisé pour la cuisson assure également par conception le chauffage du local et/ou de l’eau.
!Texte supprimé"
La présente Norme européenne ne traite ni des exigences de sécurité, ni des exigences de performances globales.

Merilna metoda porabe plina v plinskih pečicah (vključuje A1)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
08-Jun-2020
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
05-Jun-2020
Due Date
10-Aug-2020
Completion Date
09-Jun-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 15181:2017+A1:2020
01-julij-2020
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 15181:2017
Merilna metoda porabe plina v plinskih pečicah (vključuje A1)
Measuring method of the energy consumption of gas fired ovens
Bestimmung des Energieverbrauchs von Gasbacköfen
Méthode de mesurage de la consommation d'énergie des fours à gaz
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 15181:2017+A1:2020
ICS:
97.040.20 Štedilniki, delovni pulti, Cooking ranges, working
pečice in podobni aparati tables, ovens and similar
appliances
SIST EN 15181:2017+A1:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 15181:2017+A1:2020
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SIST EN 15181:2017+A1:2020
EN 15181:2017+A1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
May 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 97.040.20
English Version
Measuring method of the energy consumption of gas fired
ovens

Méthode de mesurage de la consommation d'énergie Bestimmung des Energieverbrauchs von Gasbacköfen

des fours à gaz

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 16 January 2017 and includes Amendment 1 approved by CEN on 28 March

2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 15181:2017+A1:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 15181:2017+A1:2020
EN 15181:2017+A1:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 7

4 List of measurements .................................................................................................................................... 7

4.1 Dimensions and mass .................................................................................................................................... 7

4.2 Energy consumption and heating time ................................................................................................... 7

5 General conditions for measurements .................................................................................................... 8

5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.2 Ambient temperature .................................................................................................................................... 8

5.3 Test gases and test pressures ..................................................................................................................... 9

5.4 Electrical supply .............................................................................................................................................. 9

5.5 Load ...................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.6 Instrumentation .............................................................................................................................................. 9

5.7 Positioning of the appliance ..................................................................................................................... 10

5.8 Auxiliary electrical energy ........................................................................................................................ 10

6 Calculated oven volume and mass ......................................................................................................... 10

6.1 Calculation of the oven volume ............................................................................................................... 10

6.2 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 10

6.2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 10

6.2.2 Usable height ................................................................................................................................................. 12

6.2.3 Usable width .................................................................................................................................................. 12

6.2.4 Usable depth .................................................................................................................................................. 12

6.2.5 Calculated volume ........................................................................................................................................ 13

6.3 Mass of the oven............................................................................................................................................ 13

7 Energy consumption and time................................................................................................................. 13

7.1 Measurement of oven temperature ....................................................................................................... 13

7.2 Energy consumption and time for heating a load............................................................................. 13

7.2.1 Purpose ............................................................................................................................................................ 13

7.2.2 Preparation .................................................................................................................................................... 13

7.2.3 Measurement ................................................................................................................................................. 14

8 Data to be provided for the technical file ............................................................................................ 18

9 Uncertainty and verification procedures ............................................................................................ 19

9.1 Energy consumption ................................................................................................................................... 19

9.2 Oven volume .................................................................................................................................................. 19

9.3 Measured oven temperature ................................................................................................................... 19

9.4 Mass of the oven............................................................................................................................................ 19

Annex A (normative) Description of the test brick and position of the thermocouples ................. 21

A.1 Specification ................................................................................................................................................... 21

A.2 Position of the thermocouples ................................................................................................................ 21

Annex B (informative) Explanation of the formulae .................................................................................... 22

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EN 15181:2017+A1:2020 (E)

B.1 Explanation of the Formulae Subscripts .............................................................................................. 22

B.2 Explanation of the Formulae Superscripts .......................................................................................... 22

Annex C (normative) Calculation sheet ............................................................................................................. 23

Annex D (informative) Marking the temperature setting for checking the oven temperature .... 25

Annex ZA (informative) Coverage of Requirements of Delegated Regulation (EC) No

65/2014/EU and of Commission Regulation No 66/2014/EU ..................................................... 26

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 27

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SIST EN 15181:2017+A1:2020
EN 15181:2017+A1:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 15181:2017+A1:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 49 “Gas

cooking appliances”, the secretariat of which is held by UNI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by November 2020, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by November 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document includes Amendment 1, approved by CEN on 2020-03-28.
This document supersedes !EN 15181:2017."

The start and finish of text introduced or altered by amendment is indicated in the text by tags !".

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s).

For relationship with EU Directive(s), see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this

document.
The main changes to the previous version of EN 15181:2008 are the following:

— the implementation of Annex ZA which shows the coverage of Regulation 66/2014 concerning

Ecodesign requirements for domestic ovens, hobs and range hoods and of Delegated Regulation

65/2014 on the Energy Labelling of domestic ovens and range hoods;

— the verification procedure for ensuring that the temperature inside the oven cavity reaches the

temperature setting of the thermostat and/or the oven control display within the duration of the

test cycle for measuring the energy consumption;
— the revision of Clause 9, Uncertainty and verification procedures;

— the amending of Clause 6, Calculated oven volume and mass, to ensure high reproducibility.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 15181:2017+A1:2020
EN 15181:2017+A1:2020 (E)
Introduction

The object of this European Standard is to specify, in accordance with Regulation 66/2014 concerning

Ecodesign requirements for domestic ovens, hobs and range hoods and of Delegated
Regulation 65/2014 on the Energy Labelling of domestic ovens and range hoods:
— energy consumption using a standardized load during a standardized procedure,

— some performance characteristics (like volume, correspondence between set and measured oven

temperature, permitted tolerances to values declared by the manufacturer and control procedures

for checking the declared values).
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SIST EN 15181:2017+A1:2020
EN 15181:2017+A1:2020 (E)
1 Scope

This European Standard specifies the method of test for determining the gas energy consumption in

gas-fired domestic ovens when they are being used in one or more of the oven cooking modes defined

in 3.1. It applies to the gas-fired domestic ovens which are capable of utilizing gases of group H or

group E !or third family gases", possibly after conversion according to instructions for use.

This European Standard applies to these gas-fired domestic ovens, whether they are separate

appliances or component parts of domestic cooking appliances.

This European Standard also applies to domestic appliances that can utilize gas and/or electrical energy

to provide heat for cooking when the ovens are utilizing gas energy to provide heat for cooking, but not

when electric energy is used to provide any or all of the heat for cooking in the oven.

It is not applicable to:
— microwave combination ovens;
— small cavities ovens (3.2);

— oven cavities not provided with devices to detect and control the temperature for the preparation

of food;
— cooking modes others than defined in 3.1.1 and 3.1.2;

— ovens connected to a chimney in which the gas energy for cooking provides, by design, also space

and/or water heating;
!Deleted text"

This European Standard is concerned neither with safety nor with overall performance requirements.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 30-1-1:2008+A3:2013, Domestic cooking appliances burning gas - Part 1-1: Safety -

General

EN 30-1-2:2012, Domestic cooking appliances burning gas - Safety - Part 1-2: Appliances having

forced-convection ovens and/or grills

EN 30-1-4:2012, Domestic cooking appliances burning gas - Safety - Part 1-4: Appliances having one

or more burners with an automatic burner control system
!EN 437:2018, Test gases - Test pressures - Appliance categories "

!EN 60584-1:2013, Thermocouples - Part 1: EMF specifications and tolerances (IEC 60584-

1:2013) "
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SIST EN 15181:2017+A1:2020
EN 15181:2017+A1:2020 (E)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 30-1-1:2008+A3:2013,

EN 30-1-2:2012 or EN 30-1-4:2012, provided the appliance falls within the scope of that standard, and

the following apply.
3.1
oven cooking modes
3.1.1
conventional oven cooking mode

operation of the oven for cooking roasts, pastry, etc., in which the transmission of heat is achieved by

natural convection and radiation
3.1.2
forced-convection oven cooking mode

operation of the oven for cooking roasts, pastry, etc., in which the transmission of heat by convection is

assisted by means of a fan
3.2
small cavity ovens
oven with the following dimensions related to the usable volume:
— both width and depth < 250 mm
— or height < 120 mm

Note 1 to entry: The definition of small cavity ovens in this standard is due to the size of the artificial standard

load.
3.3
multiple cavity appliances

appliance that has more than one separate oven cavity in which food is cooked and which can be

controlled independently, but cannot be installed separately
3.4
auxiliary electrical energy

electrical energy consumption (during the brick test) of any electric components that cannot be

switched off from the control panel by the user when using the oven in accordance with the instructions

for use
4 List of measurements
4.1 Dimensions and mass

Dimensions of the calculated oven volume (see 6.2) and mass of the oven (see 6.3).

4.2 Energy consumption and heating time
Heating of the load (7.2).
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EN 15181:2017+A1:2020 (E)
5 General conditions for measurements
5.1 General

According to good laboratory practice, before installation, it shall be checked that the appliance is free

from damage and complies with EN 30-1-1:2008+A3:2013, 6.1.1, Soundness, EN 30-1-2 or EN 30-1-4, as

applicable.
The instructions for use regarding installation of the oven shall be followed.

Prior to every test, the whole appliance (this includes the material and the insulation) shall be at

ambient temperature. In multiple cavity appliances, each oven cavity shall be measured separately.

Only the cavity measured shall be switched on.

In case an oven has several cooking modes as described in Clause 3, the manufacturer can choose the

variant to be tested. This shall be reported (see Clause 8).

Unless otherwise specified, measurements are conducted under the following conditions:

5.2 Ambient temperature

The tests are carried out in a substantially draught-free room in which the ambient temperature is

maintained at (23 ± 2) °C during the complete test.

Prior to the measurement the whole appliance (this includes the material and the insulation) shall be at

ambient temperature of (23 ± 2) °C.

A change in the ambient temperature of the room during the test could affect the results. Care should be

taken during the test to ensure that the ambient temperature is as steady as possible.

This ambient temperature is measured at a point that is at the same height as the centre of the

calculated oven volume of the oven cavity and at a distance of 0,5 m diagonally from one of the front

edges of the appliance; see Figure 1.

The measurement of the ambient temperature shall not be influenced by the oven itself or by any other

appliance.
Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 top view
2 oven
3 thermocouple
Figure 1 — Position of the thermocouple
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SIST EN 15181:2017+A1:2020
EN 15181:2017+A1:2020 (E)
5.3 Test gases and test pressures

The appliance is fitted with the appropriate injector(s) for utilization of gas group H or gas group E,

!or third family gases". The primary air adjuster, if any, shall be adjusted according to the technical

instructions.

The appliance is then supplied with G 20, with a composition of at least 95 % methane, at a pressure of

20 mbar.

!For Category I appliances intended to use only third family gases (Gas Groups 3+, 3B, 3B/P and 3P)

the tests are carried out with corresponding reference gas and corresponding nominal pressure as

indicated in Clause 4 and Clause 5 of EN 437:2018."
5.4 Electrical supply

The supply voltage shall be maintained at 230 V ± 1 %. The supply frequency shall be at 50Hz ± 1 %.

5.5 Load

The load for test 7.2 shall be a brick with two holes for temperature measurements as shown in

Annex A.

Before using it for the first time a new brick shall be dried in forced air circulation in an oven of about

50 l volume at ≥ 175 °C for three hours. No more than two bricks shall be dried at the same time in the

same oven.

The mass m of the completely dry brick without thermocouples shall be measured within 5 min after

removal from the oven and shall be noted in grams. The dry mass m shall be in accordance with the dry

mass specified in Annex A. The brick shall be identified with a reference number for accurate

calculation of the water absorption according to 7.2.2.

Place markings 32 mm from the measuring point of the two thermocouples with steel tube and insert

the thermocouples into the holes until the marking matches with the surface of the brick. The

thermocouples shall be fixed to ensure that the measuring points remain at a depth of 32 mm during

the whole test procedure.
The weighing machine should be protected from the effects of the hot brick.

The thermocouples may be fixed by means of a droplet of silicon glue at the surface of the brick or by

other suitable means.

Care should be taken, that the measuring point is the first contact point of the two thermowires.

Between test series, the brick should be stored in a refrigerator, preferably not soaked with water. The

brick soaking water should be kept away (to reduce dissolving processes); i.e. re-use of the brick

storage water. A brick that has already been soaked in water needs at least eight hours to be dried as

described above.

Due to the porosity of the brick care should be taken that the holes of the brick are not enlarged if the

thermocouples are removed and reinserted.
NOTE A brick can be used for about 20 tests when handled with normal care.
5.6 Instrumentation

Air temperature measurements in the empty oven are made with a thermocouple with a welded point

(not with a black copper plate), class 1, type K.
Room temperature measurements are made with a thermocouple, class 1, type T.

Other types of thermocouple may be used for the measurement of room temperatures provided they

are known to provide equivalent or better accuracy and reproducibility than a type T.

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EN 15181:2017+A1:2020 (E)

Temperature measurements in the load are made with two thermocouples with 1 mm steel tube

diameter, class 1, according to EN 60584-1:2013. The thermocouple shall be accurate to ± 1,5 K.

NOTE The steel tube of the thermocouple eases the insertion of the thermocouple into the brick. See also 5.5,

6th paragraph.

The temperature measurement system, excluding the thermocouple shall be accurate to ± 1,0 K.

The determination of the heat input and the consumption shall be made at an accuracy as defined in

EN 30-1-1:2008+A3:2013, 7.3.1.2.1.1.

The equipment used shall be capable of measuring the following parameters with the specified

accuracies:

— auxiliary electrical energy within ± 1,5 % or ± 10 Wh of the measured value, whichever is the

greater,
— voltage within ± 0,5 %,
— frequency within ± 0,5 %,
— mass within ± 3 g,
— time within ± 5 s.
5.7 Positioning of the appliance

The appliance shall be installed according to the instructions for use and in accordance with

EN 30-1-1:2008+A3:2013, 7.1.3.3, EN 30-1-2:2012 and EN 30-1-4:2012, as applicable.

5.8 Auxiliary electrical energy

The auxiliary electrical energy as defined in 3.4 is measured during the brick test (7.2.3). The

measurement is taken over the same period of time as the gas consumption measurement at the

i..
temperature T of Table 1.
6 Calculated oven volume and mass
6.1 Calculation of the oven volume
The calculated oven volume is calculated as described in 6.2.
6.2 General
6.2.1 Introduction

Removable items specified in the instructions for use to be not essential for the operation of the

appliance in the manner for which it is intended, shall be removed before measurement is carried out.

Safety operation should be guaranteed. Parts necessary for the safety of the appliance cannot be

removed for measuring the calculated volume.
NOTE Removable shelf holders are removed.

The measurement of the calculated oven volume shall be carried out at ambient temperature.

The height, width and depth of the calculated volume in the cavity shall be measured in accordance with

6.2.2 to 6.2.4. The measurement procedure is also shown in Figure 2.
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SIST EN 15181:2017+A1:2020
EN 15181:2017+A1:2020 (E)
Key
d usable depth
g heating element
h usable height
w usable width

Figure 2 — Usable internal dimensions and calculation of the volume of ovens - Measurement

procedure

For verification purposes a gauge, as shown in Figure 3, shall be used to determine all of the three

dimensions. The gauge shall be used without appreciable force. Dimensions are stated in millimetres.

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SIST EN 15181:2017+A1:2020
EN 15181:2017+A1:2020 (E)
Key
D = 200 mm or 120 mm
X = dimension to be measured
(See 6.2.2, 6.2.3 and 6.2.4.)

Figure 3 — Usable internal dimensions and calculation of the volume of ovens — Gauge for

determining the calculated volume
6.2.2 Usable height

The usable height is the maximum length of a cylinder with a diameter of 200 mm reaching vertically

from the centre of the cavity floor to the lowest point on the ceiling. The lowest point of the ceiling can

be constituted by a lamp, a grill burner or electrical heating element or similar object in the area of the

cylinder.

The base of the cavity covering the oven burner, if removable, shall not be removed.

In the event that either the width or the depth of the cavity is less than 250 mm, the diameter of the

cylinder to be measured shall be reduced to 120 mm.

NOTE The centre of the cavity bottom is defined by the middle of the usable depth and the middle of the

usable width.
6.2.3 Usable width

The usable width is the maximum length of a cylinder with a diameter of 200 mm reaching horizontally

from the left-hand side wall to the right-hand side wall of the cavity.

In the event that either the height or the depth of the cavity is less than 250 mm, the diameter of the

cylinder to be measured shall be reduced to 120 mm.

NOTE The centre of the side wall of the cavity is defined by the middle of the usable depth and the middle of

the usable height.
6.2.4 Usable depth

The usable depth is the maximum length of a cylinder with a diameter of 200 mm reaching horizontally

from the centre of the rear wall to the inner face of the closed door.

In the event that either the width or the height of the cavity is less than 250 mm, the diameter of the

cylinder to be measured shall be reduced to 120 mm.

For measuring the usable depth, the gauge is placed on a support in such a way that the axis lies

horizontally in the centre of the cavity, the axis being extended slightly over the expected usable depth.

The door is closed carefully so that the gauge is compressed to give the usable depth.

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SIST EN 15181:2017+A1:2020
EN 15181:2017+A1:2020 (E)

NOTE The centre of the rear wall of the cavity is defined by the middle of the usable height and the middle of

the usable width.
6.2.5 Calculated volume

The calculated volume is determined from these three dimensions and is stated in litres rounded to the

!deleted text" full litre.
6.3 Mass of the oven

The mass of the oven, including accessories needed to perform the test of Clause 7, is determined and

expressed in kilograms, rounded to first decimal place.

NOTE In case of ovens integrated in free-standing appliances the mass of the appliance is considered.

7 Energy consumption and time
7.1 Measurement of oven temperature

The oven temperature of each cooking mode, as appropriate (see Clause 3), shall be measured

separately. During the test only one cooking mode (see Clause 3) shall be used.

The air temperature in the empty oven is measured with a thermocouple, according to 5.6, fixed to the

grid which is delivered with the oven and placed in the oven in a way that the welded point of the

thermocouple is located at the centre of the useful volume of the oven with a distance of at least 30 mm

from the grid.
7.2 Energy consumption and time for heating a load
7.2.1 Purpose

The purpose of this test is to measure the energy consumption and the time for heating a load. The load

is a water saturated brick as defined in 7.2.2 which simulates both the thermal properties and the water

content of food (e.g. meat).
7.2.2 Preparation

Before heating the brick, which has been treated according to 5.5, it shall be put into a water container

so that it is completely covered with water of less than 20 °C. The water container with the brick is

placed for at least 8 h into a temperature controlled environment, for example a refrigerator and cooled

down until the centre temperature of the brick (both thermocouples) is (5 ± 2) °C.

A hot brick shall be cooled down in air to a centre temperature below 25 °C before putting it into the

cold water.
NOTE 1 A hot brick put directly into cold water w
...

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