Biobased products - Overview of standards

This Technical Report analyzes a set of standards, documents and other reports, related to bio-based products. The report is limited to the aims of mandate M/429 on bio-based products, and hence excludes traditional products, energy applications and food.

Biobasierte Produkte - Übersicht über Normen

Dieser Fachbericht ist das Ergebnis einer Analyse von Normen, Berichten und anderen Veröffentlichungen im Zusammenhang mit bio-basierten Produkten. Er beschränkt sich auf die Ziele des Mandats M/429 und schließt daher traditionelle Produkte, Nahrungsmittel und Energie aus.

Produits biosourcés - Vue d'ensemble des normes

Le présent Rapport technique analyse un ensemble de normes, documents et autres rapports relatifs aux
produits biosourcés. Le rapport est limité aux objets du mandat M/429 relatif aux produits biosourcés et, par
conséquent, exclut les produits traditionnels, les applications énergétiques et les denrées alimentaires.

Bioizdelki - Pregled standardov

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
13-Jan-2014
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
03-Jan-2014
Due Date
10-Mar-2014
Completion Date
14-Jan-2014

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 16208:2014
01-februar-2014
Bioizdelki - Pregled standardov
Biobased products - Overview of standards
Biobasierte Produkte - Übersicht über Normen
Produits biosourcés - Vue d'ensemble des normes
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 16208:2011
ICS:
13.020.55 Biološki izdelki Biobased products
SIST-TP CEN/TR 16208:2014 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 16208:2014
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SIST-TP CEN/TR 16208:2014
TECHNICAL REPORT
CEN/TR 16208
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
May 2011
ICS 13.020.60; 71.100
English Version
Biobased products - Overview of standards

Produits biosourcés - Vue d'ensemble des normes Biobasierte Produkte - Übersicht von Normen und

Standards

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 26 March 2011. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/SS N99.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,

Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2011 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TR 16208:2011: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

Foreword .............................................................................................................................................................. 3

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 4

2 Criteria & approach ............................................................................................................................... 4

2.1 Results presented in this report........................................................................................................... 4

2.2 Criteria list .............................................................................................................................................. 4

2.3 Analysis approach ................................................................................................................................. 5

3 Terms and definitions ........................................................................................................................... 5

3.1 Bio-content / Amount of renewable raw materials ............................................................................. 5

3.2 Product functionality / Technical performance .................................................................................. 6

3.3 End of life / Biodegradability / Compostability / Recycling / Durability ........................................... 7

3.4 Life-Cycle Assessment / GHG emissions / Energy use / Other LCA criteria ................................... 8

3.5 Sustainability / Environmental / Social / Economic criteria .............................................................. 9

4 Standards and documents analysis matrix ......................................................................................10

5 Scope of standards .............................................................................................................................13

5.1 Vocabulary ............................................................................................................................................13

5.2 Life Cycle Analysis ..............................................................................................................................14

5.3 Bio-based content ...............................................................................................................................30

5.4 Specific products .................................................................................................................................33

6 Coverage of criteria .............................................................................................................................43

6.1 Bio-based content ...............................................................................................................................43

6.2 Product functionality ...........................................................................................................................43

6.3 End of life ..............................................................................................................................................46

6.4 Life-Cycle Analysis ..............................................................................................................................47

6.5 Sustainability........................................................................................................................................48

7 Conclusions .........................................................................................................................................50

Annex A (informative) End-of-Life standards .................................................................................................51

Annex B (informative) Related Technical Committees ..................................................................................56

Bibliography ......................................................................................................................................................57

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Foreword

This document (CEN/TR 16208:2011) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/BT/WG 209 “Bio-

based products”,, the secretariat of which is held by DIN .

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

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1 Scope

This Technical Report analyzes a set of standards, documents and other reports, related to bio-based

products. The report is limited to the aims of mandate M/429 on bio-based products, and hence excludes

traditional products, energy applications and food.
2 Criteria & approach
2.1 Results presented in this report
1. Criteria and approach

2. A standards and documents analysis matrix, which identifies relevant standards, manuals and reference

documents on bio-based products, and their relevance to pre-defined criteria

3. A chapter with descriptions of the scope of all the relevant standards, manuals and reference documents;

an evaluation of the applicable criteria to each paper ('horizontal assessment" of the matrix)

4. A chapter with an evaluation of coverage per criterion and the resulting gap ("vertical assessment" of the

matrix)
5. Conclusions
Sources of information include:
 EU Lead Market Initiative documents (LMI);
 standards (CEN, ASTM, ASME, BSI, VDI);
 web posted information such as certification schemes; and
 knowledge of Task group members;
2.2 Criteria list

In relation to bio-based products, the following criteria are evaluated in this report:

1. Bio-content / Amount of Renewable Raw materials;
2. Product Functionality / Technical Performance ;
3. End of life:
a. Biodegradability;
b. Compostability;
c. Recycling;
d. Durability.
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4. Life-Cycle Assessment:
a. GHG emissions;
b. Energy use;
c. Other LCA criteria.
5. Sustainability:
a. Environmental;
b. Social;
c. Economic.
2.3 Analysis approach

The documents in the gap-analysis matrix are evaluated by their relevance. First, their scope is presented.

Then their applicability for bio-based product standards in general terms is evaluated. This is the horizontal

evaluation.

A vertical evaluation on each criterion will be presented, in order to highlight coverage and gaps.

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

NOTE Existing definitions [and their source(s)] of the evaluated criteria are listed below.

3.1 Bio-content / Amount of renewable raw materials
3.1.1
bio-based
derived from biomass
[CEN BT/WG 209]
3.1.2
bio-based carbon content

carbon in a sample that is of recent origin, as evidenced by its 14C isotope content

NOTE 1 The amount of bio-based carbon in the material or product is often expressed as a percent of the

weight(mass) of the total organic carbon of the product
[CEN/TR 15932]

NOTE 2 ASTM D6852-02 defines bio-based content as the amount of bio-based material as fraction weight or percent

weight of the total material
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3.1.3
bio-based product
product wholly or partly bio-based
NOTE The bio-based product is normally characterised by the bio-based content.
[CEN BT/WG 209]
3.1.4
biomass

material of biological origin excluding material embedded in geological formations and/or fossilized

NOTE This definition refers to the well-known short-cycle of carbon, i.e. the life cycle of biological materials (e.g.

plants, algae, marine organisms, forestry, micro-organisms, animals, and biological waste from households, agriculture,

animals and food/feed production).
[CEN BT/WG 209]
3.1.5
biomass content
mass fraction of bio-based material
NOTE Claim of biomass content is difficult to verify due to lack of standards.
[CEN/TR 15932]
3.1.6
renewable raw material

material used to produce a product and replenished by natural processes at a rate comparable to its

exploitation rate
[Adapted from ISO 14040 and CEN/TR 15932]
3.2 Product functionality / Technical performance
3.2.1
product
any goods or service
[ISO 14040:2006]
3.2.2
product function

characteristic attribute or characteristic in the performance and use of a product

[ISO 14024:1999]

NOTE The first criterion to be considered in the choice of materials and design of a product is that it shall perform the

function for which it is intended to an acceptable standard. These criteria will vary depending on the application but the key

requirements are:

 meeting legal and statutory requirements including for example composition control and migration limits for food

contact, physical performance for containing of hazardous products;

 functional including physical strength, hygiene, safety and barrier performance;

 use performance including opening, closing, pouring/emptying, child resistant;
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 minimum use of material, consistent with the three points above;
 content identification and communication.

The specifications of the product should be defined by the performance requirements, and not by the source of material.

3.3 End of life / Biodegradability / Compostability / Recycling / Durability
3.3.1
biodegradation

degradation caused by biological activity especially by enzymatic action leading to a significant change of the

chemical structure of a material
[EN 13193:2000]
3.3.2
biodegradable

capable of undergoing biological anaerobic or aerobic degradation leading to CO , H O, methane, biomass

2 2
and mineral salts depending on the environmental conditions of the process
[CEN/TR 15932]
3.3.3
compostability

potential of a material to be disintegrated and biodegraded without hindrance in a composting process

[Based on EN 13193:2000]
3.3.4
durability

capability of a product or any component to satisfy, with planned maintenance, the design performance

requirements over a specified period of time under the influence of the environmental actions, or as a result of

a self-ageing process
[Adapted from ISO 15928-3]
3.3.5
maximum level of biodegradation

degree of biodegradation, measured in percent, of a chemical compound or organic matter in a test, above

which no further biodegradation takes place during the test
[ISO 14853:2005]
3.3.6
organic recycling (organic recovery)

aerobic (composting) or anaerobic (biomethanization) treatment, under controlled conditions and using

microorganisms, of the biodegradable parts of waste, which produces stabilized organic residues or methane.

Landfill shall not be considered a form of organic recycling
[adapted from Directive 94/62/EC]
3.3.7
recycling

reprocessing in a production process of the waste materials for the original purpose or for other purposes

including organic recycling but excluding energy recovery
[Directive 94/62/EC]
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3.3.8
ultimate biodegradability

breakdown of an organic chemical compound by micro-organisms in the presence of oxygen to carbon

dioxide, water and mineral salts of any other elements present (mineralization) and new biomass or in the

absence of oxygen to carbon dioxide, methane, mineral salts and new biomass
[EN 13432:2000, also in EN 14995:2006]
3.4 Life-Cycle Assessment / GHG emissions / Energy use / Other LCA criteria
3.4.1
greenhouse gas
GHG

gaseous constituent of the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic, that absorbs and emits radiation at

specific wavelengths within the spectrum of infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface, the atmosphere,

and clouds

NOTE GHGs include carbon dioxide (CO ), methane (CH ), nitrous oxide (N O), hydro-fluorocarbons (HFCs),

2 4 2
perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)
[ISO 14064-1:2006]
3.4.2
greenhouse gas emission
total mass of a GHG released to the atmosphere over a specified period of time
[ISO 14064-1:2006]
3.4.2
life cycle

consecutive and interlinked stages of a product system, from raw material acquisition or generation from

natural resources to final disposal
[ISO 14040:2006]
3.4.3
life cycle assessment (LCA)

compilation and evaluation of the inputs, outputs and the potential environmental impacts of a product system

throughout its life cycle
[ISO 14040:2006]
3.4.4
life cycle inventory (LCI)

collection and assembly of materials and energy input and output data for a specified product system

NOTE LCI is only one of the phases in conducting an LCA and is not an assessment of the environmental impacts

associated with the product system
[ASTM D 7075 – 04]
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3.5 Sustainability / Environmental / Social / Economic criteria
3.5.1
biological diversity values

intrinsic, ecological, genetic, social, economic, scientific, educational, cultural, recreational and aesthetic

values of biological diversity and its components
[NTA 8080]
3.5.2
environmental aspect

element of an organization’s activity or products that can interact with the environment [ISO 14021:1999]

3.5.3
environmental claim

statement, symbol or graphic that indicates an environmental aspect of a product, a component or packaging

[ISO 14021:1999]

NOTE An environmental claim may be made on product or packaging labels, through product literature, technical

bulletins, advertising, publicity, telemarketing, as well as through digital or electronic media such as Internet.

3.5.4
environmental impact

any change to the environment, whether adverse or beneficial, wholly or partially resulting from a products

environmental aspects
[Adapted from ISO 14001:2004]
3.5.5
environmental impact assessment

a process of predicting and evaluating the effects of an action or series of actions on the environment, then

using the conclusions as a tool in planning and decision-making
[RSPO]
3.5.6
environmental profile or environmental footprint

environmental consequences of the creation of a material, measured in terms of impact indicators such as the

generation or recapture of CO2, biodegradability, recycling, and so forth
[ASTM D6852]
3.5.7
product environmental criteria

environmental requirements that the product shall meet in order to be awarded an environmental label

[ISO 14024:1999]
3.5.8
social and economic sustainability criteria

NOTE At the moment there are no clear definitions on social and economic sustainability criteria. This is currently

under investigation in CEN/TC 383.
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4 Standards and documents analysis matrix
Terminology and Definitions for
Biomass Production, Harvesting
ANSI/ASAB and Collection, Storage,
E S Processing, Conversion and
593:2006 Utilization 5.1 y y y y n n n n y y y n n n n
Plastics - Recommendation for
CEN/TR terminology and characterisation
15932 of biopolymers and bioplastics 5.1 y y y y y y n n y y n n y n n
Int Life Cycle Data system
handbook and European
ILCD/ELCD database 5.2 n n y n n y n y y y y n y n n
CR13910
CEN TC Reporting criteria for life cycle
261 analysis for packaging 5.2 n n y n n n n y n n y n y n n
Standard Practice for Evaluating
and Reporting Environmental
ASTM Performance of Biobased
D7075 Products 5.2 y n y y n n n y n n y y y n n
Life-cycle management in the
VDI 4431 manufacturing industry 5.2 n n y n n y n y n n n n y y n
ISO 14064- Greenhouse gases -- Part 1: 5.2
1:2006 Specification with guidance at the
organization level for
quantification and reporting of
greenhouse gas emissions and
removals n n y n n n n y y n n n n n n
ISO/WD
14067-1 Carbon footprint of products 5.2 n n y y n y n y y y n n n n n
ISO/NP Water footprint - principles, 5.2
14046 requirements and guidance
n n y n n n n y y n n n n n n
Sustainability criteria for biomass
NTA 8080 for energy purposes 5.2 n n n n n n n y y y y y y y y
Document Reference
Title
1. Bio-content / Amount of
Renewable Raw materials
2. Product Functionality /
Technical Performance
3. End of life
a.Biodegradability
b.Compostability
c. Recycling
d. Durability
4. Life-Cycle Assessment
a. GHG emissions
b. Energy use
c. Other LCA criteria
5. Sustainability
a.Environmental
b. Social
c. Economic
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BEES USDA green public procurement 5.2 y n y y y y n y y y y y y y y
Standard Guide for Determination
of Biobased Content, Resources
ASTM Consumption, and Environmental
D6852 Profile of Materials and Products 5.2 y n n n n n n y y y y n y n n
ISO DIS
26000 Guidance on social responsibility 5.2 n n y n n n n y y y y y y y y
Environmental labels and 5.2
declarations - Type III
environmental declarations -
ISO 14025 Principles and procedures n n y y n n n y y y y n n n n
Environmental management - Life 5.2
ISO 14040 cycle assessment - Principles and
series framework n y y n n y n y y y n n y n n
Specification for the assessment
of the life cycle greenhouse gas
PAS 2050 emissions of goods and services 5.2 y y y n n y n y y y n n y n n
General principles for an
environmental communication on
BP X30-323 mass market products 5.2 y y y n n y n y y y y n y n n
Standard Test Methods for
Determining the Biobased
Content of Natural Range
Materials Using Radiocarbon and
ASTM Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry
D6866-6a Analysis 5.3 y n n n n n n n n n n n n n n
ASTM D7026 - 04 Standard
Guide for Sampling and Reporting
of Results for Determination of
ASTM Biobased Content of Materials via
D7026 Carbon Isotope Analysis 5.3 y n n n n n n n n n n n n n n
Plastics - Biopolymers -
WI Determination of biobased carbon
00249737 content 5.3 y n n n n n n n n n n n n n n
Solid recovered fuels - Method of
the determination of biomass
EN 15440 content 5.3 y n n n n n n n n n n n n n n
Lubricants, industrial oils and 5.4
related products (class L) - Family
H (Hydraulic systems) -
Specifications for categories
ISO 15380 HETG, HEPG, HEES and HEPR n y y y n y n n n n n n y n n
EU Ecolabel Criteria_for_the_award_of_the_E
2005/360/E uropean_Eco-
C label_to_lubricants.pdf 5.4 y y y y n n n n n n n n y n n
RAL-UZ-48 Readily
Biodegradable Chain Lubricants
Blue Angel for Power Saws 5.4 n n y y n n n n n n n n y n n
Blue Angel RAL-UZ 64 Lubricants & Forming 5.4 n n y y n n n n n n n n y n n
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oils
Blue Angel RAL-UZ 79 Hydraulic Fluids 5.4 n y y y n n n n n n n n y n n
Hydraulic fluids - Requirements
SS 155434 and test methods 5.4 y y y y n n n n n n n n y n n
Lubricants, industrial oil and
related products (Class L)
Specifications for family X
SS 155470 (Greases) 5.4 n y y y n n n n n n n n y n n
Lubricants, industrial oils and
related products (Class L)—
ISO DIS Family X (Greases)—
12924 Specification 5.4 n y n n n n n n n n n n n n n
Plastics - Evaluation of
compostability - Test scheme and
EN 14995 specifications 5.4 n n y y y n n y n n n n n n n
Packaging - Requirements for
packaging recoverable through
composting and biodegradation -
Test scheme and evaluation
EN criteria for the final acceptance of
13432:2000 packaging 5.4 n n y y y n n n n n n n n n n
Determination of the ultimate
aerobic biodegradability of plastic
materials under controlled
composting conditions - Method
EN ISO by analysis of evolved carbon
14855- dioxide - Part 1: General method
1:2005 (ISO 14855-1:2005) 5.4 n n y y n n n n n n n n n n n
Plastics - Biodegradable plastics
prCEN/TR in or on soil - Recovery, disposal
15822 and related environmental issues 5.4 n n y y n n n n n n n n n n n
Biodegradable materials for use
in agriculture and horticulture —
NF U 52- Mulching products —
001 Requirements and test methods 5.4 n y y y y n y n n n n n y n n
CEN
TS15534-1,
2 & 3 Wood plastic composites 5.4 n y n n n y y n n n n n n n n
XP T 25- Reinforcement fibres - Flax fibres
501 for plastics composites 5.4 n y n n n n n n n n n n n n n
Plastics piping systems for the
ISO 22621 supply of gaseous fuels 5.4 n y n n n y y n n n n n n n n
Cradle to Cradle to CradleSM Certification
cradle Program 5.4 y n y y y y n n n y y y y y n
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5 Scope of standards
5.1 Vocabulary

5.1.1 ANSI/ASABE S 593:2006 - Terminology and Definitions for Biomass Production, Harvesting and

Collection, Storage, Processing, Conversion and Utilization
5.1.1.1 Scope of ANSI/ASABE S 593

The purpose of this standard is to provide uniform terminology and definitions in the general area of biomass

production and utilization. This includes all the terminologies that are used in biomass feedstock production,

harvesting, collecting, handling, storage, processing and conversion, bioenergy, biofuels, biopower and

bioproducts.
5.1.1.2 Evaluation of ANSI/ASABE S 593

This standard provides a list of 69 definitions related to biomass and production, particularly from an energy

point of view. The definitions include three main categories of biomass, which are primary, secondary and

tertiary biomass. Animal products are not included in the primary biomass. Bio-based product is defined as

fuels, food, feed, chemicals, or industrial materials commercially produced in whole or in-part from biomass

materials. The term Greenhouse Gases is explained slightly deviating from the ISO 14064 definition. Other

terms are more related to energy and production, and do not overlap with the definitions as posted in this

report.

5.1.2 CEN/TR 15932 Plastics - Recommendation for terminology and characterisation of bioplastics

5.1.2.1 Scope of CEN/TR 15932

This Technical Report gives recommendations for bioplastics and biopolymers related terminology. These

recommendations are based on a discussion of commonly used terms in this field.

This Technical Report also briefly describes the current test methods state of the art in relation to the

characterization of bioplastics and products made thereof.
5.1.2.2 Evaluation of CEN/TR 15932

The terminology and definitions have been documented particularly in order to provide a basis for more

standards in the field of bio-based plastics. Although the terms focus on applications in plastics, most

terminology has a wider applicability to bio-based materials in general. The CEN/TR 15932 definition for

biomass is material of biological origin excluding material embedded in geological formation or fossilized.

Other definitions do not conflict with the definitions of this report.
5.1.2.3 Other vocabulary standards

The following standard could also be considered for bio-based vocabulary, but is not evaluated here:

X30-110, Raw materials and energy – Vocabulary and methodology in determination of energy content –

Energy equivalents
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5.2 Life Cycle Analysis

5.2.1 ILCD - International Reference Life Cycle Data System Handbook / ELCD - European Reference

Life Cycle Database
5.2.1.1 Scope of the ILCD and ELCD

The ILCD and ELCD initiatives are being coordinated at European level by the European Platform on LCA

(http://lct.jrc.ec.europa.eu/eplca). The European Platform on LCA project acts in the context of the European

Commission’s Thematic Strategy on the Prevention and Recycling of Waste (COM (2005) 666) and the

Thematic Strategy on the Sustainable Use of Natural Resources (COM (2005) 670). Finding its foundation in

the European Commission’s Integrated Product Policy Communication (IPP), it provides an important

methodological and data basis also for the integration and operationalisation of Life Cycle Thinking in the

upcoming Sustainable Consumption and Production and Sustainable Industrial Policy Action Plans (SCP/SIP).

The SCP/SIP will build on and further develop resource and waste policies, the Integrated Product Policy

(IPP), the Ecodesign of Energy-using Products (EuP), the Environmental Technologies Action Plan (ETAP),

Green Public Procurement (GPP), the EU Eco-label Regulation, and the Eco-Management and Auditing

Scheme Regulation (EMAS). SCP/SIP will re-enforce their impact, address gaps, and ensure contribution to

global initiatives.
5.2.1.2 Business foundation

While LCA is successfully used in many companies of the private sector, credibility and acceptance of LCA

studies need to be improved. This complementary character of the EU LCA handbook holds especially true for

public comparisons and in communication with the authorities. Also the cost of LCA studies is to be reduced.

The platform project meets these needs by co-ordinating methodological and data format harmonisation

across LCA applications and the development and publication of high-quality industry based reference Life

Cycle Inventory data, and of recommended Life Cycle Impact Assessment factors. This is done in global

cooperation and consultation with third countries and UNEP to ensure international consistency as far as

possible.

The work of the European LCA platform and the ILCD are based on the LCA framework established in

ISO 14020 and ISO 14040. (http://lca.jrc.ec.europa.eu/lcainfohub/index.vm)
5.2.1.3 LCA assessment criteria

The assessment criteria applied in the impact assessment phase of the LCA must be specified before the

inventory analysis starts the collection of the relevant data. See

http://lca.jrc.ec.europa.eu/lcainfohub/index.vm. The following example list of environmental impact categories

on the mid-point level may be included as assessment parameters when performing an LCA.

 Climate change
 Ozone depletion
 Acidification
 Eutrophication
 Photochemical oxidant formation (summer smog)
 Radiation
 Human toxicity
 Ecotoxicity
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 Depletion of abiotic resources
 Use of biotic resources
 Land use

There have been attempts to include socio-economic aspects as assessment criteria. However, the majority of

LCAs at this time consider direct environmental (and human) impacts and resource consumption as

assessment criteria. For noise, a methodological approach has recently been developed, but the availability of

data in LCI databases is very limited yet.

These impacts can further be assessed to derive end-point indicators that relate the above impact category

results to impacts level of the protection targets (human beings, natural environment, resources).

5.2.1.4 ELCD – European Life Cycle database

The ELCD core database comprises Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data from front-running EU-level business

associations and other sources for key materials, energy carriers, transport, and waste management. Focus is

laid on data quality, consistency, and applicability. The respective data sets are officially provided and

approved by the named industry association; some data sets are still under preparation and will be added

subsequently.
5.2.1.5 Evaluation of ELCD and bio-based products
The International Reference Life Cycle D
...

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