Design of glass structures - Part 1: Basis of design and materials

1.1   Scope of FprCEN/TS 19100-1
(1) FprCEN/TS 19100-1 gives basic design rules for mechanically supported glass components. This document is concerned with the requirements for resistance, serviceability, fracture characteristics and glass component failure consequences in relation to human safety, robustness, redundancy and durability of glass structures.
(2) This document covers the basis of design, materials, durability and structural design.
(3) This document also covers construction rules for the structural design of glass components.
1.2   Assumptions
(1) The assumptions of EN 1990 apply to FprCEN/TS 19100-1.
(2) This document is intended to be used in conjunction with EN 1990, EN 1991 (all parts), EN 1993-1-1, EN 1995 1 1, EN 1998 1, EN 1999 1 1 and EN 12488.

Bemessung und Konstruktion von Tragwerken aus Glas - Teil 1: Grundlagen der Bemessung und Materialien

Conception et calcul des structures en verre - Partie 1 : Bases de conception et matériaux

1.1   Domaine d’application de la FprCEN/TS 19100-1
(1) La FprCEN/TS 19100-1 énonce des règles de conception de base pour les composants en verre maintenus mécaniquement. Le présent document porte sur les exigences relatives à la résistance, à l’aptitude au service, aux caractéristiques de rupture et aux conséquences des défaillances des composants en verre en matière de sécurité humaine, robustesse, redondance et durabilité des structures en verre.
(2) Le présent document couvre les bases de conception, des matériaux, de la durabilité et du calcul des structures.
(3) Le présent document couvre également les règles de construction pour le calcul des structures des composants en verre.
1.2   Hypothèses
(1) Les hypothèses énoncées dans l’EN 1990 s’appliquent à la FprCEN/TS 19100-1.
(2) Le présent document est destiné à être utilisé conjointement avec l’EN 1990, l’EN 1991 (toutes les parties), l’EN 1993-1-1, l’EN 1995 1 1, l’EN 1998 1, l’EN 1999 1 1 et l’EN 12488.

Projektiranje steklenih konstrukcij - 1. del: Osnove projektiranja in materiali

1.1   Področje uporabe FprCEN/TS 19100-1
(1) FprCEN/TS 19100-1 določa osnovna pravila projektiranja mehansko podprtih steklenih elementov. Ta dokument obravnava zahteve glede odpornosti, uporabnosti, lastnosti loma in posledic okvare steklenih elementov za varnost ljudi, robustnosti, redundance in vzdržljivosti steklenih konstrukcij.
(2) Ta dokument zajema osnove projektiranja, materiale, vzdržljivost in konstrukcijsko zasnovo.
(3) Ta dokument zajema tudi konstrukcijska pravila za konstrukcijsko projektiranje steklenih elementov.
1.2   Predpostavke
(1) Predpostavke standarda EN 1990 veljajo tudi za FprCEN/TS 19100-1.
(2) Ta dokument je namenjen za uporabo skupaj s standardi EN 1990, EN 1991 (vsi deli), EN 1993-1-1, EN 1995 1 1, EN 1998 1, EN 1999 1 1 in EN 12488.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
24-May-2021
Publication Date
12-Jan-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
28-Dec-2021
Due Date
04-Mar-2022
Completion Date
13-Jan-2022

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS CEN/TS 19100-1:2022
01-februar-2022
Projektiranje steklenih konstrukcij - 1. del: Osnove projektiranja in materiali
Design of glass structures - Part 1: Basis of design and materials
Bemessung und Konstruktion von Tragwerken aus Glas - Teil 1: Grundlagen der
Bemessung und Materialien
Conception et calcul des structures en verre - Partie 1 : Bases de conception et
matériaux
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TS 19100-1:2021
ICS:
91.080.99 Druge konstrukcije Other structures
SIST-TS CEN/TS 19100-1:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 19100-1:2022
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SIST-TS CEN/TS 19100-1:2022
CEN/TS 19100-1
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
November 2021
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
ICS 91.080.99
English Version
Design of glass structures - Part 1: Basis of design and
materials

Conception et calcul des structures en verre - Partie 1 : Bemessung und Konstruktion von Tragwerken aus

Bases de conception et matériaux Glas - Teil 1: Grundlagen der Bemessung und
Materialien

This Technical Specification (CEN/TS) was approved by CEN on 25 July 2021 for provisional application.

The period of validity of this CEN/TS is limited initially to three years. After two years the members of CEN will be requested to

submit their comments, particularly on the question whether the CEN/TS can be converted into a European Standard.

CEN members are required to announce the existence of this CEN/TS in the same way as for an EN and to make the CEN/TS

available promptly at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in

parallel to the CEN/TS) until the final decision about the possible conversion of the CEN/TS into an EN is reached.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TS 19100-1:2021 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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CEN/TS 19100-1:2021 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

0 Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 7

1.1 Scope of CEN/TS 19100-1 ............................................................................................................................. 7

1.2 Assumptions ...................................................................................................................................................... 7

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms, definitions and symbols ................................................................................................................. 8

3.1 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 8

3.2 Symbols and abbreviations ...................................................................................................................... 12

4 Basis of design ............................................................................................................................................... 13

4.1 Requirements ................................................................................................................................................ 13

4.2 Principles of limit state design ................................................................................................................ 14

4.3 Basic variables .............................................................................................................................................. 16

4.4 Verification by the partial factor method ............................................................................................ 17

5 Materials .......................................................................................................................................................... 18

5.1 Glass .................................................................................................................................................................. 18

5.2 Interlayer ........................................................................................................................................................ 20

5.3 Insulating glass units (IGUs) .................................................................................................................... 21

5.4 Material for further load transfer elements ....................................................................................... 21

6 Durability ........................................................................................................................................................ 21

7 Structural Analysis ...................................................................................................................................... 22

7.1 Basic assumptions........................................................................................................................................ 22

7.2 Determination of sectional forces, stresses and deformations ................................................... 22

7.3 General structural provisions ................................................................................................................. 24

8 Ultimate limit state ...................................................................................................................................... 25

8.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 25

8.2 Partial factors ................................................................................................................................................ 25

8.3 Resistance ....................................................................................................................................................... 26

9 Serviceability Limit States ........................................................................................................................ 26

Annex A (informative) Bending strength resistance .................................................................................... 28

Annex B (informative) Bending strength resistance with interference factor ................................... 32

Annex C (informative) Thermally induced stress caused by temperature differentials in the glass

pane ................................................................................................................................................................... 36

Annex D (informative) Risk Assessment .......................................................................................................... 40

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 41

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 19100-1:2022
CEN/TS 19100-1:2021 (E)
European foreword

This document (CEN/TS 19100-1:2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 250

“Structural Euro-codes”, the secretariat of which is held by BSI. CEN/TC 250 is responsible for all

Structural Eurocodes and has been assigned responsibility for structural and geotechnical design matters

by CEN.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been prepared under Mandate M/515 issued to CEN by the European Commission

and the European Free Trade Association.

This document has been drafted to be used in conjunction with relevant execution, material, product and

test standards, and to identify requirements for execution, materials, products and testing that are relied

upon by this document.

Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national standards body.

A complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CEN website.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to announce this Technical Specification: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United

Kingdom.
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0 Introduction
0.1 Introduction to the Eurocodes

The Structural Eurocodes comprise the following standards generally consisting of a number of Parts:

• EN 1990 Eurocode: Basis of structural and geotechnical design
• EN 1991 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures
• EN 1992 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures
• EN 1993 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures
• EN 1994 Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures
• EN 1995 Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures
• EN 1996 Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures
• EN 1997 Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design
• EN 1998 Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance
• EN 1999 Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium structures

The Eurocodes are intended for use by designers, clients, manufacturers, constructors, relevant

authorities (in exercising their duties in accordance with national or international regulations),

educators, software developers, and committees drafting standards for related product, testing and

execution standards.

NOTE Some aspects of design are most appropriately specified by relevant authorities or, where not specified,

can be agreed on a project-specific basis between relevant parties such as designers and clients. The Eurocodes

identify such aspects making explicit reference to relevant authorities and relevant parties.

0.2 Introduction to CEN/TS 19100 (all parts)

CEN/TS 19100 applies to the structural design of mechanically supported glass components and

assemblies of glass components. It complies with the principles and requirements for the safety and

serviceability of structures, the basis of their design and verification that are given in EN 1990, Basis of

structural design.
CEN/TS 19100 is subdivided into three parts:
— Part 1: Basis of design and materials
— Part 2: Design of out-of-plane loaded glass components
— Part 3: Design of in-plane loaded glass components and their mechanical joints
0.3 Introduction to CEN/TS 19100-1

CEN/TS 19100-1 applies to the structural design of mechanically supported glass components and

assemblies of glass components according CEN/TS 19100-2 and CEN/TS 19100-3.
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0.4 Verbal forms used in the Eurocodes

The verb “shall" expresses a requirement strictly to be followed and from which no deviation is permitted

in order to comply with the Eurocodes.

The verb “should” expresses a highly recommended choice or course of action. Subject to national

regulation and/or any relevant contractual provisions, alternative approaches could be used/adopted

where technically justified.

The verb “may" expresses a course of action permissible within the limits of the Eurocodes.

The verb “can" expresses possibility and capability; it is used for statements of fact and clarification of

concepts.
0.5 National annex for CEN/TS 19100-1

CEN/TS 19100-1 gives values within notes indicating where national choices can be made. Therefore, a

national document implementing CEN/TS 19100-1 can have a National Annex containing all Nationally

Determined Parameters to be used for the assessment of buildings and civil engineering works in the

relevant country.

When not given in the National Annex, the national choice will be the default choice specified in the

relevant Technical Specification.
The national choice can be specified by a relevant authority.

When no choice is given in the Technical Specification, in the National Annex, or by a relevant authority,

the national choice can be agreed for a specific project by appropriate parties.
National choice is allowed in CEN/TS 19100-1 through the following clauses:
3.1.16 NOTE
4.1.2. (1) NOTE 2
4.2.4 (1) NOTE 2
4.4.2 (2) NOTE
4.4.2 (3) NOTE
5.2 (1) NOTE 4
7.2.2 (2) NOTE 1
7.2.2 (3) NOTE
7.2.2 (4) NOTE
7.2.4 (2) NOTE 2
7.2.4 (2) NOTE 3
8.2 (2) NOTE
8.3.2 (1) NOTE 1
Clause 9 (2) NOTE
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CEN/TS 19100-1:2021 (E)

National choice is allowed in CEN/TS 19100-1 on the application of the following informative annexes:

Annex A Bending strength resistance based on nominal product strengths

Annex B Bending strength resistance based on intrinsic glass strength and glass surface pre-stress

Annex C Thermally induced stress caused by temperature differentials in the glass pane

Annex D Risk Assessment

The National Annex can contain, directly or by reference, non-contradictory complementary information

for ease of implementation, provided it does not alter any provisions of the Eurocodes.

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1 Scope
1.1 Scope of CEN/TS 19100-1

(1) CEN/TS 19100-1 gives basic design rules for mechanically supported glass components. This

document is concerned with the requirements for resistance, serviceability, fracture characteristics and

glass component failure consequences in relation to human safety, robustness, redundancy and

durability of glass structures.

(2) This document covers the basis of design, materials, durability and structural design.

(3) This document also covers construction rules for the structural design of glass components.

1.2 Assumptions
(1) The assumptions of EN 1990 apply to CEN/TS 19100-1.

(2) This document is intended to be used in conjunction with EN 1990, EN 1991 (all parts), EN 1993-1-1,

EN 1995-1-1, EN 1998-1, EN 1999-1-1 and EN 12488.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE See the Bibliography for a list of other documents cited that are not normative references, including

those referenced as recommendations (i.e. through ‘should’ clauses) and permissions (i.e. through ‘may’ clauses).

EN 572 (all parts), Glass in building - Basic soda lime silicate glass products

EN 1279-5:2018, Glass in building - Insulating glass units - Part 5: Product standard

EN 1863-1, Glass in building - Heat strengthened soda lime silicate glass - Part 1: Definition and description

EN 1990:2002, Eurocode - Basis of structural design
EN 1991 (all parts), Eurocode 1 - Actions on structures

EN 12150-1, Glass in building - Thermally toughened soda lime silicate safety glass - Part 1: Definition and

description

EN 12488, Glass in building - Glazing recommendations - Assembly principles for vertical and sloping

glazing

EN 13022-1, Glass in building - Structural sealant glazing - Part 1: Glass products for structural sealant

glazing systems for supported and unsupported monolithic and multiple glazing

EN 13022-2, Glass in building - Structural sealant glazing - Part 2: Assembly rules

EN 14179-1, Glass in building - Heat soaked thermally toughened soda lime silicate safety glass - Part 1:

Definition and description

EN 15434, Glass in building - Product standard for structural and/or ultra-violet resistant sealant (for use

with structural sealant glazing and/or insulating glass units with exposed seals)

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CEN/TS 19100-1:2021 (E)
3 Terms, definitions and symbols
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
Table 3.1— Glass component, glass member and system of glass members
Monolithic glass (MG)
Key
1 pane
2 single ply
Laminated glass (LG)
Key
1 pane
Glass
2 ply
component
3 interlayer
Insulated glass unit (IGU)
Key
1 pane
2 ply
3 interlayer
4 cavity
5 spacer
Glass Glass component +
member boundary conditions
System of Glass components + their
glass interconnections +
members boundary conditions
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CEN/TS 19100-1:2021 (E)
3.1.1
glass component

glass product being monolithic, laminated, and/or insulating glass unit, after installation

Note 1 to entry: See Table 3.1.
3.1.2
glass member

glass component with clear mechanical boundary conditions so that the effects (stresses or sectional

forces) of a defined action can be calculated
Note 1 to entry: See Table 3.1.
3.1.3
insulating glass unit
IGU

assembly consisting of at least two panes of glass, separated by one or more spacers, hermetically sealed

along the periphery, mechanically stable and durable
3.1.4
Limit State Scenario
LSS

set of limit states (SLS, ULS, FLS and PFLS) to be verified whilst designing a glass component

3.1.5
Ultimate Limit State
ULS
state associated with collapse or with other similar forms of structural failure

Note 1 to entry: Generally, corresponds to the maximum load-carrying resistance of a structure or structural

member.
[SOURCE: prEN 1990:2021, 3.1.2.15]
3.1.6
Serviceability Limit State
SLS

state that correspond to conditions beyond which specified service requirements for a structure or

structural member are no longer met
[SOURCE: prEN 1990:2021, 3.1.2.16]
3.1.7
failure

event where the total loss of structural resistance of the glass component or supports or bonding occurs

3.1.8
fracture
macroscopic physical disintegration due to crack propagation in glass

Note 1 to entry: For monolithic sections, a glass fracture results into a failure of the component; for laminated

sections, a glass fracture of a ply or even of all plies does not necessarily result into a failure of the component.

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CEN/TS 19100-1:2021 (E)
3.1.9
Fracture Limit State
FLS

state beyond which, during accidental fracture of a glass component or part of glass component

— the prevention of injuries by contact with glass fragments and/or,
— the prevention of body to pass through and/or,

— the ability to limit the failure to that glass component or part of glass component

are no longer satisfied without an appropriate choice of glass mode of breakage, boundary conditions and

other mechanical characteristics
3.1.10
Post Fracture Limit State
PFLS

state beyond which, in case of accidental failure of a glass component, the required residual load bearing

capacity provided by
— redundancy of the glass component,
— undamaged ply(ies) of that glass component,
— structure alternative load path(s)
during a defined period is no longer satisfied
3.1.11
redundancy

provision or existence of additional load paths or structural systems than strictly necessary to resist

design actions
3.1.12
robustness

ability of a structure to withstand unforeseen adverse events without being damaged to an extent

disproportionate to the original cause
[SOURCE: prEN 1990:2021, 3.1.2.29]
Note 1 to entry: See EN 1990 and EN 1991-1-7.
3.1.13
ply
sheet of monolithic glass, cut to size and shape and possibly edge-worked
3.1.14
in-plane loaded glass component

glass component subjected to a significant force component parallel to the glass surface

3.1.15
out-of-plane loaded glass component

glass component subjected to a significant force component perpendicular to the glass surface

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CEN/TS 19100-1:2021 (E)
3.1.16
vertical glass component
glass component which subtends an angle of no more than ± 15° to the vertical

Note 1 to entry: The value of the angle is given in EN 13830, unless the National Annex gives different values for

use in a country.
3.1.17
interlayer

one or more layers of material acting as an adhesive and separator between plies of glass and/or plastic

glazing sheet material

Note 1 to entry: The interlayer can also give additional performance to the finished product, for example impact

resistance, resistance to fire, solar control and acoustic insulation.

Note 2 to entry: The interlayer itself can also encapsulate non-adhesive films and plates, wires, grids, etc.

3.1.18
laminated glass

assembly consisting of one ply of glass with one or more plies of glass and/or plastics sheet material

joined together with one or more interlayers (see EN ISO 12543-1)

Note 1 to entry: The number of glass plies and the requirements on the interlayer depend on the application of

the glass component.
3.1.19
laminated safety glass

laminated glass, where in case of breakage the interlayer serves to retain the glass fragments, limits the

size of opening, offers residual resistance and reduces the risk of cutting or piercing injuries (see

EN ISO 12543-1)
3.1.20
effective thickness

mechanically equivalent thickness used in structural calculation to represent the “as if monolithic

thickness” of laminated glass when calculating its resistance or stiffness
3.1.21
thermal stress

stress induced by thermal expansion, e.g. due to temperature differences in the glass

3.1.22
cavity pressure

pressure applied to the panes of insulating glass units due to the internal volume of the hermetically

sealed cavity or cavities being affected by variable cavity loading and permanent cavity loading

3.1.23
variable cavity loading

pressure acting on the panes of insulating glass unit resulting from the effect of sealed cavity volume

variations due to temperature and atmospheric changes
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CEN/TS 19100-1:2021 (E)
3.1.24
permanent cavity loading

pressure acting on the panes of insulating glass unit resulting solely from a difference in altitude between

the place of assembly (sealing) and the place of use
3.1.25
pre-stressed glass

glass within which a permanent surface compressive stress has been induced by a controlled process in

order to give it increased resistance to mechanical and thermal stress and prescribed fracture

characteristics

Note 1 to entry: Pre-stressed glasses can be thermally toughened glass, heat soaked thermally toughened glass,

heat strengthened glass or chemically strengthened glass.
3.1.26
mid plane of a hole
symmetry plane of a hole in a glass ply, which is parallel to the glass surfaces
3.1.27
glazing block

piece of suitable material, placed between the glass component and the frame preventing direct contact

between the two of them (see EN 12488)
3.2 Symbols and abbreviations

For the purposes of this document, the following symbols and abbreviations apply.

Young’s modulus of glass
E Design value of effect of actions
E Characteristic value of effect of actions
F Design value of an action
G Interlayer shear modulus or interlayer shear relaxation modulus

N Design value of normal forces in the relevant direction of the considered cross section or joint

E,d

N Design value of resisting normal forces in the direction of the corresponding effect

R,d

V Design value of transverse forces in the relevant direction of the considered cross section or

E,d
joint

V Design value of resisting transverse forces in the direction of the corresponding effect

R,d

M Design value of moments in the relevant direction of the considered cross section or joint

E,d

M Design value of resisting moments in the direction of the corresponding effect

R,d
R Design values for resistance
R Characteristic value for resistance
T External air temperature
ext
T Maximum summer air temperature on the building site
max
T Minimum winter air temperature on the building site
min
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CEN/TS 19100-1:2021 (E)
f Characteristic value of glass strength after a strengthening treatment
b,k
f Design value of bending strength of glass
g,d
f Characteristic value of bending strength of annealed glass
g,k
f Characteristic value of surface prestress
p,k
Glass ply thickness
k Coefficient accounting for the reduction of the process-induced prestress
k Edge or hole finishing factor
k Edge or hole prestress factor
e,p
k Modification factor depending on load duration
mod
k Surface treatment factor
k Interference factor
X Characteristic value of a material property
Temperature change
a Design values of the geometric parameters
αT Coefficient of linear thermal expansion
γ Material partial factor
M,i
γ Partial factor associated with the uncertainty of the resistance model
Partial factor for prestress on the surface
λ Size-effect factor area
λ Size-effect factor length (edge, hole)
Poisson’s ratio
ρ Glass density

σ Design value of principal stresses on the surface of the glass in the relevant direction

prin,Ed
ψ Cavity pressure combination factors
cp,i
4 Basis of design
4.1 Requirements
4.1.1 Basic requirements

(1) Glass structures shall be designed in accordance with the general rules given in EN 1990.

(2) In conjunction with EN 1990, the specific provisions for resistance, serviceability, durability and

robustness given in this document should be used.
4.1.2 Consequences classes

(1) Considering the consequences of failure or malfunction, glass components shall be classified

according to the Consequences Classes given in Table 4.1.
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CEN/TS 19100-1:2021 (E)
Table 4.1 — Definition of consequences classes
Consequences Examples of buildings and civil
Description
class engineering works
High consequence for loss of human life, Grandstands, public buildings where

CC3 or economic, social or environmental consequences of failure are high (e.g. a

consequences very great concert hall)
Medium consequence for loss of human Residential and office buildings, public

CC2 life, economic, social or environmental buildings where consequences of failure

consequences considerable are medium (e.g. an office building)
Low consequence for loss of human life, Agricultural buildings where people do
CC1 and economic, social or environmental not normally enter (e.g. storage
consequences small or negligible buildings), greenhouses

NOTE 1 For infill panels that are in a class of consequence lower than those covered in Table 4.1, see EN 16612.

NOTE 2 The classification of a glass component into CCs can be given in the National Annex.

NOTE 3 Guidance on classification of glass components into CCs can also be obtained from Risk Assessment (RA).

The result of RA can also provide further information, e.g. about glass type, glass structure and other structural

details. The necessity of conducting RA depends on the individual requirement of the project or on the authorities'

requirements. Further information on RA is given in Annex D.
4.1.3 Design working life

(1) Glass components should be designed for a design working life category according to EN 1990.

NOTE The design working life refers to structural design only. Other performance requirements (e.g. thermal

insulation, weather tightness, etc.) or aesthetic requirements can lead to a different working life of a glass

component.

(2) It is recommended to establish a maintenance concept, explicitly describing inspection measures.

(3) Requirements for replaceability may be as specified by the relevant authority or, where not specified,

agreed for a specific project by the relevant parties.

(4) Glass components of CEN/TS 19100-3 should correspond to the design working life of the rest of the

global structure.
NOTE See also Clause 6 “Durability”.
4.2 Principles of limit state design
4.2.1 General
(1) The choice of gla
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 19100-1:2021
01-maj-2021
Projektiranje steklenih konstrukcij - 1. del: Osnove projektiranja in materiali
Design of glass structures - Part 1: Basis of design and materials
Bemessung und Konstruktion von Tragwerken aus Glas - Teil 1: Grundlagen der
Bemessung und Materialien
Conception et calcul des structures en verre - Partie 1 : Bases de conception et
matériaux
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: FprCEN/TS 19100-1
ICS:
91.080.99 Druge konstrukcije Other structures
kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 19100-1:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 19100-1:2021
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kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 19100-1:2021
FINAL DRAFT
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
FprCEN/TS 19100-1
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
April 2021
ICS 91.080.99
English Version
Design of glass structures - Part 1: Basis of design and
materials

Conception et calcul des structures en verre - Partie 1 : Bemessung und Konstruktion von Tragwerken aus

Bases de conception et matériaux Glas - Teil 1: Grundlagen der Bemessung und
Materialien

This draft Technical Specification is submitted to CEN members for Vote. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/TC 250.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a Technical Specification. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change

without notice and shall not be referred to as a Technical Specification.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. FprCEN/TS 19100-1:2021 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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FprCEN/TS 19100-1:2021 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ...................................................................................................................................................... 3

0 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................... 7

1.1 Scope of FprCEN/TS 19100-1 ..................................................................................................................... 7

1.2 Assumptions ..................................................................................................................................................... 7

2 Normative references ................................................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms, definitions and symbols ................................................................................................................ 8

3.1 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................. 8

3.2 Symbols and abbreviations ...................................................................................................................... 12

4 Basis of design ............................................................................................................................................... 13

4.1 Requirements ................................................................................................................................................ 13

4.2 Principles of limit state design ................................................................................................................ 14

4.3 Basic variables .............................................................................................................................................. 16

4.4 Verification by the partial factor method ............................................................................................ 17

5 Materials .......................................................................................................................................................... 18

5.1 Glass .................................................................................................................................................................. 18

5.2 Interlayer ........................................................................................................................................................ 20

5.3 Insulating glass units (IGUs) .................................................................................................................... 21

5.4 Material for further load transfer elements ....................................................................................... 21

6 Durability ........................................................................................................................................................ 21

7 Structural Analysis ...................................................................................................................................... 22

7.1 Basic assumptions........................................................................................................................................ 22

7.2 Determination of sectional forces, stresses and deformations ................................................... 22

7.3 General structural provisions ................................................................................................................. 24

8 Ultimate limit state ...................................................................................................................................... 25

8.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 25

8.2 Partial factors ................................................................................................................................................ 25

8.3 Resistance ....................................................................................................................................................... 26

9 Serviceability Limit States ........................................................................................................................ 26

Annex A (informative) Bending strength resistance .................................................................................... 28

Annex B (informative) Bending strength resistance with interference factor ................................... 32

Annex C (informative) Thermally induced stress caused by temperature differentials in the

glass pane ........................................................................................................................................................ 36

Annex D (informative) Risk Assessment .......................................................................................................... 40

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 41

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European foreword

This document (FprCEN/TS 19100-1:2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 250

“Structural Euro-codes”, the secretariat of which is held by BSI. CEN/TC 250 is responsible for all

Structural Eurocodes and has been assigned responsibility for structural and geotechnical design matters

by CEN.
This document is currently submitted to the Vote on TS.

This document has been prepared under Mandate M/515 issued to CEN by the European Commission

and the European Free Trade Association.

This document has been drafted to be used in conjunction with relevant execution, material, product and

test standards, and to identify requirements for execution, materials, products and testing that are relied

upon by this document.
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0 Introduction
0.1 Introduction to the Eurocodes

The Structural Eurocodes comprise the following standards generally consisting of a number of Parts:

• EN 1990 Eurocode: Basis of structural and geotechnical design
• EN 1991 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures
• EN 1992 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures
• EN 1993 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures
• EN 1994 Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures
• EN 1995 Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures
• EN 1996 Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures
• EN 1997 Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design
• EN 1998 Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance
• EN 1999 Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium structures

The Eurocodes are intended for use by designers, clients, manufacturers, constructors, relevant

authorities (in exercising their duties in accordance with national or international regulations),

educators, software developers, and committees drafting standards for related product, testing and

execution standards.

NOTE Some aspects of design are most appropriately specified by relevant authorities or, where not specified,

can be agreed on a project-specific basis between relevant parties such as designers and clients. The Eurocodes

identify such aspects making explicit reference to relevant authorities and relevant parties.

0.2 Introduction to FprCEN/TS 19100 (all parts)

FprCEN/TS 19100 applies to the structural design of mechanically supported glass components and

assemblies of glass components. It complies with the principles and requirements for the safety and

serviceability of structures, the basis of their design and verification that are given in EN 1990, Basis of

structural design.
FprCEN/TS 19100 is subdivided into three parts:
— Part 1: Basis of design and materials
— Part 2: Design of out-of-plane loaded glass components
— Part 3: Design of in-plane loaded glass components and mechanical joints
0.3 Introduction to FprCEN/TS 19100-1

FprCEN/TS 19100-1 applies to the structural design of mechanically supported glass components and

assemblies of glass components according FprCEN/TS 19100-2 and FprCEN/TS 19100-3.

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0.4 Verbal forms used in the Eurocodes

The verb “shall" expresses a requirement strictly to be followed and from which no deviation is permitted

in order to comply with the Eurocodes.

The verb “should” expresses a highly recommended choice or course of action. Subject to national

regulation and/or any relevant contractual provisions, alternative approaches could be used/adopted

where technically justified.

The verb “may" expresses a course of action permissible within the limits of the Eurocodes.

The verb “can" expresses possibility and capability; it is used for statements of fact and clarification of

concepts.
0.5 National annex for FprCEN/TS 19100-1

FprCEN/TS 19100-1 gives values within notes indicating where national choices can be made. Therefore,

a national document implementing FprCEN/TS 19100-1 can have a National Annex containing all

Nationally Determined Parameters to be used for the assessment of buildings and civil engineering works

in the relevant country.

When not given in the National Annex, the national choice will be the default choice specified in the

relevant Technical Specification.
The national choice can be specified by a relevant authority.

When no choice is given in the Technical Specification, in the National Annex, or by a relevant authority,

the national choice can be agreed for a specific project by appropriate parties.
National choice is allowed in FprCEN/TS 19100-1 through the following clauses:
3.1.16 NOTE
4.1.2. (1) NOTE 2
4.2.4 (1) NOTE 2
4.4.2 (2) NOTE
4.4.2 (3) NOTE
5.2 (1) NOTE 4
7.2.2 (2) NOTE
7.2.2 (3) NOTE
7.2.2 (5) NOTE
7.2.4 (2) NOTE 2
7.2.4 (2) NOTE 3
8.2 (2) NOTE
8.3.2 (1) NOTE 1
Clause 9 (2) NOTE
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National choice is allowed in FprCEN/TS 19100-1 on the application of the following informative

annexes:
Annex A Bending strength resistance based on nominal product strengths

Annex B Bending strength resistance based on intrinsic glass strength and glass surface pre-stress

Annex C Thermally induced stress caused by temperature differentials in the glass pane

Annex D Risk Assessment

The National Annex can contain, directly or by reference, non-contradictory complementary information

for ease of implementation, provided it does not alter any provisions of the Eurocodes.

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1 Scope
1.1 Scope of FprCEN/TS 19100-1

(1) FprCEN/TS 19100-1 gives basic design rules for mechanically supported glass components. This

document is concerned with the requirements for resistance, serviceability, fracture characteristics and

glass component failure consequences in relation to human safety, robustness, redundancy and

durability of glass structures.

(2) This document covers the basis of design, materials, durability and structural design.

(3) This document also covers construction rules for the structural design of glass components.

1.2 Assumptions
(1) The assumptions of EN 1990 apply to FprCEN/TS 19100-1.

(2) This document is intended to be used in conjunction with EN 1990, EN 1991 (all parts), EN 1993-1-1,

EN 1995-1-1, EN 1998-1, EN 1999-1-1 and EN 12488.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE See the Bibliography for a list of other documents cited that are not normative references, including

those referenced as recommendations (i.e. through ‘should’ clauses) and permissions (i.e. through ‘may’ clauses).

EN 572 (all parts), Glass in building - Basic soda lime silicate glass products

EN 1279-5:2018, Glass in building - Insulating glass units - Part 5: Product standard

EN 1863-1, Glass in building - Heat strengthened soda lime silicate glass - Part 1: Definition and description

EN 1990:2002, Eurocode - Basis of structural design
EN 1991 (all parts), Eurocode 1 - Actions on structures

EN 12150-1, Glass in building - Thermally toughened soda lime silicate safety glass - Part 1: Definition and

description

EN 12488, Glass in building - Glazing recommendations - Assembly principles for vertical and sloping

glazing

EN 13022-1, Glass in building - Structural sealant glazing - Part 1: Glass products for structural sealant

glazing systems for supported and unsupported monolithic and multiple glazing

EN 13022-2, Glass in building - Structural sealant glazing - Part 2: Assembly rules

EN 14179-1, Glass in building - Heat soaked thermally toughened soda lime silicate safety glass - Part 1:

Definition and description

EN 15434, Glass in building - Product standard for structural and/or ultra-violet resistant sealant (for use

with structural sealant glazing and/or insulating glass units with exposed seals)

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3 Terms, definitions and symbols
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

• ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
Table 3.1— Glass component, glass member and system of glass members
Monolithic glass (MG)
Key
1 pane
2 single ply
Laminated glass (LG)
Key
1 pane
2 ply
Glass
component
3 interlayer
Insulated glass unit (IGU)
Key
1 pane
2 ply
3 interlayer
4 cavity
5 spacer
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Glass Glass component +
member boundary conditions
System of Glass components + their
glass interconnections +
members boundary conditions
3.1.1
glass component

glass product being monolithic, laminated, and/or insulating glass unit, after installation

Note 1 to entry: See Table 3.1.
3.1.2
glass member

glass component with clear mechanical boundary conditions so that the effects (stresses or sectional

forces) of a defined action can be calculated
3.1.3
insulating glass unit
IGU

assembly consisting of at least two panes of glass, separated by one or more spacers, hermetically sealed

along the periphery, mechanically stable and durable
3.1.4
limit State Scenario
LSS

set of limit states (SLS, ULS, FLS and PFLS) to be verified whilst designing a glass component

3.1.5
ultimate Limit State
ULS
state associated with collapse or with other similar forms of structural failure

Note 1 to entry: Generally, corresponds to the maximum load-carrying resistance of a structure or structural

member.
3.1.6
serviceability Limit State
SLS

state that correspond to conditions beyond which specified service requirements for a structure or

structural member are no longer met
3.1.7
failure

event where the total loss of structural resistance of the glass component or supports or bonding occurs

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3.1.8
fracture
macroscopic physical disintegration due to crack propagation in glass

Note 1 to entry: For monolithic sections, a glass fracture results into a failure of the component; for laminated

sections, a glass fracture of a ply or even of all plies does not necessarily result into a failure of the component.

3.1.9
fracture Limit State
FLS

state beyond which, during accidental fracture of a glass component or part of glass component

— the prevention of injuries by contact with glass fragments and/or,
— the prevention of body to pass through and/or,

— the ability to limit the failure to that glass component or part of glass component

are no longer satisfied without an appropriate choice of glass mode of breakage, boundary conditions and

other mechanical characteristics
3.1.10
post Fracture Limit State
PFLS

state beyond which, in case of accidental failure of a glass component, the required residual load bearing

capacity provided by
— redundancy of the glass component,
— undamaged ply(ies) of that glass component,
— structure alternative load path(s)
during a defined period is no longer satisfied
3.1.11
redundancy

provision or existence of additional load paths or structural systems than strictly necessary to resist

design actions
3.1.12
robustness

ability of a structure to withstand unforeseen adverse events without being damaged to an extent

disproportionate to the original cause
Note 1 to entry: See EN 1990 and EN 1991-1-7.
3.1.13
ply
sheet of monolithic glass, cut to size and shape and possibly edge-worked
3.1.14
in-plane loaded glass component

glass component subjected to a significant force component parallel to the glass surface

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3.1.15
out-of-plane loaded glass component

glass component subjected to a significant force component perpendicular to the glass surface

3.1.16
vertical glass component
glass component which subtends an angle of no more than ± 15° to the vertical

Note 1 to entry: The value of the angle is given in EN 13830, unless the National Annex gives different values for

use in a country.
3.1.17
interlayer

one or more layers of material acting as an adhesive and separator between plies of glass and/or plastic

glazing sheet material

Note 1 to entry: The interlayer can also give additional performance to the finished product, for example impact

resistance, resistance to fire, solar control and acoustic insulation.

Note 2 to entry: The interlayer itself can also encapsulate non-adhesive films and plates, wires, grids, etc.

3.1.18
laminated glass

assembly consisting of one ply of glass with one or more plies of glass and/or plastics sheet material

joined together with one or more interlayers (see EN ISO 12543-1)

Note 1 to entry: The number of glass plies and the requirements on the interlayer depend on the application of

the glass component.
3.1.19
laminated safety glass

laminated glass, where in case of breakage the interlayer serves to retain the glass fragments, limits the

size of opening, offers residual resistance and reduces the risk of cutting or piercing injuries (see

EN ISO 12543-1)
3.1.20
effective thickness

mechanically equivalent thickness used in structural calculation to represent the “as if monolithic

thickness” of laminated glass when calculating its resistance or stiffness
3.1.21
thermal stress

stress induced by thermal expansion, e.g. due to temperature differences in the glass

3.1.22
cavity pressure

pressure applied to the panes of insulating glass units due to the internal volume of the hermetically

sealed cavity or cavities being affected by variable cavity loading and permanent cavity loading

3.1.23
variable cavity loading

pressure acting on the panes of insulating glass unit resulting from the effect of sealed cavity volume

variations due to temperature and atmospheric changes
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3.1.24
permanent cavity loading

pressure acting on the panes of insulating glass unit resulting solely from a difference in altitude between

the place of assembly (sealing) and the place of use
3.1.25
pre-stressed glass

glass within which a permanent surface compressive stress has been induced by a controlled process in

order to give it increased resistance to mechanical and thermal stress and prescribed fracture

characteristics

Note 1 to entry: Pre-stressed glasses can be thermally toughened glass, heat soaked thermally toughened glass,

heat strengthened glass or chemically strengthened glass.
3.1.26
mid plane of a hole
symmetry plane of a hole in a glass ply, which is parallel to the glass surfaces
3.1.27
glazing block

piece of suitable material, placed between the glass component and the frame preventing direct contact

between the two of them (see EN 12488)
3.2 Symbols and abbreviations

For the purposes of this document, the following symbols and abbreviations apply.

E Young’s modulus of glass
Ed Design value of effect of actions
E Characteristic value of effect of actions
F Design value of an action
Interlayer shear modulus or interlayer shear relaxation modulus

N Design normal forces in the relevant direction of the considered cross section or joint

E,d
N Design resisting normal forces in the direction of the corresponding effect
R,d

V Design transverse forces in the relevant direction of the considered cross section or joint

E,d

V Design resisting transverse forces in the direction of the corresponding effect

R,d

M Design moments in the relevant direction of the considered cross section or joint

E,d
M Design resisting moments in the direction of the corresponding effect
R,d
R Design values for resistance
R Characteristic value for resistance
T External air temperature
ext
T Maximum summer air temperature on the side of the building
max
T Minimum winter air temperature on the side of the building
min
f Characteristic value of glass strength after a strengthening treatment
b,k
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f Design bending strength of glass
g,d
f Characteristic bending strength of annealed glass
g,k
Characteristic surface prestress
pk,
Glass ply thickness
k Coefficient accounting for the reduction of the process-induced prestress
k Edge or hole finishing factor
Edge or hole prestress factor
ep,
k Modification factor depending on load duration
mod
k Surface treatment factor
X Characteristic value of a material property
Temperature change
a Design values of the geometric parameters
Coefficient of linear thermal expansion
γ Material partial factor
M,i
γ Partial factor associated with the uncertainty of the resistance model
Partial factor for prestress on the surface
λ Size-effect factor area
λl Size-effect factor length (edge, hole)
Poisson’s ratio
Glass density
ρ g

σ Design principal stresses on the surface of the glass in the relevant direction

prin,Ed
ψ Cavity pressure combination factors
cp,i
4 Basis of design
4.1 Requirements
4.1.1 Basic requirements

(1) Glass structures shall be designed in accordance with the general rules given in EN 1990.

(2) In conjunction with EN 1990, the specific provisions for resistance, serviceability, durability and

robustness given in this document should be used.
4.1.2 Consequences classes

(1) Considering the consequences of failure or malfunction, glass components shall be classified

according to the Consequences Classes given in Table 4.1.
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Table 4.1 — Definition of consequences classes
Consequences Examples of buildings and civil
Description
class engineering works
High consequence for loss of human life, Grandstands, public buildings where

CC3 or economic, social or environmental consequences of failure are high (e.g. a

consequences very great concert hall)
Medium consequence for loss of human Residential and office buildings, public

CC2 life, economic, social or environmental buildings where consequences of failure

consequences considerable are medium (e.g. an office building)
Low consequence for loss of human life, Agricultural buildings where people do
CC1 and economic, social or environmental not normally enter (e.g. storage
consequences small or negligible buildings), greenhouses

NOTE 1 For infill panels that are in a class of consequence lower than those covered in Table 4.1, see EN 16612.

NOTE 2 The classification of a glass component into CCs can be given in the National Annex.

NOTE 3 Guidance on classification of glass components into CCs can also be obtained from Risk Assessment (RA).

The result of RA can also provide further information, e.g. about glass type, glass structure and other structural

details. The necessity of conducting RA depends on the individual requirement of the project or on the authorities'

requirements. Further information on RA is given in Annex D.
4.1.3 Design working life

(1) Glass components should be designed for a design working life category according to EN 1990.

NOTE The design working life refers to structural design only. Other performance requirements (e.g. thermal

insulation, weather tightness, etc.) or aesthetic requirements can lead to a different working life of a glass

component.

(2) It is recommended to establish a maintenance concept, explicitly describing inspection measures.

(3) Requirements for replaceability may be as specified by the relevant authority or, where not specified,

agreed for a specific project by the relevant parties.

(4) Glass components of FprCEN/TS 19100-3 should correspond to the design working life of the rest of

the global structure.
NOTE See also Clause 6 “Durability”.
4.2 Principles of limit state design
4.2.1 General

(1) The choice of glass is depending on the mode of breakage. Therefore, the required mode of breakage

and subsequently, the choice of glass type should be clarified prior to the verification in the limit states.

(2) Glass components should be designed for the following limit states as relevant:

— the Serviceability Limit State (SLS) where glass is unfractured,
— the Ultimate Limit State (ULS) where glass is unfractured,
— the Fracture Limit State (FLS) during the event of fracture,
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— the Post Fracture Limit State (PFLS) where glass is fractured.
NOTE 1 For SLS, see EN 1990 as well as 4.2.2 and Clause 9 of this document.
NOTE 2 For ULS, see EN 1990 as well as 4.2.2 and Clause 8 of this document.
NOTE 3 For FLS and PFLS, see 4.2.3 and FprCEN/TS 19100-2 and FprCEN/TS 19100-3.
NOTE 4 See a
...

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