This document specifies the International Standards, including clauses and subclauses, with which conformity to the quality requirements of ISO 3834-2, ISO 3834-3 or ISOÂ 3834-4 can be claimed. NOTEÂ Â Â Â Â For brazing, see ISO 22688.

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This document specifies a general outline of the ISO 3834 series and criteria to be taken into account for the selection of the appropriate level of quality requirements for fusion welding of metallic materials, among the three levels specified in ISO 3834-2, ISO 3834-3 and ISO 3834-4. It is applicable to manufacturing, both in workshops and at field installation sites. This document does not specify requirements for a total quality management system (QMS). However, Clause 6 identifies QMS elements where their inclusion complements the ISO 3834 series.

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This document defines comprehensive quality requirements for fusion welding of metallic materials
both in workshops and at field installation sites.

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This document defines elementary quality requirements for fusion welding of metallic materials both
in workshops and at field installation sites.

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This document defines comprehensive quality requirements for fusion welding of metallic materials both in workshops and at field installation sites.

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This European Standard specifies requirements for the;
-   approval of training facilities, testing and maintaining the skills of aluminothermic welders and welding trainers. It applies to those aluminothermic welding processes compliant with the requirements of EN 14730-1. It requires that the system for training and testing of welders shall be approved by the railway authority.
-   approval of aluminothermic welding contractors. It applies to those contractors using aluminothermic welding processes compliant with the requirements of EN 14730-1 and who employ welders in the possession of a valid permit to weld as defined in section 4 of this standard.
-   acceptance of the final aluminothermic weld inspections and aluminothermic weld inspectors approved by the railway authority. It does not cover any previous weld inspections by the welder or others.
The standard also applies to aluminothermic welds produced on Vignole railway rail 46 kg/m and above, as contained in EN 13674-1.

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This document defines elementary quality requirements for fusion welding of metallic materials both in workshops and at field installation sites.

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This document defines standard quality requirements for fusion welding of metallic materials both in workshops and at field installation sites.

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This document defines comprehensive quality requirements for fusion welding of metallic materials both in workshops and at field installation sites.

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This document specifies the requirements for the test methods for joint of micro-joining of 2G HTS to fulfil the requirements of ISO 17279-1 and ISO 17279-2. This document specifies test methods for determining the capability of joints for the production of the specified quality. It defines specific test requirements, but does not assign those requirements to any specific product group.

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This document specifies the requirements for the qualification of welding personnel for friction stir spot welding (FSSW) of aluminium.
In this document, the term "aluminium" refers to aluminium and its alloys.
This document does not apply to personnel exclusively performing loading or unloading of the automatic welding unit.

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This document outlines the equipment and operator qualification needed for laser-arc hybrid welding, and recommends butt, fillet and flange joint preparations and consumables suitable for use with this process. It also gives an overview of the steps to take during equipment set-up, procedure specification, workpiece set-up immediately prior to welding, and after welding once inspecting and testing the welds. This document applies to laser-arc hybrid welding of steels, aluminium and its alloys. This document does not apply to hybrid processes where laser beam welding is hybridized with another welding process not using an electric arc as its heat source.

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This document specifies requirements for the qualification of welding operators for friction stir welding (FSW) of aluminium. In this document, the term "aluminium" refers to aluminium and its alloys. This document does not apply to "operators" as defined in ISO 25239‑1. This document does not apply to friction stir spot welding which is covered by the ISO 18785 series.

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This document specifies requirements for the qualification of welders and welding operators for the fusion welding of metallic materials for aerospace applications.
NOTE Success in the test is an essential precondition for the qualification of welders (3.2) and welding operators (3.3) in new production and repair work in aerospace. However, welding equipment operators (3.4) do not need to be qualified according to this document.

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This document defines two levels of quality requirements and selection criteria for brazing of metallic materials. It applies to manufacturing, both in workshops and at installation sites. NOTE 1 This document is applicable to brazing industry quality management systems, similar in scope and purpose to the ISO 3834 series. This document provides complete sets of quality requirements for process control related to all listed brazing processes (for each process separately or in combination as specified) and lists the documents with which it is necessary to conform to these requirements. The requirements in this standard may be adopted for other brazing processes, with or without adjustments, under the responsibility of the manufacturer. NOTE 2 These requirements can be used on their own by a manufacturer or in conjunction with a quality management system (e.g. ISO 9001).

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This document specifies the requirements for fusion welding of aerospace hardware. It is to be used in conjunction with the design/engineering authority's design documents or their accepted data. This document covers the processes given in Table 1 and material groups given in Table 2.

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This document specifies acceptance criteria for fusion weldments on metallic components. It is to be applied provided it is referenced or approved by the responsible engineering/design authority. This document covers the following processes given in Table 1 and the material groups given in Table 2.

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This document defines the general requirements for ventilation equipment used to capture and separate fumes generated by welding and allied processes, e.g. arc welding and thermal cutting.
This document also specifies the test data to be marked on the capture devices.
It applies to the design and manufacture of parts of the equipment including hoods for welding, ducting, filter units, air movers, systems that inform of unsafe operation and workplace practices to ensure safe working with regard to exposure.
Significant hazards are listed in Clause 4. It does not cover electrical, mechanical and pneumatic hazards.
This document is applicable to:
— local exhaust ventilation systems (LEV) excluding draught tables;
— mobile and stationary equipment;
— separation equipment used for welding and allied processes;
This document is not applicable to:
— general ventilation, air make up or air movement systems;
— air conditioning systems;
— grinding dust.
This document applies to systems designed and manufactured after its publication.
NOTE Specific safety requirements for thermal cutting machines are defined in ISO 17916.

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This document specifies two methods for establishing the minimum air volume flow rate. One method is dedicated for use with captor hoods, nozzles and slot nozzles with a ratio of slot length to hose diameter of 8:1 or less. The other method is dedicated for use with on-gun extraction devices.
These methods are not applicable to down draught tables.

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This document specifies a method for testing equipment for the separation of welding fume in order to determine whether its separation efficiency meets specified requirements.
The method specified does not apply to testing of filter cartridges independent of the equipment in which they are intended to be used.
This document applies to equipment that is manufactured after its publication.
NOTE General ventilation systems are excluded from the Scope of ISO 21904-1.

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This document defines the general requirements for ventilation equipment used to capture and separate fumes generated by welding and allied processes, e.g. arc welding and thermal cutting. This document also specifies the test data to be marked on the capture devices. It applies to the design and manufacture of parts of the equipment including hoods for welding, ducting, filter units, air movers, systems that inform of unsafe operation and workplace practices to ensure safe working with regard to exposure. Significant hazards are listed in Clause 4. It does not cover electrical, mechanical and pneumatic hazards. This document is applicable to: — local exhaust ventilation systems (LEV) excluding draught tables; — mobile and stationary equipment; — separation equipment used for welding and allied processes; This document is not applicable to: — general ventilation, air make up or air movement systems; — air conditioning systems; — grinding dust. This document applies to systems designed and manufactured after its publication. NOTE Specific safety requirements for thermal cutting machines are defined in ISO 17916.

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This document specifies a method for testing equipment for the separation of welding fume in order to determine whether its separation efficiency meets specified requirements. The method specified does not apply to testing of filter cartridges independent of the equipment in which they are intended to be used. This document applies to equipment that is manufactured after its publication. NOTE General ventilation systems are excluded from the Scope of ISO 21904-1.

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This document provides a grouping system for American parent materials for brazing.

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This document identifies the essential welding quality related tasks and responsibilities included in welding coordination.
The principle of an assessment according to this document is that welding coordination personnel need to be competent in the welding-related tasks allocated to them.
It is presumed that welding coordination personnel have the necessary education, qualifications and experience and are appointed by the manufacturer.
Regulatory documents, application standards and contracts can give specific requirements for welding coordination personnel. Otherwise, it is the responsibility of the manufacturer to determine the requirements to be in compliance with this document.

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This document identifies the essential welding quality related tasks and responsibilities included in welding coordination. The principle of an assessment according to this document is that welding coordination personnel need to be competent in the welding-related tasks allocated to them. It is presumed that welding coordination personnel have the necessary education, qualifications and experience and are appointed by the manufacturer. Regulatory documents, application standards and contracts can give specific requirements for welding coordination personnel. Otherwise, it is the responsibility of the manufacturer to determine the requirements to be in compliance with this document.

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This document specifies requirements for the qualification of welders and welding operators for the fusion welding of metallic materials for aerospace applications. NOTE Success in the test is an essential precondition for the qualification of welders (3.2) and welding operators (3.3) in new production and repair work in aerospace. However, welding equipment operators (3.4) do not need to be qualified according to this document.

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This document specifies the requirements for the qualification of welding personnel for friction stir spot welding (FSSW) of aluminium. In this document, the term "aluminium" refers to aluminium and its alloys. This document does not apply to personnel exclusively performing loading or unloading of the automatic welding unit.

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This document specifies the qualification requirements for personnel performing micro-joining and oxygenation anneling, and testing the 2G HTS test joints.

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This document provides concepts, specification and qualification of 2G HTS joining procedure. A welding procedure specification (WPS) is needed to provide a basis for planning joining operations and for quality control during joining. Joining is considered as a special process in the terminology of standards for quality systems. Standards for quality systems usually require that special processes be carried out in accordance with written procedure specifications. This has resulted in the establishment of a set of rules for qualification of the joining procedure prior to the release of the WPS to actual production. This document defines these rules.
This document does not cover soldering, brazing or any fillers, which are currently available in the industry. It can be applied for joining of all kinds of 2G HTSs.
This document does not apply to 1st Generation Bismuth Strontium Calcium Copper Oxide (1G BSCCO) type HTS and Low Temperature Superconductor (LTS) Joining.

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This document specifies the qualification requirements for personnel performing micro-joining and oxygenation anneling, and testing the 2G HTS test joints.

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This document provides concepts, specification and qualification of 2G HTS joining procedure. A welding procedure specification (WPS) is needed to provide a basis for planning joining operations and for quality control during joining. Joining is considered as a special process in the terminology of standards for quality systems. Standards for quality systems usually require that special processes be carried out in accordance with written procedure specifications. This has resulted in the establishment of a set of rules for qualification of the joining procedure prior to the release of the WPS to actual production. This document defines these rules. This document does not cover soldering, brazing or any fillers, which are currently available in the industry. It can be applied for joining of all kinds of 2G HTSs. This document does not apply to 1st Generation Bismuth Strontium Calcium Copper Oxide (1G BSCCO) type HTS and Low Temperature Superconductor (LTS) Joining.

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This Standard defines a laboratory method for measuring the welding fume capture efficiency
of on-torch extraction systems. It is applicable to integrated on-torch systems and to systems where a
discrete extraction system is attached to the welding torch close to the arc area. The methodology is
suitable for use with all continuous wire welding processes, all material types and all welding
parameters.
The method can be used to evaluate the effects of variables such as extraction flow rate, extract nozzle
position, shielding gas flow rate, welding geometry, welding torch angle, fume emission rate etc. on
capture efficiency.

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This European Standard specifies main requirements, limits, inspection conditions and acceptance requirements as well as related inspection documents of welders for welded cast iron test pieces and workpieces.
It provides a set of technical rules for a systematic qualification test of a welder‘s skills, and enables such qualifications to be uniformly accepted independently of the type of product, location and examiner/ examining body.
This European Standard specifies the testing of a welder’s skill unless a higher level skill test is applicable.
The acceptance of a welder’s skill according to this European Standard implies a practical experience and knowledge regarding the welding process, materials and safety requirements (see Annex C).
This European Standard has to be used when requirements on part of a customer, testing or monitoring body or other organisation are postulated.
This European Standard defines the qualification test of welders for the fusion welding of cast iron. The welding processes referred to in this standard include those fusion welding processes which are designated as manual or partly mechanized welding. It does not cover fully mechanized and automated welding processes (see EN ISO 14732). Cast iron materials which are covered by this European Standard are mentioned in 5.4.
The inspection document and certification is made out in the name of the testing body’s liability.

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This document specifies main requirements, limits, inspection conditions and acceptance requirements as well as related inspection documents of welders for welded cast iron test pieces and workpieces.
It provides a set of technical rules for a systematic qualification test of a welder‘s skills, and enables such qualifications to be uniformly accepted independently of the type of product, location and examiner or examining body.
This document specifies the testing of a welder’s skill unless a higher level skill test is required.
The acceptance of a welder’s skill according to this document implies a practical experience and knowledge regarding the welding process, materials and safety requirements (see Annex C).
This document is to be used when requirements on part of a customer, testing or monitoring body or other organization are postulated.
This document defines the qualification test of welders for the fusion welding of cast irons. The welding processes referred to in this standard include those fusion welding processes which are designated as manual or partly mechanized welding. It does not cover fully mechanized and automated welding processes (see EN ISO 14732). Cast iron materials which are covered by this document are mentioned in 5.4.
The inspection document and certification are made out under the responsibility of the testing body.

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ISO 21904-3:2018 defines a laboratory method for measuring the welding fume capture efficiency of on-torch extraction systems. The procedure only prescribes a methodology, leaving selection of the test parameters to the user, so that the effect of different variables can be evaluated.
ISO 21904-3:2018 is applicable to integrated on-torch systems and to systems where a discrete extraction system is attached to the welding torch close to the arc area. The methodology is suitable for use with all continuous wire welding processes, all material types and all welding parameters.
The method can be used to evaluate the effects of variables such as extraction flow rate, extract nozzle position, shielding gas flow rate, welding geometry, welding torch angle, fume emission rate, etc., on capture efficiency.

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ISO 21904-3:2018 defines a laboratory method for measuring the welding fume capture efficiency of on-torch extraction systems. The procedure only prescribes a methodology, leaving selection of the test parameters to the user, so that the effect of different variables can be evaluated. ISO 21904-3:2018 is applicable to integrated on-torch systems and to systems where a discrete extraction system is attached to the welding torch close to the arc area. The methodology is suitable for use with all continuous wire welding processes, all material types and all welding parameters. The method can be used to evaluate the effects of variables such as extraction flow rate, extract nozzle position, shielding gas flow rate, welding geometry, welding torch angle, fume emission rate, etc., on capture efficiency.

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ISO 9606-1:2012 specifies the requirements for qualification testing of welders for fusion welding of steels.
It provides a set of technical rules for a systematic qualification test of the welder, and enables such qualifications to be uniformly accepted independently of the type of product, location and examiner or examining body.
When qualifying welders, the emphasis is placed on the welder's ability manually to manipulate the electrode, welding torch or welding blowpipe, thereby producing a weld of acceptable quality.
The welding processes referred to in ISO 9606-1:2012 include those fusion-welding processes which are designated as manual or partly mechanized welding. It does not cover fully mechanized and automated welding processes.

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ISO 19828:2017 specifies the requirements for visual inspection of welds in metallic materials and requirements for qualification and certification of personnel for visual weld inspection. ISO 19828:2017 is also applicable to the visual inspection of the joint prior to or between welding sequences, and of brazed joints. In this case, the contents of theoretical and practical training will need to be adapted accordingly.

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ISO/TR 15608:2017 provides guidelines for a uniform system for grouping materials for welding purposes. It can also be applied for other purposes, such as heat treatment, forming and non-destructive testing.
It covers grouping systems for the following standardized materials:
? steels;
? aluminium and its alloys;
? copper and its alloys;
? nickel and its alloys;
? titanium and its alloys;
? zirconium and its alloys;
? cast irons.

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ISO/TR 15608:2017 provides guidelines for a uniform system for grouping materials for welding purposes. It can also be applied for other purposes, such as heat treatment, forming and non-destructive testing. It covers grouping systems for the following standardized materials: ? steels; ? aluminium and its alloys; ? copper and its alloys; ? nickel and its alloys; ? titanium and its alloys; ? zirconium and its alloys; ? cast irons.

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ISO 16338:2017 specifies requirements for resistance spot and seam welding for aerospace applications. ISO 16338:2017 does not apply if resistance welding is simply an intermediate operation and does not affect the quality of the end product, for example when tacking basic parts prior to assembly with another process. Resistance welding of dissimilar material group combinations is not covered by this document. Safety and health issues and concerns are not covered by this document.

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This part of IEC 60068 provides background information and guidance for writers and users of
specifications for electric and electronic components, containing references to the test
standards IEC 60068-2-20, IEC 60068-2-58, IEC 60068-2-69, IEC 60068-2-83, and to
IEC 61760-1, which defines requirements to the specification of surface mounting
components.

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ISO 15618-1:2016 specifies essential requirements, ranges of qualification, test conditions, acceptance requirements and certification for the qualification testing of welder-diver performance.
ISO 15618-1:2016 is applicable for hyperbaric wet welding on steel.
The recommended format for the certificate of qualification testing is given in Annex A.
During the qualification test, the welder-diver may be required to show adequate job knowledge of the welding processes, materials and safety requirements for which he is to be qualified. Information on these aspects is given in Annex B.
The welding processes referred to in this part of ISO 15618 include those fusion welding processes which are designated as manual or partly mechanised welding. It does not cover fully mechanised and fully automatic processes (see 5.2).
This part of ISO 15618 applies to all new qualifications from the date of issue.
However, ISO 15618-1:2016 does not invalidate previous welder-diver qualifications made to former national standards or specifications, providing the intent of the technical requirements is satisfied and the previous qualifications are relevant to the application and production work on which they are employed.
The certificate of qualification testing is issued under the sole responsibility of the examiner or examining body.

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ISO 15618-1:2016 specifies essential requirements, ranges of qualification, test conditions, acceptance requirements and certification for the qualification testing of welder-diver performance. ISO 15618-1:2016 is applicable for hyperbaric wet welding on steel. The recommended format for the certificate of qualification testing is given in Annex A. During the qualification test, the welder-diver may be required to show adequate job knowledge of the welding processes, materials and safety requirements for which he is to be qualified. Information on these aspects is given in Annex B. The welding processes referred to in this part of ISO 15618 include those fusion welding processes which are designated as manual or partly mechanised welding. It does not cover fully mechanised and fully automatic processes (see 5.2). This part of ISO 15618 applies to all new qualifications from the date of issue. However, ISO 15618-1:2016 does not invalidate previous welder-diver qualifications made to former national standards or specifications, providing the intent of the technical requirements is satisfied and the previous qualifications are relevant to the application and production work on which they are employed. The certificate of qualification testing is issued under the sole responsibility of the examiner or examining body.

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This standard deals with a basic approach to the execution and documentation of a numerical welding simulation aimed at computational representation of the welding process itself and at its impact on the properties of a welded structure. A pertinent generally valid structure is presented that is independent of both the solution method and the concrete software. It offers assistance to the users in choosing the appropriate method depending on the welding process (as specified in EN ISO 4063) to be calculated and on the desired simulation result. It additionally provides a basis for getting familiarized with the numerical welding simulation in various branches of industry and accordingly refers to respective examples in subordinate secondary documents. It can also be employed for preparing requirements specifications or submitting bids and gives both the customers and the tenderers a lead for specifying the scope of supply and service.

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ISO/TS 18166:2016 provides a workflow for the execution, validation, verification and documentation of a numerical welding simulation within the field of computational welding mechanics (CWM). As such, it primarily addresses thermal and mechanical finite element analysis (FEA) of the fusion welding (see ISO/TR 25901:2007, 2.165) of metal parts and fabrications.
CWM is a broad and growing area of engineering analysis.
ISO/TS 18166:2016 covers the following aspects and results of CWM, excluding simulation of the process itself:
- heat flow during the analysis of one or more passes;
- thermal expansion as a result of the heat flow;
- thermal stresses;
- development of inelastic strains;
- effect of temperature on material properties;
- predictions of residual stress distributions;
- predictions of welding distortion.
ISO/TS 18166:2016 refers to the following physical effects, but these are not covered in depth:
- physics of the heat source (e.g. laser or welding arc);
- physics of the melt pool (and key hole for power beam welds);
- creation and retention of non-equilibrium solid phases;
- solution and precipitation of second phase particles;
- effect of microstructure on material properties.
The guidance given by this Technical Specification has not been prepared for use in a specific industry. CWM can be beneficial in design and assessment of a wide range of components. It is anticipated that it will enable industrial bodies or companies to define required levels of CWM for specific applications.
This Technical Specification is independent of the software and implementation, and therefore is not restricted to FEA, or to any particular industry.
It provides a consistent framework for-primary aspects of the commonly adopted methods and goals of CWM (including validation and verification to allow an objective judgment of simulation results).
Through presentation and description of the minimal required aspects of a complete numerical welding simulation, an introduction to computational welding mechanics (CWM) is also provided. (Examples are provided to illustrate the application of this Technical Specification, which can further aid those interested in developing CWM competency).
Clause 4 of this Technical Specification provides more detailed information relating to the generally valid simulation structure and to the corresponding application. Clause 5 refers to corresponding parts of this Technical Specification in which the structure for the respective application cases is put in concrete terms and examples are given. Annex A presents a documentation template to promote the consistency of the reported simulation results.

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ISO/TS 18166:2016 provides a workflow for the execution, validation, verification and documentation of a numerical welding simulation within the field of computational welding mechanics (CWM). As such, it primarily addresses thermal and mechanical finite element analysis (FEA) of the fusion welding (see ISO/TR 25901:2007, 2.165) of metal parts and fabrications. CWM is a broad and growing area of engineering analysis. ISO/TS 18166:2016 covers the following aspects and results of CWM, excluding simulation of the process itself: - heat flow during the analysis of one or more passes; - thermal expansion as a result of the heat flow; - thermal stresses; - development of inelastic strains; - effect of temperature on material properties; - predictions of residual stress distributions; - predictions of welding distortion. ISO/TS 18166:2016 refers to the following physical effects, but these are not covered in depth: - physics of the heat source (e.g. laser or welding arc); - physics of the melt pool (and key hole for power beam welds); - creation and retention of non-equilibrium solid phases; - solution and precipitation of second phase particles; - effect of microstructure on material properties. The guidance given by this Technical Specification has not been prepared for use in a specific industry. CWM can be beneficial in design and assessment of a wide range of components. It is anticipated that it will enable industrial bodies or companies to define required levels of CWM for specific applications. This Technical Specification is independent of the software and implementation, and therefore is not restricted to FEA, or to any particular industry. It provides a consistent framework for-primary aspects of the commonly adopted methods and goals of CWM (including validation and verification to allow an objective judgment of simulation results). Through presentation and description of the minimal required aspects of a complete numerical welding simulation, an introduction to computational welding mechanics (CWM) is also provided. (Examples are provided to illustrate the application of this Technical Specification, which can further aid those interested in developing CWM competency). Clause 4 of this Technical Specification provides more detailed information relating to the generally valid simulation structure and to the corresponding application. Clause 5 refers to corresponding parts of this Technical Specification in which the structure for the respective application cases is put in concrete terms and examples are given. Annex A presents a documentation template to promote the consistency of the reported simulation results.

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  • Technical specification
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  • Technical specification
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  • Technical specification
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This International Standard specifies minimum basic safety requirements and test methods for protective clothing including hoods, aprons, sleeves and gaiters that are designed to protect the wearer's body including head (hoods) and feet (gaiters) and that are to be worn during welding and allied processes with comparable risks. For the protection of the wearer’s head and feet, this International Standard is only applicable to hoods and gaiters. This International Standard does not cover requirements for feet, hand, face and/or eye protectors.
This type of protective clothing is intended to protect the wearer against spatter (small splashes of molten metal), short contact time with flame, radiant heat from an electric arc used for welding and allied processes, and minimizes the possibility of electrical shock by short-term, accidental contact with live electrical conductors at voltages up to approximately 100 V d. c. in normal conditions of welding. Sweat, soiling or other contaminants can affect the level of protection provided against short-term accidental contact with live electric conductors at these voltages. For adequate overall protection against the risks to which welders are likely to be exposed, personal protective equipment (PPE) covered by other standards should additionally be worn to protect the head, face, hands and feet. Guidance for the selection of the type of welders clothing for different welding activities is detailed in Annex A of this International Standard.

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ISO 11611:2015 specifies minimum basic safety requirements and test methods for protective clothing including hoods, aprons, sleeves, and gaiters that are designed to protect the wearer's body including head (hoods) and feet (gaiters) and that are to be worn during welding and allied processes with comparable risks. For the protection of the wearer's head and feet, this International Standard is only applicable to hoods and gaiters. This International Standard does not cover requirements for feet, hand, face, and/or eye protectors.
This type of protective clothing is intended to protect the wearer against spatter (small splashes of molten metal), short contact time with flame, radiant heat from an electric arc used for welding and allied processes, and minimizes the possibility of electrical shock by short-term, accidental contact with live electrical conductors at voltages up to approximately 100 V d. c. in normal conditions of welding. Sweat, soiling, or other contaminants can affect the level of protection provided against short-term accidental contact with live electric conductors at these voltages.
For adequate overall protection against the risks to which welders are likely to be exposed, personal protective equipment (PPE) covered by other International Standards should additionally be worn to protect the head, face, hands, and feet.
Guidance for the selection of the type of welders clothing for different welding activities is detailed in Annex A.

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ISO 17533:2015 specifies appropriate welding/brazing design information on drawings serving to ensure fit, form and function of welded/brazed joints, and is applicable to welded and brazed metallic component parts used in aerospace construction.

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