Guidelines for the measurement method of power durability for surface acoustic wave (SAW) and bulk acoustic wave (BAW) devices in radio frequency (RF) applications (IEC 63155:2020)

This document defines the measurement method for the determination of the durability of
radio frequency (RF) surface acoustic wave (SAW) and bulk acoustic wave (BAW) devices,
such as filters and duplexers, with respect to high power RF signals, which are used in
telecommunications, measuring equipment, radar systems and consumer products. RF BAW
devices include two types: those based on the film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) technology
and those based on the solidly mounted resonator (SMR) technology.
This document includes basic properties of failure of RF SAW/BAW devices, and guidelines to
set up the measurement system and to establish the procedure to estimate the time to failure
(TF). Since TF is mainly governed by the RF power applied in the devices, discussions are
focused on the power durability.
It is not the aim of this document to explain the theory, or to attempt to cover all the
eventualities which can arise in practical circumstances. This document draws attention to
some of the more fundamental questions which will need to be considered by the user before
he/she places an order for an RF SAW/BAW device for a new application. Such a procedure
will be the user's means of preventing unsatisfactory performance related to premature device
failure resulting from high-power exposure of RF SAW/BAW devices.

Leitlinien für das Verfahren zur Messung der Leistungsfestigkeit von Oberflächenwellen (OFW)- und Volumenwellen (BAW)-Bauelementen in Hochfrequenz (HF)-Anwendungen (IEC 63155:2020)

Lignes directrices relatives à la méthode de mesure de la durabilité de puissance des appareils à ondes acoustiques de surface (OAS) et des appareils à ondes acoustiques de volume (OAV) dans les applications de radiofréquence (RF) (IEC 63155:2020)

L'IEC 63155:2020 définit la méthode de mesure pour la détermination de la durabilité des appareils de radiofréquence (RF) à ondes acoustiques de surface (OAS) et à ondes acoustiques de volume (OAV), tels que les filtres et les duplexeurs, pour ce qui est des signaux RF de puissance élevée qui sont utilisés dans les télécommunications, les équipements de mesure, les systèmes radars et les produits de consommation. Les appareils RF à OAV sont de deux types: le premier se fonde sur la technologie du résonateur acoustique de volume de couche (FBAR, film bulk acoustic resonator), le second se fonde sur la technologie du résonateur monté solidement (SMR, solidly mounted resonator). Le présent document inclut les propriétés de défaillance de base des appareils RF à OAS et à OAV et des lignes directrices afin de configurer le système de mesure et d'établir la procédure pour estimer la durée de fonctionnement avant défaillance (TF). La TF étant principalement régie par la puissance de radiofréquence appliquée dans les appareils, les études se concentrent sur la durabilité de puissance. Le présent document n'est pas destiné à expliquer la partie théorique ni à traiter toutes les éventualités qui peuvent se produire dans la pratique. Il attire l'attention sur certaines des questions fondamentales que l'utilisateur a besoin de prendre en considération avant de commander un appareil de radiofréquence à OAS ou à OAV pour une nouvelle application. Cette procédure protège l'utilisateur contre des performances non satisfaisantes de l'appareil relatives à une défaillance prématurée causée par l'exposition de celui-ci à une puissance élevée.

Smernice za metodo merjenja trajanja energije površinskega zvočnega vala (SAW) in prostorskega zvočnega vala (BAW) v napravah pri radiofrekvenčnih (RF) aplikacijah (IEC 63155:2020)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
21-Jul-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
01-Jul-2020
Due Date
05-Sep-2020
Completion Date
22-Jul-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN IEC 63155:2020
01-oktober-2020
Smernice za metodo merjenja trajanja energije površinskega zvočnega vala (SAW)
in prostorskega zvočnega vala (BAW) v napravah pri radiofrekvenčnih (RF)
aplikacijah (IEC 63155:2020)

Guidelines for the measurement method of power durability for surface acoustic wave

(SAW) and bulk acoustic wave (BAW) devices in radio frequency (RF) applications (IEC

63155:2020)

Leitlinien für das Verfahren zur Messung der Leistungsfestigkeit von Oberflächenwellen

(OFW)- und Volumenwellen (BAW)-Bauelementen in Hochfrequenz (HF)-Anwendungen
(IEC 63155:2020)

Lignes directrices relatives à la méthode de mesure de la durabilité de puissance des

appareils à ondes acoustiques de surface (OAS) et des appareils à ondes acoustiques

de volume (OAV) dans les applications de radiofréquence (RF) (IEC 63155:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN IEC 63155:2020
ICS:
31.140 Piezoelektrične naprave Piezoelectric devices
SIST EN IEC 63155:2020 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN IEC 63155:2020
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SIST EN IEC 63155:2020
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN IEC 63155
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
June 2020
ICS 31.140
English Version
Guidelines for the measurement method of power durability for
surface acoustic wave (SAW) and bulk acoustic wave (BAW)
devices in radio frequency (RF) applications
(IEC 63155:2020)

Lignes directrices relatives à la méthode de mesure de la Leitlinien für das Verfahren zur Messung der

durabilité de puissance des appareils à ondes acoustiques Leistungsfestigkeit von Oberflächenwellen (OFW)- und

de surface (OAS) et des appareils à ondes acoustiques de Volumenwellen (BAW)-Bauelementen in Hochfrequenz

volume (OAV) dans les applications de radiofréquence (RF) (HF)-Anwendungen
(IEC 63155:2020) (IEC 63155:2020)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2020-05-29. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN IEC 63155:2020 E
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SIST EN IEC 63155:2020
EN IEC 63155:2020 (E)
European foreword

The text of document 49/1339/FDIS, future edition 1 of IEC 63155, prepared by IEC/TC 49

"Piezoelectric, dielectric and electrostatic devices and associated materials for frequency control,

selection and detection" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and approved by

CENELEC as EN IEC 63155:2020.
The following dates are fixed:

• latest date by which the document has to be implemented at national (dop) 2021-03-01

level by publication of an identical national standard or by endorsement

• latest date by which the national standards conflicting with the (dow) 2023-05-29

document have to be withdrawn

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 63155:2020 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards

indicated:
IEC 60862-1:2015 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60862-1:2015 (not modified)
IEC 62047-7:2011 NOTE Harmonized as EN 62047-7:2011 (not modified)
IEC 62575-1:2015 NOTE Harmonized as EN 62575-1:2016 (not modified)
IEC 62575-2:2012 NOTE Harmonized as EN 62575-2:2012 (not modified)
IEC 62604-1:2015 NOTE Harmonized as EN 62604-1:2015 (not modified)
IEC 62761:2014 NOTE Harmonized as EN 62761:2014 (not modified)
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SIST EN IEC 63155:2020
IEC 63155
Edition 1.0 2020-04
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Guidelines for the measurement method of power durability for surface acoustic
wave (SAW) and bulk acoustic wave (BAW) devices in radio frequency (RF)
applications
Lignes directrices relatives à la méthode de mesure de la durabilité de
puissance des appareils à ondes acoustiques de surface (OAS) et des appareils
à ondes acoustiques de volume (OAV) dans les applications de radiofréquence
(RF)
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 31.140 ISBN 978-2-8322-8253-3

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
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SIST EN IEC 63155:2020
– 2 – IEC 63155:2020 © IEC 2020
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 6

3.1 General terms ......................................................................................................... 6

3.2 Durability related terms ......................................................................................... 11

4 Basic properties of life time of RF SAW/BAW devices .................................................... 12

4.1 Life time and accelerated testing........................................................................... 12

4.2 Failure mechanisms .............................................................................................. 14

4.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 14

4.2.2 Acoustomigration ........................................................................................... 15

4.2.3 Self-heating and thermal run-away ................................................................ 16

4.2.4 Other mechanisms ......................................................................................... 16

4.3 Modelling .............................................................................................................. 16

5 Life time measurement .................................................................................................. 18

5.1 Measurement setup .............................................................................................. 18

5.2 Measurement procedure ....................................................................................... 19

5.3 Life time estimation ............................................................................................... 20

5.4 Measurement specifications .................................................................................. 20

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 21

Figure 1 – FBAR configuration ................................................................................................ 8

Figure 2 – SMR configuration .................................................................................................. 9

Figure 3 – Frequency response of an RF SAW/BAW filter ....................................................... 9

Figure 4 – Arrhenius plot when multiple mechanisms are contributing ................................... 13

Figure 5 – Structure of ladder filter ....................................................................................... 14

Figure 6 – Typical transmission characteristic of ladder filter ................................................ 14

Figure 7 – Creation of voids and hillocks ............................................................................... 15

Figure 8 – Translation of the filter pass band with temperature change ................................. 17

Figure 9 – Basic setup for TF measurement at RF power application .................................... 18

Figure 10 – Basic setup for TF measurement of SAW/BAW duplexer .................................... 18

Figure 11 – Setup for TF measurement including filter response monitoring .......................... 19

Figure 12 – Another setup for TF measurement including filter response monitoring ............. 19

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SIST EN IEC 63155:2020
IEC 63155:2020 © IEC 2020 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
GUIDELINES FOR THE MEASUREMENT METHOD OF
POWER DURABILITY FOR SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVE (SAW)
AND BULK ACOUSTIC WAVE (BAW) DEVICES IN
RADIO FREQUENCY (RF) APPLICATIONS
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

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agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 63155 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 49:

Piezoelectric, dielectric and electrostatic devices and associated materials for frequency

control, selection and detection.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
49/1339/FDIS 49/1342/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

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SIST EN IEC 63155:2020
– 4 – IEC 63155:2020 © IEC 2020

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
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SIST EN IEC 63155:2020
IEC 63155:2020 © IEC 2020 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

Radio frequency (RF) surface acoustic wave (SAW) and bulk acoustic wave (BAW) devices

are now widely used in various communication systems owing to their features such as small

size, light weight, little or no need for tuning, high stability and high reliability.

One of the most important applications of the devices is the antenna duplexer in mobile

communication devices which separates incoming receiving (Rx) signals from base-stations

and outgoing transmitting (Tx) signals in the frequency domain. It is known that acoustic

vibration can accelerate destruction of electrode metals in the inter-digital transducers (IDTs)

employed, which results in device failure. Thus, the device life time (time to failure, TF) is

dependent on not only the chip temperature but also on input power level and frequency of

the applied radio frequency signal. It should be noted that chip temperature can be somewhat

different from the environmental temperature because the input power level of Tx signals in

the above-mentioned applications is about 1 W at maximum, and heat generation due to

power consumption is not negligible.

The requisite TF of the SAW/BAW duplexers is usually specified by input power level,

exposure frequency range and environmental temperature. Nevertheless, TF measurement

under given specifications is not realistic because the requisite TF is too long (could be up to

many years). Accelerated life time testing is applied to shorten the TF. TF is measured in

more severe situations, namely at higher power and/or higher ambient temperature. TF under

given specifications is estimated by extrapolation based on the Arrhenius model including the

inverse power law. Although the model explains the variation of the TF with respect to input

power level and temperature well, the parameters appearing in the model need to be

determined experimentally, and its procedures have not been well established. Therefore,

measurement methods will be specifically established for TF estimation of RF SAW/BAW

devices.

This document has been compiled in response to a generally expressed desire on the part of

both users and manufacturers for general information on testing condition guidance of RF

SAW/BAW filters, so that the filters may be used to their best advantage. To this end, general

and fundamental characteristics have been explained in this document.
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SIST EN IEC 63155:2020
– 6 – IEC 63155:2020 © IEC 2020
GUIDELINES FOR THE MEASUREMENT METHOD OF
POWER DURABILITY FOR SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVE (SAW)
AND BULK ACOUSTIC WAVE (BAW) DEVICES IN
RADIO FREQUENCY (RF) APPLICATIONS
1 Scope

This document defines the measurement method for the determination of the durability of

radio frequency (RF) surface acoustic wave (SAW) and bulk acoustic wave (BAW) devices,

such as filters and duplexers, with respect to high power RF signals, which are used in

telecommunications, measuring equipment, radar systems and consumer products. RF BAW

devices include two types: those based on the film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) technology

and those based on the solidly mounted resonator (SMR) technology.

This document includes basic properties of failure of RF SAW/BAW devices, and guidelines to

set up the measurement system and to establish the procedure to estimate the time to failure

(TF). Since TF is mainly governed by the RF power applied in the devices, discussions are

focused on the power durability.

It is not the aim of this document to explain the theory, or to attempt to cover all the

eventualities which can arise in practical circumstances. This document draws attention to

some of the more fundamental questions which will need to be considered by the user before

he/she places an order for an RF SAW/BAW device for a new application. Such a procedure

will be the user's means of preventing unsatisfactory performance related to premature device

failure resulting from high-power exposure of RF SAW/BAW devices.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
3.1 General terms
3.1.1
BAW
bulk acoustic wave

acoustic wave, propagating between the top and bottom surface of a piezoelectric structure

and then traversing the entire thickness of the piezoelectric bulk

Note 1 to entry: The wave is excited by metal electrodes attached to both sides of the piezoelectric layer.

[SOURCE: IEC 62575-1:2015, 3.1.1]
3.1.2
BAW filter
bulk acoustic wave filter

filter characterised by a bulk acoustic wave which is usually generated by a pair of electrodes

and propagates along a thin film thickness direction
[SOURCE: IEC 62575-1:2015, 3.1.2]
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SIST EN IEC 63155:2020
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3.1.3
cut-off frequency

frequency of the pass band at which the relative attenuation reaches a specified value

[SOURCE: IEC 60862-1:2015, 3.1.2.4, modified – The reference to Figure 1 has been

deleted.]
3.1.4
duplexer

device used in the frequency division duplex system, which enables the system to receive and

transmit signal through a common antenna simultaneously
[SOURCE: IEC 62761:2014, 3.1.5]
3.1.5
film bulk acoustic resonator
FBAR

thin film BAW resonator consisting of a piezoelectric layer sandwiched between two electrode

layers with stress-free top and bottom surfaces supported mechanically at the edge on a

substrate with cavity structure as shown in Figure 1 or membrane structure as an example

Note 1 to entry: This note applies to the French language only.
[SOURCE: IEC 62575-1:2015, 3.1.3, modified – Figure 1 c) has been added.]
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SIST EN IEC 63155:2020
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a) Back-side etched
b) Front-side etched
c) Sacrificial-layer etched
Figure 1 – FBAR configuration
3.1.6
solidly mounted resonator
SMR

BAW resonator, supporting the electrode/piezoelectric layer/electrode structure by a

sequence of additional thin films of alternately low and high acoustic impedance Z with

quarter wavelength layer, and these layers act as acoustic reflectors and decouple the

resonator acoustically from the substrate as shown in Figure 2 as an example
Note 1 to entry: This note applies to the French language only.
[SOURCE: IEC 62575-1:2015, 3.1.4]
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SIST EN IEC 63155:2020
IEC 63155:2020 © IEC 2020 – 9 –
Figure 2 – SMR configuration
3.1.7
response characteristic
SEE: Figure 3
Figure 3 – Frequency response of an RF SAW/BAW filter
3.1.8
input impedance

impedance presented by the filter/duplexer to the signal source when the output is terminated

by a specified load impedance
[SOURCE: IEC 62604-1:2015, 3.1.2.22, modified – "duplexer" has been replaced by
"filter/duplexer".]
3.1.9
input level
power, voltage or current value applied to the input port of a filter/duplexer
[SOURCE: IEC 62604-1:2015, 3.1.2.19, modified – "duplexer" has been replaced by
"filter/duplexer".]
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SIST EN IEC 63155:2020
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3.1.10
insertion attenuation

logarithmic ratio of the power delivered directly to the load impedance before insertion of the

filter/duplexer to the power delivered to the load impedance after insertion of the

filter/duplexer
[SOURCE: IEC 62604-1:2015, 3.1.2.2, modified – "duplexer" has been replaced by
"filter/duplexer".]
3.1.11
operating temperature range

range of temperatures, over which the SAW/BAW filter/duplexer will function while maintaining

its specified characteristics within specified tolerances
[SOURCE: IEC 62575-1:2015, 3.1.16, modified – "BAW filter" has been replaced by
"SAW/BAW filter/duplexer".]
3.1.12
output impedance

impedance presented by the filter/duplexer to the load when the input is terminated by a

specified source impedance
[SOURCE: IEC 62604-1:2015, 3.1.2.23, modified – "duplexer" has been replaced by
"filter/duplexer".]
3.1.13
output level
power, voltage or current value delivered to the load circuit
[SOURCE: IEC 62604-1:2015, 3.1.2.20]
3.1.14
pass band

band of frequencies in which the relative attenuation is equal to or less than a specified value

[SOURCE: IEC 62604-1:2015, 3.1.2.5]
3.1.15
pass bandwidth

separation of frequencies between which the relative attenuation is equal to or less than a

specified value
[SOURCE: IEC 62604-1:2015, 3.1.2.6]
3.1.16
reflectivity
dimensionless measure of the degree of mismatch between two impedances Z and Z :
a b
ZZ−
a b
ZZ+
a b

where Z and Z represent, respectively, the input and source impedance or the output and

a b
load impedance

Note 1 to entry: The absolute value of reflectivity is called the reflection coefficient.

[SOURCE: IEC 62604-1:2015, 3.1.2.17]
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3.1.17
Rx filter
filter used in a receiver part to eliminate unnecessary/unwanted signals
Note 1 to entry: The Rx filter is a basic part of a duplexer.

[SOURCE: IEC 62604-1:2015, 3.1.3.4, modified – "RX" has been replaced by "Rx" in the term,

"/unwanted" has been added to the definition and Note 2 to entry has been omitted.]

3.1.18
SAW filter

filter characterised by one or more surface acoustic wave transmission line or resonant

elements, where the surface acoustic wave is usually generated by an interdigital transducer

and propagates along a material surface

[SOURCE: IEC 62604-1:2015, 3.1.1.2, modified – The term "surface acoustic wave filter" has

been omitted.]
3.1.19
stop band

band of frequencies in which the relative attenuation is equal to or greater than a specified

value
3.1.20
SAW
surface acoustic wave

acoustic wave, propagating along a surface of an elastic material, whose amplitude decays

exponentially with the depth
[SOURCE: IEC 60862-1:2015, 3.1.1.1]
3.1.21
Tx filter
filter used in a transmitter part to eliminate unnecessary/unwanted signals
Note 1 to entry: This is a basic part of a duplexer.

[SOURCE: IEC 62604-1:2015, 3.1.3.3, modified – "TX" has been replaced by "Tx" in the term,

"/unwanted" has been added to the definition and Note 2 to entry has been omitted.]

3.2 Durability related terms
3.2.1
accelerated life time testing

testing strategy whereby the engineer extrapolates a product's failure behaviour at normal

conditions from life data obtained at accelerated stress levels

Note 1 to entry: Since products fail more quickly at higher stress levels, this sort of strategy allows the engineer

to obtain reliability information about a product (e.g., mean life, probability of failure at a specific time, etc.) in a

shorter time.
3.2.2
acceleration factor

ratio of the product's life at the used stress level to its life at an accelerated stress level

Note 1 to entry: For example, if the product has a life of 100 h at the used stress level, and it is being tested at an

accelerated stress level which reduces its life to 50 h, then the acceleration factor is 2.

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3.2.3
Arrhenius model

model used in accelerated life time testing to establish a relationship between absolute

temperature and reliability

Note 1 to entry: It was originally developed by Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius to define the relationship

between temperature and the rates of chemical reaction.

Note 2 to entry: Additional mathematical models are available to describe a product's life-stress relationship,

which is how stress levels affect the reliability of a product.
3.2.4
inverse power law

accelerated life time testing model commonly used when the accelerating factor is a single,

non-thermal stress (e.g. power, vibration, voltage or temperature cycling)
3.2.5
stress

factor which causes failure: operation and storage temperatures, humidity, incident power,

ultraviolet irradiation, and mechanical shock are examples
3.2.6
stress testing

testing strategy whereby units are tested at stresses higher than those that would be

encountered during normal operating conditions, usually to induce failures
4 Basic properties of life time of RF SAW/BAW devices
4.1 Life time and accelerated testing

Many SAW/BAW devices are required to fulfil the component specification for a certain

number of years under normal operating conditions. Failure is defined as a situation in which

performance becomes worse than that given in the specification.

For this purpose, we need to estimate TF under the toughest situations encountered in normal

operating conditions. Since it is not acceptable for engineers to spend many years on TF

estimation, a strategy called "accelerated life time testing" is widely adopted. In this strategy,

TF at normal conditions is estimated by extrapolation from TF data obtained at tougher

operating conditions, or accelerated stress levels in the terminology of reliability engineering.

Since products will fail more quickly, this strategy allows us to obtain information on the

reliability of the products in a shorter period of time.

There are many possible failure mechanisms, such as oxidization, cracking, leakage, and

peeling off, and there are many possible locations where failure occurs.

When one failure mechanism is dominant, TF is known to exhibit the following dependence on

the absolute temperature T
TF = aexp , (1)

where a is a factor discussed later, k is the Boltzmann constant and E is a parameter which

varies with the failure mechanism. This dependence is the same as that for chemical reaction,

and it is called the Arrhenius equation and E is referred to the activation energy. Taking the

logarithm for both sides, equation (1) can be rewritten as
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SIST EN IEC 63155:2020
IEC 63155:2020 © IEC 2020 – 13 –
log TF + log a (2)

Thus, plotting log TF against T gives a straight line, and its gradient and y-intercept are

given by E/k and log a, respectively. This plot is called the Arrhenius plot.

When multiple mechanisms are contributing, the Arrhenius plot can draw a polygonal line as

shown in Figure 4. This is because different mechanisms possess different activation energies,

and failure is triggered from the
...

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