Railway applications - Measurement of vertical forces on wheels and wheelsets - Part 3: Approval and verification of on track measurement sites for vehicles in service

This document is related to EN 15654-1, Railway applications - Measurement of vertical forces on wheels and wheelsets - Part 1: On-track measurement sites for vehicles in service, which lays down minimum technical requirements and the metrological characteristics of a system for measuring and evaluating a range of vehicle loading parameters during operation in service.
The aim of this document is to describe approval and verification procedures to validate the functional and metrological characteristics of measurement systems and confirm them over time.
The goal is to obtain the comparability and reproducibility of measurement results under different boundary conditions. To minimize the number of tests, the approval and verification procedures are divided into:
-   type approval,
-   initial verification,
-   in-service verification.
The accuracy class of a measurement system depends on the measurement device, vehicle and track characteristics. Test procedures covering these influences are described to ensure reproducibility in all networks.
The procedures described in this document do not impose any restrictions on the design of measurement sites, on the types of vehicles that can be monitored, or on which networks or lines the measuring system can be installed.
The annexes include examples for test procedures, calculation of maximum permissible errors and statistical test methods

Bahnanwendungen - Messung von vertikalen Rad- und Radsazkräften - Teil 3: Zulassung und Prüfung von gleisseitigen Messeinrichtungen für Fahrzeuge im betrieblichen Einsatz

Applications ferroviaires - Mesurage des forces verticales à la roue et à l'essieu - Partie 3 : Approbation et vérification des sites de mesure en voie des véhicules en service

Železniške naprave - Meritve vertikalnih kolesnih in osnih obremenitev - 3. del: Odobritev in preverjanje meritev na železniških vozilih med vožnjo

Ta dokument je povezan s standardom EN 15654-1, Železniške naprave - Meritve vertikalnih kolesnih in osnih obremenitev - 1. del: Merilna mesta na progi za vozila med vožnjo, ki določajo minimalne tehnične zahteve in meroslovne značilnosti sistema za merjenje in vrednotenje vrste parametrov obremenitve vozil med vožnjo.
Namen tega dokumenta je opisati postopke odobritve in preverjanja za validacijo funkcionalnih in meroslovnih značilnosti merilnih sistemov ter jih sčasoma potrditi.
Cilj je doseči primerljivost in ponovljivost rezultatov meritev pod različnimi mejnimi pogoji. Za zmanjšanje števila preskusov so postopki odobritve in preverjanja razdeljeni na:
– vrsto odobritve,
– prvo preverjanje,
– preverjanje med vožnjo.
Razred točnosti merilnega sistema je odvisen od merilne naprave ter značilnosti vozila in tirnic. Opisani so preskusni postopki, ki zajemajo te vplive, da se zagotovi ponovljivost v vseh omrežjih.
Postopki, opisani v tem dokumentu, ne podajajo nikakršnih omejitev glede zasnove merilnih mest, vrst vozil, ki jih je mogoče nadzirati, ali glede tega, na katerih omrežjih ali linijah je mogoče namestiti merilni sistem.
Dodatki vsebujejo primere za preskusne postopke, izračun največjih dopustnih napak in statistične preskusne metode.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
28-Feb-2019
Publication Date
13-May-2019
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
10-May-2019
Due Date
15-Jul-2019
Completion Date
14-May-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15654-3:2019
01-julij-2019
Železniške naprave - Meritve vertikalnih kolesnih in osnih obremenitev - 3. del:
Odobritev in preverjanje meritev na železniških vozilih med vožnjo

Railway applications - Measurement of vertical forces on wheels and wheelsets - Part 3:

Approval and verification of on track measurement sites for vehicles in service
Bahnanwendungen - Messung von vertikalen Rad- und Radsazkräften - Teil 3:
Zulassung und Prüfung von gleisseitigen Messeinrichtungen für Fahrzeuge im
betrieblichen Einsatz

Applications ferroviaires - Mesurage des forces verticales à la roue et à l'essieu - Partie 3

: Approbation et vérification des sites de mesure en voie des véhicules en service

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 15654-3:2019
ICS:
45.060.01 Železniška vozila na splošno Railway rolling stock in
general
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15654-3:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 15654-3:2019
CEN/TR 15654-3
TECHNICAL REPORT
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
May 2019
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
ICS 45.060.01
English Version
Railway applications - Measurement of vertical forces on
wheels and wheelsets - Part 3: Approval and verification of
on track measurement sites for vehicles in service

Applications ferroviaires - Mesurage des forces Bahnanwendungen - Messung von vertikalen Rad- und

verticales à la roue et à l'essieu - Partie 3 : Approbation Radsatzkräften - Teil 3: Zulassung und Prüfung von

et vérification des sites de mesure en voie des gleisseitigen Messeinrichtungen für Fahrzeuge im

véhicules en service betrieblichen Einsatz

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 15 April 2019. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 256.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TR 15654-3:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 5

4 Overview ............................................................................................................................................................ 6

5 Type approval ................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.2 Tested metrological characteristics and technical requirements ................................................ 8

5.3 Laboratory and site tests .............................................................................................................................. 8

5.4 Type approval test train ............................................................................................................................ 10

5.5 Type approval test runs ............................................................................................................................. 10

5.6 Changes to the metrological characteristics and technical requirements .............................. 11

6 Initial verification ........................................................................................................................................ 12

6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 12

6.2 Verification procedure for metrological characteristics ............................................................... 12

7 In-service verification ................................................................................................................................ 14

7.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 14

7.2 Static reference test method .................................................................................................................... 17

7.3 Dynamic reference test method .............................................................................................................. 17

7.4 Dynamic comparison test method ......................................................................................................... 18

7.5 Statistical comparison test method ....................................................................................................... 18

Annex A (informative) Calibration and Adjustment ....................................................................................... 20

A.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 20

A.2 Calibration ...................................................................................................................................................... 20

A.3 Adjustment ..................................................................................................................................................... 20

Annex B (informative) Reference values and proof of accuracy classes ................................................. 21

B.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 21

B.2 Recommendations to determine reference values .......................................................................... 21

B.3 Calculation of maximum error from test data ................................................................................... 22

B.4 Proof of accuracy class ............................................................................................................................... 22

B.5 Example for proof of an accuracy class 10 device ............................................................................ 22

Annex C (informative) Examples for statistical test methods ..................................................................... 24

C.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 24

C.2 Dynamic comparison test method ......................................................................................................... 24

C.3 Statistical comparison test method ....................................................................................................... 26

C.3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 26

C.3.2 Example for 7.5 a) ........................................................................................................................................ 26

C.3.3 Example for 7.5 c) Compare one station to all other stations ...................................................... 27

C.3.4 Example for 7.5 c) ........................................................................................................................................ 29

C.3.5 Example for 7.5 c) ........................................................................................................................................ 31

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 33

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European foreword

This document (CEN/TR 15654-3:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 256

“Railway applications”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document is the third part of the EN 15654 series, Railway applications — Measurement of vertical

forces on wheels and wheelsets, which consists of the following parts:
— Part 1: On-track measurement sites for vehicles in service;
— Part 2: Test in workshop for new, modified and maintained vehicles;

— Part 3: Approval and verification of on track measurement sites for vehicles in service [this CEN/TR].

This document describes the acceptance and verification of devices defined in Part 1.

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Introduction

This document has been developed to provide approval and verification procedures to ensure that

measurement systems according to EN 15654-1 meet the functional and metrological characteristics.

The goal is to achieve metrologically traceable and reproducible measurement results.

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1 Scope

This document is related to EN 15654-1, Railway applications — Measurement of vertical forces on

wheels and wheelsets — Part 1: On-track measurement sites for vehicles in service, which lays down

minimum technical requirements and the metrological characteristics of a system for measuring and

evaluating a range of vehicle loading parameters during operation in service.

The aim of this document is to describe approval and verification procedures to validate the functional

and metrological characteristics of measurement systems and confirm them over time.

The goal is to obtain the comparability and reproducibility of measurement results under different

boundary conditions. To minimize the number of tests, the approval and verification procedures are

divided into:
— type approval,
— initial verification,
— in-service verification.

The accuracy class of a measurement system depends on the measurement device, vehicle and track

characteristics. Test procedures covering these influences are described to ensure reproducibility in all

networks.

The procedures described in this document do not impose any restrictions on the design of

measurement sites, on the types of vehicles that can be monitored, or on which networks or lines the

measuring system can be installed.

The annexes include examples for test procedures, calculation of maximum permissible errors and

statistical test methods.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 15654-1:2018, Railway applications — Measurement of vertical forces on wheels and wheelsets —

Part 1: On-track measurement sites for vehicles in service
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
calibration

operation that establishes a relationship between the reference value and the indicated measurement

result from the device under test

Note 1 to entry: The reference value is a quantity value with known uncertainties provided by measurement

standards.
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Note 2 to entry: The indicated measurement result is the quantity with associated measurement uncertainties.

Note 3 to entry: A calibration may be expressed by a statement, calibration function, calibration diagram,

calibration curve, or calibration table. In some cases, it may consist of an additive or multiplicative correction of

the indication with associated measurement uncertainty.

Note 4 to entry: Calibration should not be confused with adjustment of a measuring system, often mistakenly

called “self-calibration”, nor with verification of calibration (see [2]).

Note 5 to entry: Often, the first step alone in the above definition is perceived as being calibration.

Note 6 to entry: Calibration in general involves comparison against a known standard to determine how closely

measurement system output matches the reference over the expected range of operation [based on GUIDE TO

METEOROLOGICAL INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS OF OBSERVATION (WMO-No. 8), Part III, Chapter 4].

[SOURCE: OIML V 2-200:2012, 2.39]
3.2
adjustment

process carried out on a measuring instrument in order to provide indications corresponding to given

values of the quantity
3.3
verification

conformation through provision of objective evidence that specified requirements have been fulfilled

3.4
approval
formal conformation of compliancy with the requirements of the present standard
3.5
reference value

reading from a measurement device with known measurement uncertainty and metrological

traceability
3.6
measurement uncertainity

non-negative parameter characterizing the dispersion of the quantity values being attributed to a

measurand, based on the information used
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007, 2.26]
4 Overview

To minimize the number of necessary tests, the approval and verification procedures are divided into:

— type approval test,
— initial verification,
— in-service verification.

Figure 1 gives an overview of the approval and verification tests, test coverage and actions if

verficiation is outside accuracy class.
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Figure 1 — Overview of approval and verification tests and actions verficiation is outside

accuracy class

The purpose of the type approval is to validate the technical requirements and metrological

performance characteristics (e.g. accuracy classes) under a variety of operating conditions. It is carried

out once for a product family and consists of a series of lab and on-site tests.

The initial verification is performed on site after installation, after major repairs to the measuring

system, after track maintenance that can influence the metrological characteristics.

It is carried out to confirm that, after initial setup, the measuring system is functioning within the

defined metrological characteristics.

The in-service verification is performed periodically to confirm that the measuring system is

functioning within the defined metrological characteristics. This can be achieved by static mass or force,

by dynamic test runs or by statistical analysis of vehicle groups which are regularly operated on the

site.

If the calibration results from in-service verification or initial verification are outside the accuracy class,

corrective actions (e.g. tamping of the track) should be taken (see Annex A). If after the corrective

actions, the results are still outside the accuracy class then suitable tests adopted from the type

approval procedure should be carried out to determine the real on-site accuracy class for the data to be

reported.

Running speed typically influences the accuracy classes. It is difficult to run at constant and defined

speeds. In general, a tolerance of ±5 km/h to the required test speed is acceptable.

Speed variation above a certain level due to acceleration or deceleration can affect results. The device

should be able to recognize when these levels have been exceeded during operation of the site and set

the accuracy class on the digital output (XML) to “0” to indicate that the results are outsite the tested

metrological characteristics.
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5 Type approval
5.1 General

The type approval confirms device specifications according to EN 15654-1. The type approval may be

separated into laboratory and on-site tests. The laboratory tests can cover individual components and

system functionality, but cannot completely replace on-site tests. The on-site test confirms that the

device operates correctly and achieves its accuracy classes under real track conditions and train

operational conditions.
5.2 Tested metrological characteristics and technical requirements

The tests should be designed to reveal the effects of influences on the measurement results and to

determine the accuracy class (for more information see B.4 and B.5) for each measured or derived

quantity.
Type approval tests should cover at least following parameters:
— maximum measuring speed (km/h);
— minimum measuring speed (km/h);
— maximum axle load for which the accuracy classes are valid (t);
— minimum axle load for which the accuracy classes are valid (t);

— environmental condition (e.g. temperature, humidity, snow, wind, air pressure).

The following test influence quantities should be described as boundary conditions (if applicable):

— track quality and geometry;
— speed change limits;

— ambiguous name of the vehicle type, for example codes in compliance with the European Register

of Authorized Types of Vehicles (ERATV);
— running behaviour, wagon condition and suspension;
— loading;
— wheel quality;
— power supply.
5.3 Laboratory and site tests

The type approval should consist of laboratory and on-site tests. The laboratory tests can be carried out

for individual components or partial parts of the system, in order to test properties that are necessary

to fulfil the requirements on the descriptive markings.
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Figure 2 — Structure of the type approval test

The components listed in Table 1 should be verfied to ensure that the measuring device can fullfil its

technical and enviromental requirements and metrological characteristics. The parameters to be

verified are determined by the system design. Table 1 lists typical parameters to be verified.

Table 1 — Components and verified parameters
Component Verified parameters
load sensors measurement range,
linearity, repeatability,
humidity, temperature, vibration, EMC
cabling, junction boxes and connections humidity, temperature, vibration, EMC
data acquisition device humidity, temperature, vibration, EMC, sampling
frequency

computing device, network components, power humidity, temperature, vibration, EMC

supply (AC/DC converter, UPS)
software data exchange interface output
safeguard against unauthorized adjustment
self-diagnostic functions

The type approval tests should primarily be carried out on site. Laboratory tests should be used for

tests that cannot be performed on site.

NOTE 1 For example, axle load typically limits testing. Depending on track and vehicle it is e.g. limited to 22,5 t

at a specific site. For loads above this value laboratory tests are necessary in order to confirm linearity,

repeatability and accuracy of the device. Other examples are temperature range, vibration and EMC.

Static laboratory tests should be carried out to prove the accuracy of the sensing element (partial test)

at:
a) the reference temperature of 20 °C;
b) the specified high temperature;
c) the specified low temperature;

d) a temperature of 5 °C, if the specified low temperature is less than or equal to 0 °C.

NOTE 2 These laboratory tests do not take into account changes in track stiffness that may influence the

measurement error depending on the design of the device.
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A type approval test requires a certain number of test runs with a reference train (for more information

see Annex B). The effect of scheduling test runs with regular traffic should be considered when selecting

the test site.

Device behaviour can change over time. Retesting the key parameters (e.g. vehicle weight results) on

site after 3 months is recommended. The uncertainty should be within the in-service inspection

accuracy class.
5.4 Type approval test train

The tests can be carried out with any reference vehicles. These are vehicles whose parameters are

determined on a metrologically traceable device (e.g. vehicle mass on a legal for trade weighbridge or

indivual wheel forces or wheelset forces as for example described in EN 15654-2). For more

information see B.2 and B.3. Vehicles can also change over the test period.

The test train should consist of at least three different representative vehicle types used on the site.

Two axle and four axle vehicles are recommended.

Train composition may influence test results (e.g. train with fully loaded vehicles vs. empty vehicles vs.

every second vehicle empty/full). Ideally, the system should be tested with trains that are

representative for the device usage.

For freight vehicles the train should comprise of a mixture of fully loaded and empty vehicles for each

vehicle type. In addition, partially loaded vehicles are recommended.

NOTE For example, a typical train composition consists of a locomotive, three two-axle vehicles

(full/partial/empty), three four-axle vehicles (full/partial/empty).

If special vehicle types (e.g. rolling road) are to be measured by the device under test they should be

part of the test train, fully loaded and empty. For measuring accuracy classes at speeds exceeding

normal freight speeds it is recommended to use locomotives or empty passenger vehicles as reference

vehicles.

Acceleration and deceleration (braking) can influence the measurement results. The maximum

acceleration and deceleration, for which the accuracy class is still valid, should be defined.

The test runs should be carried out under known controlled conditions that are typical for standard

operation.

Depending on the vehicle type and loading, rain, snow, humidity or cargo loss can lead to a change of

the reference quantities of the vehicles over time. The test process should be planned to minimize these

changes.

The loading of the reference vehicles and composition of the reference train should meet the relevant

standards for safe operation of trains. Apply e.g. the imbalance load tests (left/right and front/rear

imbalance load) only where it is safe to do.
5.5 Type approval test runs

The test runs should be carried out in each direction shown on the descriptive markings.

For type approval the following speeds should be tested at least twice for each accuracy class:

— at the minimum speed of the accuracy class;
— at the maximum speed of the accuracy class;

— and in between in steps, the maximum interval between test speeds in one accuracy class should

not exceed:
— 20 km/h: for speeds up to 120 km/h;
— 40 km/h: for speeds greater 120 km/h.
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NOTE 1 For example, if the minimum speed is 20 km/h and maximum speed is 110 km/h, the interval is

90 km/h. Therefore, a minimum of 4 additional test speeds will be required; 40/60/80/100 km/h. In total 6 test

speeds are necessary, resulting in 12 test runs per direction.

A system may have different accuracy classes for different speed ranges, operating modes (push/pull)

and travel directions.

NOTE 2 By specifying the maximum interval between test speeds, nonlinear measurement errors can be

identified.

Test runs can never cover all vehicle behaviour. For instance, vertical resonance in a narrow speed band

can be missed in the type approval tests. Whenever in-service observations show that the accuracy

class may not be achieved steps should be taken to mitigate the effects such as carrying out additional

verification tests and, when necessary, de-grading the accuracy class of the effective results. If the

system is able to measure trains in push/pull or in a bidirectional mode, test runs should be performed

also in those operational modes.

NOTE 3 A plausibility test with a turned vehicle (in both orientations) and in both running directions can help

to understand the metrological limits of the measurement device.

If a system has a defined acceleration/deceleration range, this should be tested.

There could be critical speed in which the indicated vehicle mass increases sharply (+5 % or more) but

in a very narrow speed band (2 km/h to 5 km/h). Factors that may affect this are the running speed,

track quality and suspension type of the vehicles. If such a singular effect is identified additional tests

are necessary to investigate that speed band to determine its accuracy class.

Cyclic top can affect the results due to the periodical vertical movement of vehicles induced by vertical

dynamic forces. To avoid cyclic top effects, it is recommended that the track quality of the whole

measurement site is in accordance with EN 15654-1:2018, Annex B.

Dynamic forces caused by wheel condition (i.e. shape, profile, flats) may affect the static wheel force

results and derived quantities. Often such results are recognized by the system automatically. During

the calibration and testing procedure, vehicles with best available wheel condition should be used.

5.6 Changes to the metrological characteristics and technical requirements

The substitution of components is possible provided the device still meets the metrological

characteristics described in the type approval documents. Justifications should be provided based on

the properties of the substituted component to confirm that no negative influence on the metrological

characteristics has occurred.

NOTE 1 Typical components and modules that do not influence the measurement results are UPS, computer

type, computer operating system updates, AC/DC converter, switch, router, and cabinet.

NOTE 2 Typical components that can influence measurement results are: sensor, cable type, data acquisition

device, data acquisition and processing software.

NOTE 3 Software changes are typically justified by using the new software to process previously sampled data

and comparing the results with those obtained from the original software.

If the metrological characteristics of the system have changed an assessment should be made to

determine if additional tests are needed to show that the system still conforms to its certificate of

approval.
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6 Initial verification
6.1 General

The initial verification confirms that the device is compliant to the descriptive markings on the

measurement system. This is carried out with reduced testing compared with type approval.

For initial verification, tests should be carried out corresponding to the normal site operation of the

instrument.

Test runs with reference vehicles should run with at least the typical speeds of the traffic on the line to

verify that the device meets its descriptive markings.

NOTE It is common to use standard trains that have been or will be be measured on a reference device (for

example according to EN 15654-2) for detetermine wheel and wheelset force accuracy classes or weighed on a

legal for trade reference system to determine the vehicle and train mass accuracy class(es). Alternatively, a

dedicated test train can be used.
6.2 Verification procedure for metrological characteristics
Review documented type approval against:
— documents for the device under test;
— descriptive markings;
— local site characteristics;
— operating characteristics

and evaluate the effect of the influencing factors of the site on the measurement results.

NOTE 1 This first part of the verification procedure is typically carried out before installing the measuring

device.

The influence factors present at the measurement site should be compared with the influence

...

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