Space product assurance - Ultracleaning of flight hardware

This ECSS Standard describes the procedures to be used to clean to a level of cleanliness beyond the scope of the ECSS-Q-ST-70-01, and to control the cleanliness level of flight hardware prior to and following a posteriori to the application of the ultracleaning process. The intended objective of the ultracleaning process is to remove all surface contamination (particulates, biologic material cell debris and chemical molecular contamination) on flight hardware, with no specific limit in geometric dimension or contamination levels. This includes removal of biological material for avoidance of false positive results during investigation of extra-terrestrial samples or environments.

Raumfahrtproduktsicherung - Ultra-Reinigung von Flug-Hardware

Assurance produit des projets spatiaux - Ultra nettoyage des matériels de vol

Zagotavljanje kakovosti proizvodov v vesoljski tehniki - Ultra čiščenje letalske strojne opreme

Ta standard ECSS opisuje postopke, ki se uporabljajo za čiščenje do stopnje čistosti, ki presega področje uporabe standarda ECSS-Q-ST-70-01, in za nadzor stopnje čistosti letalske strojne opreme pred izvedbo postopka ultra čiščenja in po njem. Predviden cilj postopka ultra čiščenja je odstranitev vse površinske kontaminacije (delcev, celičnih ostankov bioloških snovi in kontaminacije s kemijskimi molekulami) na letalski strojni opremi, brez določenih mejnih vrednosti pri geometrijskih dimenzijah ali stopnjah kontaminacije. To vključuje odstranitev bioloških snovi, da se preprečijo lažni pozitivni rezultati pri preiskavi zunajzemeljskih vzorcev ali okolij.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
31-Jul-2016
Publication Date
26-Mar-2019
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
21-Mar-2019
Due Date
26-May-2019
Completion Date
27-Mar-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 16602-70-54:2019
01-maj-2019
=DJRWDYOMDQMHNDNRYRVWLSURL]YRGRYYYHVROMVNLWHKQLNL8OWUDþLãþHQMHOHWDOVNH
VWURMQHRSUHPH
Space product assurance - Ultracleaning of flight hardware
Raumfahrtproduktsicherung - Ultra-Reinigung von Flug-Hardware
Assurance produit des projets spatiaux - Ultra nettoyage des matériels de vol
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 16602-70-54:2019
ICS:
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
SIST EN 16602-70-54:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 16602-70-54:2019
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SIST EN 16602-70-54:2019
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 16602-70-54
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
March 2019
ICS 49.140
English version
Space product assurance - Ultracleaning of flight hardware

Assurance produit des projets spatiaux - Raumfahrtproduktsicherung - Ultra-Reinigung von

Ultranettoyage des matériels de vol Flug-Hardware
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 9 November 2018.

CEN and CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for

giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical

references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to

any CEN and CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN and CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany,

Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania,

Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. EN 16602-70-54:2019 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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EN16602-70-54:2019 (E)
Table of contents

European Foreword ................................................................................................... 7

Introduction ................................................................................................................ 8

1 Scope ....................................................................................................................... 9

2 Normative references ........................................................................................... 10

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms .......................................................... 11

3.1 Terms from other standards .................................................................................... 11

3.2 Terms specific to the present standard ................................................................... 11

3.3 Abbreviated terms................................................................................................... 13

3.4 Nomenclature ......................................................................................................... 13

4 Principles .............................................................................................................. 15

4.1 Cleaning techniques: Contamination removal ......................................................... 15

4.1.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 15

4.1.2 Ultracleaning ............................................................................................. 18

4.1.3 Cleaning principles .................................................................................... 19

4.1.4 Trade-off process ...................................................................................... 20

4.1.5 Selection of an end-to-end cleaning process ............................................. 21

5 Requirements ........................................................................................................ 23

5.1 Specifying process .................................................................................................. 23

5.1.1 General ..................................................................................................... 23

5.1.2 Specifying process means ........................................................................ 23

5.2 Definition of end-to-end cleaning process ............................................................... 24

5.2.1 Test samples ............................................................................................. 24

5.2.2 Definition of critical contamination and tracers .......................................... 24

5.2.3 Application process for critical contaminants and tracers .......................... 25

5.2.4 Selection of analytical techniques ............................................................. 26

5.2.5 Definition of test matrix .............................................................................. 26

5.2.6 Cleaning processes ................................................................................... 26

5.2.7 Cleaning efficacy ....................................................................................... 27

5.3 Validation of end-to-end cleaning process .............................................................. 29

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5.4 Packaging, containerization, transportation, storage ............................................... 31

(normative) Request for ultracleaning - DRD ........................................ 32

A.1 DRD identification ................................................................................................... 32

A.2 Purpose and objective ............................................................................................ 32

A.3 Expected response ................................................................................................. 32

A.3.1 Scope and content .................................................................................... 32

A.3.2 Special remarks ........................................................................................ 32

(normative) Ultracleaning work proposal - DRD.................................... 33

B.1 DRD identification ................................................................................................... 33

B.2 Purpose and objective ............................................................................................ 33

B.3 Expected response ................................................................................................. 33

B.3.1 Scope and content .................................................................................... 33

B.3.2 Special remarks ........................................................................................ 34

(normative) Ultracleaning process report - DRD ................................... 35

C.1 DRD identification ................................................................................................... 35

C.2 Purpose and objective ............................................................................................ 35

C.3 Expected response ................................................................................................. 35

C.3.1 Scope and content .................................................................................... 35

C.3.2 Special remarks ........................................................................................ 36

(informative) Good cleanability design guidelines ............................... 37

D.1 Conception and design guidelines .......................................................................... 37

D.1.1 General ..................................................................................................... 37

D.1.2 Corners and edges.................................................................................... 38

D.1.3 Weld seams at corners and edges ............................................................ 39

D.1.4 Transitions ................................................................................................ 40

D.1.5 Fixed/separable joins: ............................................................................... 40

(informative) Cleaning techniques .......................................................... 42

E.1 Blasting cleaning techniques .................................................................................. 42

E.1.1 Compressed air blasting............................................................................ 42

E.1.2 Wet compressed air blasting ..................................................................... 42

E.1.3 Pressurized fluid blasting .......................................................................... 43

E.1.4 Low-pressure water jet blasting ................................................................. 43

E.1.5 Elutriation blasting ..................................................................................... 44

E.1.6 Centrifugal blasting ................................................................................... 44

E.1.7 Steam blasting .......................................................................................... 45

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E.1.8 CO pellet cleaning ................................................................................... 45

E.1.9 Accelerated CO snow cleaning ................................................................ 46

E.2 Mechanical cleaning ............................................................................................... 47

E.2.1 Wiping ....................................................................................................... 47

E.2.2 Brushing and sweeping ............................................................................. 48

E.2.3 Scraping and abrading .............................................................................. 48

E.2.4 Grinding .................................................................................................... 49

E.2.5 Beating off ................................................................................................. 49

E.3 Fluidic cleaning ....................................................................................................... 50

E.3.1 Washing and rinsing .................................................................................. 50

E.3.2 Blowing off cleaning .................................................................................. 50

E.3.3 Suction cleaning ........................................................................................ 51

E.3.4 Ultrasonic cleaning .................................................................................... 51

E.4 Chemical cleaning .................................................................................................. 52

E.4.1 General principle of chemical cleaning ...................................................... 52

E.4.2 Etching and leaching ................................................................................. 52

E.4.3 Chemical reaction ..................................................................................... 52

E.5 Solvent cleaning ..................................................................................................... 53

E.5.1 Detaching and stripping ............................................................................ 53

E.6 Thermal cleaning .................................................................................................... 53

E.6.1 General principle of thermal cleaning ........................................................ 53

E.6.2 Evaporating ............................................................................................... 53

E.6.3 Scarfing ..................................................................................................... 54

E.6.4 Decomposing ............................................................................................ 54

E.7 Special cleaning ..................................................................................................... 55

E.7.1 Hot vacuum purge ..................................................................................... 55

purge ............................................................................................. 55

E.7.2 Hot N2

E.7.3 Plasma Chamber cleaning ........................................................................ 56

E.7.4 UV-light cleaning ....................................................................................... 56

E.7.5 LASER beam cleaning .............................................................................. 57

E.7.6 Supercritical CO Cleaning ........................................................................ 57

E.7.7 Liquid Peel Cleaning ................................................................................. 58

(informative) Contamination detection techniques ............................... 59

F.1 Particulate contamination ........................................................................................ 59

F.1.1 General ..................................................................................................... 59

F.1.2 Assessment matrix .................................................................................... 59

F.2 Chemical molecular contamination ......................................................................... 63

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F.3 Microbiological contamination ................................................................................. 63

(informative) Witness sample design ..................................................... 64

G.1 Example witness sample design ............................................................................. 64

(informative) Examples for cleanliness classification .......................... 65

H.1 Particles .................................................................................................................. 65

H.1.1 Classification system ................................................................................. 65

H.1.2 Examples for cleaning efficacy .................................................................. 66

H.2 Molecular contamination ......................................................................................... 67

H.2.1 Classification system ................................................................................. 67

H.2.2 Examples for cleaning efficacy .................................................................. 67

Bibliography ............................................................................................................. 69

Figures

Figure 4-1: Typical types of molecular and particulate contamination ................................... 15

Figure 4-2: Relationship between van der Waals force and weight in dependence upon

particle diameter (model according to Hamaker for Al particles on Al

substrate) ........................................................................................................... 16

Figure 4-3: Influences on the cleaning efficacy ..................................................................... 17

Figure 4-4: Available cleaning principles and related techniques .......................................... 19

Figure 4-5: Two stage trade-off method ................................................................................ 20

Figure 4-6: Logic flow for the selection and optimisation of an end-to-end cleaning

process for hardware.......................................................................................... 22

Figure 5-1: Cleanliness validation logic for using witness plates ........................................... 30

Figure 5-2: Cleanliness validation logic for using products or components ........................... 30

: Design of corners and edges ............................................................................ 39

: Material transitions joined by a weld seam ........................................................ 40

: Materials joined by a weld seam ....................................................................... 40

: Test sample geometry to assess the cleaning efficacy of a certain cleaning

technique (left) and composition of the test sample surface (right) ..................... 64

Tables

Table 4-1: Typical cleanliness levels and their verification techniques on spacecraft

surfaces ............................................................................................................. 18

Table F-1 : Comparison of different direct particle detection methods .................................. 62

Table H-1 : Selected SCP classes for cleanrooms and associated controlled

environments ..................................................................................................... 65

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Table H-2 : Examples of cleaning efficacies on different substrates ..................................... 66

Table H-3 : Overview of ISO SCC molecular contamination classes .................................... 67

Table H-4 : Examples of cleaning efficacies on different substrates ..................................... 67

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EN16602-70-54:2019 (E)
European Foreword
This document (EN16602-70-54:2019) has been prepared by Technical
Committee CEN-CENELEC/TC 5 “Space”, the secretariat of which is held by
DIN.
This standard (EN16602-70-54:2019) originates from ECSS-Q-ST-70-54C.
This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either

by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by September

2019, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by
September 2019.
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document
may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held
responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
This document has been prepared under a standardization request given to
CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association.
This document has been developed to cover specifically space systems and has
therefore precedence over any EN covering the same scope but with a wider
domain of applicability (e.g. : aerospace).
According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards
organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European
Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France,
Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United
Kingdom.
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EN16602-70-54:2019 (E)
Introduction
This ECSS Standard describes the procedures to be used to clean to a level of
cleanliness beyond the scope of the ECSS-Q-ST-70-01, and to control the
cleanliness level of flight hardware prior to and following a posteriori to the
application of the ultracleaning process. The intended objective of the
ultracleaning process is to remove all surface contamination (particulates,
biologic material cell debris and chemical molecular contamination) on flight
hardware, with no specific limit in geometric dimension or contamination
levels. This includes removal of biological material for avoidance of false
positive results during investigation of extra-terrestrial samples or
environments.
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EN16602-70-54:2019 (E)
Scope
This standard addresses process descriptions, process validation, cleanliness

control and monitoring, recontamination prevention, quality assurance as follows:

PROCESSES DESCRIPTIONS, including
 Detergent cleaning
 Alcohol cleaning
 Ultrapure water cleaning
 Liquid boundary layer disruption cleaning
 Multiple solvent cleaning (JPL procedure)
 Vacuum bakeout
 Supercritical fluids cleaning
 Carbon dioxide snow cleaning
 Plasma cleaning
 Pyrolysis
 Criteria for selecting other/novel processes
PROCESS VALIDATION
 Test material selection
 Preparation of test materials for process application
 Deposition of contaminants
 Description of test conditions
 Verification of cleanliness level
CLEANLINESS CONTROL AND MONITORING, including
 Micro/nano imaging techniques
 Spectrometry techniques
 Spectroscopy techniques
 Chromatography techniques
RECONTAMINATION PREVENTION
 Packaging systems
 Protective covers
 Storage
QUALITY ASSURANCE

This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a

space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.
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Normative references
The following normative documents contain provisions which, through
reference in this text, constitute provisions of this ECSS Standard. For dated
references, subsequent amendments to, or revision of any of these publications
do not apply. However, parties to agreements based on this ECSS Standard are

encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the more recent editions of

the normative documents indicated below. For undated references, the latest
edition of the publication referred to applies.
EN reference Reference in text Title
EN 16601-00-01 ECSS-S-ST-00-01 ECSS system - Glossary of terms
EN 16602-10-09 ECSS-Q-ST-10-09 Space product assurance - Nonconformance control
system
EN 16602-20-08 ECSS-Q-ST-20-08 Space product assurance - Storage, handling and
transportation of spacecraft hardware
EN 16602-70 ECSS-Q-ST-70 Space product assurance - Materials, mechanical parts
and processes
EN 16602-70-01 ECSS-Q-ST-70-01 Space product assurance - Cleanliness and
contamination control
ISO 14644-9: 2012 Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments -
Part 9: Classification of surface cleanliness by particle
concentration
ISO 14644-10: 2013 Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments -
Part 10: Classification of surface cleanliness by
chemical concentration
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Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms from other standards
a. For the purpose of this Standard, the terms and definitions from ECSS-S-
ST-00-01 apply, in particular for the following terms:
1. cleanliness
2. qualification
3. test
4. validation
5. verification
b. For the purpose of this Standard, the terms and definitions from ECSS-Q-
ST-70-01 apply, in particular for the following terms:
1. cleanroom
2. off-gassing
3.2 Terms specific to the present standard
3.2.1 bioaerosol
dispersed biological agents in a gaseous environment
[ISO 14698-1:2003]
3.2.2 biological contamination

contamination of materials, devices, individuals, surfaces, liquids, gases or air

with viable particles.
NOTE 1 Depending on the context, biological
contamination can be considered as
organic or as particulate
contamination. A bacterial cell has
about 1E-13 g (organic content of
one cell is below the detection limit
of most chemical methods).
NOTE 2 Problem is that, apart from growing,
cells and spores often have
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extracellular material that can be
more mass than the cell itself.
3.2.3 cleanliness (of a solid surface)
condition of a solid surface where the amount of contamination is controlled to
a specific level
NOTE Example of amount of contamination include
particle, chemical molecular or viable
3.2.4 contaminant
any particulate, chemical molecular, non-particulate and biological entity that
can adversely affect the product or process
3.2.5 decontamination
reduction of unwanted matter to a defined level
3.2.6 direct measurement method (DMM)
measurement method where the contamination that is to be determined is
being assessed without any intermediate steps
[adapted from ISO 14644-9:2012]
3.2.7 indirect measurement method (IMM)
measurement method where the contamination that is to be determined is
being assessed with intermediate steps
[adapted from ISO 14644-9:2012]
3.2.8 surface cleanliness of chemicals (SCC)
presence on the surface of a product or instrument of molecular, chemical, non-
particulate, species in the adsorbed or deposited state which can have a
deleterious effect on the product, process or equipment in the cleanroom or
controlled environment
[adapted from ISO 14644-10:2013]
3.2.9 surface cleanliness of particles (SCP)
class of surface particle cleanliness is a grading number stating the maximum
allowable surface concentration, in particles per m², for a considered size of
particles, SPC Classes 1 to 8
[adapted from ISO 14644-9:2012]
3.2.10 surface cleanliness particles (SCP) classification
level (or the process of specifying or determining the level) that represents
maximum allowable surface concentrations, in particles per square metre, for
considered sizes of particles, expressed in terms of an ISO SCP Class N
[ISO 14644-9:2012]
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3.2.11 surface particle concentration
number of individual particles per unit of surface area under consideration
[ISO 14644-9:2012]
3.2.12 thin film contamination
layers of critical contaminants that range from the nanometre scale to the
micrometre scale
3.2.13 viable particle
particle that consists of, or supports, one or more live microorganisms
3.2.14 cleaning efficacy
removal of specific contaminants from a surface by a cleaning process,
determined by the final accomplished surface cleanliness, in respect to the
initial surface cleanliness
NOTE 1 Cleaning efficacy can be expressed
in absolute (surface concentration) or
relative (percentage) terms.
NOTE 2 In general, repetitive application of
the same cleaning process results in
consecutive decreasing efficacy.
3.3 Abbreviated terms
For the purpose of this Standard, the abbreviated terms from ECSS-S-ST-00-01
and the following apply:
Abbreviation Meaning
document requirements definition
DRD
parts per million (10 )
ppm
3.4 Nomenclature
The following nomenclature applies throughout this document:
a. The word “shall” is used in this Standard to express requirements. All
the requirements are expressed with the word “shall”.
b. The word “should” is used in this Standard to express recommendations.
All the recommendations are expressed with the word “should”.
NOTE It is expected that, during tailoring,
recommendations in this document are either
converted into requirements or tailored out.
c. The words “may” and “need not” are used in this Standard to express
positive and negative permissions, respectively. All the positive
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permissions are expressed with the word “may”. All the negative
permissions are expressed with the words “need not”.
d. The word “can” is used in this Standard to express capabilities or
possibilities, and therefore, if not accompanied by one of the previous
words, it implies descriptive text.
NOTE In ECSS “may” and “can” have completely
different meanings: “may” is normative
(permission), and “can” is descriptive.
e. The present and past tenses are used in this Standard to express
statements of fact, and therefore they imply descriptive text.
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Principles
4.1 Cleaning techniques: Contamination removal
4.1.1 Introduction
In the simplest case contamination can be defined as foreign matter, but in

relation to this standard is considered any particulate, chemical molecular, non-

particulate and biological entity on a surface that can adversely affect the
product or process. Increase of contamination leads generally to cumulative
build-up.
Surface contamination, such as particles in the micrometre range,
microbiological contamination or airborne and surface molecular
contaminatio
...

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