Environmental management - Eco-efficiency assessment of product systems - Principles, requirements and guidelines (ISO 14045:2012)

This International Standard describes the principles, requirements and guidelines for eco-efficiency assessment for product systems including a) the goal and scope definition of the eco-efficiency assessment; b) the environmental assessment; c) the product system value assessment; d) the quantification of eco-efficiency; e) interpretation (including quality assurance); f) reporting; g) critical review of the eco-efficiency assessment. Requirements, recommendations and guidelines for specific choices of categories of environmental impact and values are not included. The intended application of the eco-efficiency assessment is considered during the goal and scope definition, but the actual use of the results is outside the scope of this International Standard. This International Standard is not intended to be used as a single base for contractual or regulatory purposes or registration and certification.

Umweltmanagement - Ökoeffizienzbewertung von Produktsystemen - Prinzipien, Anforderungen und Leitlinien (ISO 14045:2012)

Diese Internationale Norm beschreibt die Prinzipien, Anforderungen und Leitlinien der Ökoeffizienzbewertung
von Produktsystemen, einschließlich
a) der Festlegung des Ziels und des Untersuchungsrahmens der Ökoeffizienzbewertung;
b) der Umweltbewertung;
c) der Einschätzung des Produktsystemwertes;
d) der Quantifizierung der Ökoeffizienz;
e) der Auswertung (einschließlich der Qualitätssicherung);
f) der Berichterstattung;
g) der kritischen Prüfung der Ökoeffizienzbewertung.
Anforderungen, Empfehlungen und Leitlinien für bestimmte Auswahlmöglichkeiten von Kategorien von
Umweltauswirkungen (Wirkungskategorien) und Werten sind nicht enthalten. Die vorgesehene Anwendung
der Ökoeffizienzbewertung wird bei der Festlegung des Ziels und des Untersuchungsrahmens berücksichtigt,
die tatsächliche Anwendung der Ergebnisse fällt jedoch nicht in den Anwendungsbereich dieser
Internationalen Norm. Diese Internationale Norm ist nicht zur Verwendung als alleinige Grundlage für
vertragliche oder regulative Zwecke oder für Zulassung und Zertifizierung vorgesehen.

Management environnemental - Évaluation d'efficacité écologique des systèmes de produit - Principes, exigences et lignes directrices (ISO 14045:2012)

L'ISO 14045:2012 décrit les principes, les exigences et fournit les lignes directrices pour la réalisation de l'évaluation de l'éco-efficacité des systèmes de produits dont
la définition des objectifs et du domaine d'application de l'évaluation de l'éco-efficacité,
l'évaluation environnementale,
l'évaluation de la valeur du système de produits,
la quantification de l'éco-efficacité,
l'interprétation (y compris l'assurance qualité),
la communication des résultats, et
la revue critique de l'évaluation de l'éco-efficacité.
Les exigences, recommandations et lignes directrices des choix spécifiques de catégories d'impact environnemental et de valeurs environnementales ne sont pas incluses. L'application envisagée pour les résultats de l'évaluation de l'éco-efficacité est prise en considération lors de la définition des objectifs et du domaine d'application. En revanche, l'application des résultats d'une évaluation de l'éco-efficacité en tant que telle se situe en dehors du domaine d'application de l'ISO 14045:2012.

Ravnanje z okoljem - Ocena okoljske učinkovitosti proizvodnih sistemov - Načela, zahteve in smernice (ISO 14045:2012)

Ta mednarodni standard opisuje načela, zahteve in smernice za oceno okoljske učinkovitosti proizvodnih sistemov, vključno z a) opredelitvijo cilja in področja uporabe ocene okoljske učinkovitosti; b) okoljsko oceno; c) oceno vrednosti proizvodnega sistema; d) količinsko opredelitvijo ekološke učinkovitosti; e) interpretacijo (vključno z zagotavljanjem kakovosti); f) poročanjem in g) kritičnim pregledom ocene okoljske učinkovitosti. Zahteve, priporočila in smernice za posebne izbrane kategorije okoljskih vplivov in vrednot niso vključeni. Načrtovana uporaba ocene okoljske učinkovitosti je obravnavana v opredelitvi cilja in področja uporabe, dejanska uporaba in rezultati pa niso zajeti v področje uporabe tega standarda. Ta mednarodni standard ni namenjen, da bi se uporabljal kot edina podlaga za pogodbene ali regulatorne namene ali registracijo in certificiranje.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
31-May-2011
Publication Date
25-Sep-2012
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
11-Sep-2012
Due Date
16-Nov-2012
Completion Date
26-Sep-2012

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 14045:2012
01-oktober-2012
5DYQDQMH]RNROMHP2FHQDRNROMVNHXþLQNRYLWRVWLSURL]YRGQLKVLVWHPRY1DþHOD
]DKWHYHLQVPHUQLFH ,62

Environmental management - Eco-efficiency assessment of product systems - Principles,

requirements and guidelines (ISO 14045:2012)
Umweltmanagement - Ökoeffizienzbewertung von Produktsystemen - Prinzipien,
Anforderungen und Leitlinien (ISO 14045:2012)
Management environnemental - Évaluation d'efficacité écologique des systèmes de
produit - Principes, exigences et lignes directrices (ISO 14045:2012)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 14045:2012
ICS:
13.020.10 Ravnanje z okoljem Environmental management
SIST EN ISO 14045:2012 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 14045:2012
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SIST EN ISO 14045:2012
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN ISO 14045
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
May 2012
ICS 13.020.10; 13.020.60
English Version
Environmental management - Eco-efficiency assessment of
product systems - Principles, requirements and guidelines (ISO
14045:2012)

Management environnemental - Évaluation de l'éco- Umweltmanagement - Ökoeffizienzbewertung von

efficacité des systèmes de produits - Principes, exigences Produktsystemen - Prinzipien, Anforderungen und Leitlinien

et lignes directrices (ISO 14045:2012) (ISO 14045:2012)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 3 May 2012.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same

status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,

Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2012 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 14045:2012: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 14045:2012
EN ISO 14045:2012 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3

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SIST EN ISO 14045:2012
EN ISO 14045:2012 (E)
Foreword

This document (EN ISO 14045:2012) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 207 “Environmental

management”.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical

text or by endorsement, at the latest by November 2012, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn

at the latest by November 2012.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,

Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 14045:2012 has been approved by CEN as a EN ISO 14045:2012 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 14045:2012
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SIST EN ISO 14045:2012
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 14045
First edition
2012-05-15
Corrected version
2012-07-15
Environmental management — Eco-
efficiency assessment of product
systems — Principles, requirements
and guidelines
Management environnemental — Évaluation de l’écoefficacité des
systèmes de produits — Principes, exigences et lignes directrices
Reference number
ISO 14045:2012(E)
ISO 2012
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SIST EN ISO 14045:2012
ISO 14045:2012(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2012

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s

member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14045:2012
ISO 14045:2012(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ......................................................................................................................................... 1

4 General description of eco-efficiency ............................................................................................................ 3

4.1 Principles of eco-efficiency .............................................................................................................................. 3

4.2 Phases of an eco-efficiency assessment ..................................................................................................... 4

4.3 Key features of an eco-efficiency assessment ........................................................................................... 5

5 Methodological framework ............................................................................................................................... 5

5.1 General requirements ......................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2 Goal and scope definition (including system boundaries, interpretation and limitations) ............. 5

5.3 Environmental assessment .............................................................................................................................. 7

5.4 Product system value assessment ................................................................................................................. 8

5.5 Quantification of eco-efficiency ...................................................................................................................... 9

5.6 Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis .............................................................................................................. 9

5.7 Interpretation ........................................................................................................................................................ 9

6 Reporting and disclosure of results .............................................................................................................10

6.1 General requirements .......................................................................................................................................10

6.2 Further reporting requirements for comparative eco-efficiency assertion intended to be

disclosed to the public .....................................................................................................................................10

7 Critical review ..................................................................................................................................................... 11

7.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................. 11

7.2 Critical review by internal or external expert ............................................................................................. 11

7.3 Critical review by panel of interested parties ............................................................................................12

Annex A (informative) Examples of functional value, monetary value, other values and

value indicators .................................................................................................................................................13

Annex B (informative) Examples of eco-efficiency assessment..........................................................................14

Bibliography .....................................................................................................................................................................38

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 14045:2012
ISO 14045:2012(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International

Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 14045 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 207, Environmental management, Subcommittee

SC 5, Life cycle assessment.
This corrected version of ISO 14045:2012 incorporates the following corrections:

— (page 20) correction of “LCIA” to “LCI” in B.3.2.2, item 5, first bullet, first sentence;

— (page 37) correction of “Another advantage of A and B...” to “Another advantage of A and C...” in B.5.5.2,

first bullet, third sentence.
iv © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14045:2012
ISO 14045:2012(E)
Introduction

Eco-efficiency assessment is a quantitative management tool which enables the study of life-cycle environmental

impacts of a product system along with its product system value for a stakeholder.

Within eco-efficiency assessment, environmental impacts are evaluated using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as

prescribed by other International Standards (ISO 14040, ISO 14044). Consequently, eco-efficiency assessment

shares with LCA many important principles such as life cycle perspective, comprehensiveness, functional unit

approach, iterative nature, transparency and priority of a scientific approach.

The value of the product system may be chosen to reflect, for example, its resource, production, delivery or use

efficiency, or a combination of these. The value may be expressed in monetary terms or other value aspects.

The key objectives of this International Standard are to:

— establish clear terminology and a common methodological framework for eco-efficiency assessment;

— enable the practical use of eco-efficiency assessment for a wide range of product (including service) systems;

— provide clear guidance on the interpretation of eco-efficiency assessment results;

— encourage the transparent, accurate and informative reporting of eco-efficiency assessment results.

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 14045:2012
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SIST EN ISO 14045:2012
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 14045:2012(E)
Environmental management — Eco-efficiency assessment of
product systems — Principles, requirements and guidelines
1 Scope

This International Standard describes the principles, requirements and guidelines for eco-efficiency assessment

for product systems, including:
a) the goal and scope definition of the eco-efficiency assessment;
b) the environmental assessment;
c) the product system value assessment;
d) the quantification of eco-efficiency;
e) interpretation (including quality assurance);
f) reporting;
g) critical review of the eco-efficiency assessment.

Requirements, recommendations and guidelines for specific choices of categories of environmental impact and

values are not included. The intended application of the eco-efficiency assessment is considered during the goal

and scope definition phase, but the actual use of the results is outside the scope of this International Standard.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document

(including any amendments) applies.

ISO 14040:2006, Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Principles and framework

ISO 14044:2006, Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Requirements and guidelines

ISO 14050:2009, Environmental management — Vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 14050 and the following apply.

3.1
product
any goods or service
[SOURCE: ISO 14021:1999, 3.1.11]
3.2
product flow
products (3.1) entering from or leaving to another product system
[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.27]
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 14045:2012
ISO 14045:2012(E)
3.3
product system

collection of unit processes with elementary and product flows (3.2), performing one or more defined functions,

and which models the life cycle of a product (3.1)
[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.28]
3.4
environmental aspect

element of an organization’s activities or products or services that can interact with the environment

Note 1 to entry: A significant environmental aspect has or can have a significant environmental impact.

[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2004, 3.6]
3.5
environmental performance
measurable results related to environmental aspects (3.4)
3.6
eco-efficiency

aspect of sustainability relating the environmental performance (3.5) of a product system (3.3) to its product

system value (3.7)
3.7
product system value
worth or desirability ascribed to a product system (3.3)

Note 1 to entry: The product system value may encompass different value aspects, including functional, monetary,

aesthetic, etc.
3.8
product system value indicator
numerical quantity representing the product system value (3.7)

Note 1 to entry: To express the product system value indicator, various kinds of units such as physical and monetary

units or relative gradings and scoring may be used.
3.9
eco-efficiency indicator

measure relating environmental performance (3.5) of a product system (3.3) to its product system value (3.7)

3.10
eco-efficiency profile

eco-efficiency (3.6) assessment results relating the life cycle impact assessment results to the product system

value (3.7) assessment results
3.11
weighting factor

factor derived from a weighting model, which is applied to convert an assigned life cycle

inventory result, a life cycle impact category indicator result, or a product system value indicator to the common

unit of the weighting indicator
3.12
sensitivity analysis

systematic procedures for estimating the effects of the choices made regarding methods and data on the

outcome of a study
[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.31]
2 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14045:2012
ISO 14045:2012(E)
3.13
uncertainty analysis

systematic procedure to quantify the uncertainty in the results of a life cycle inventory analysis and/or product

system value assessment due to the cumulative effects of model imprecision, input uncertainty and data variability

Note 1 to entry: Either ranges or probability distributions are used to determine uncertainty in the results.

[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.33, modified — “and/or product system value assessment” has been inserted.]

3.14
unit process

smallest element considered in the life cycle inventory analysis or product system value assessment for which

input and output data are quantified

[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.34, modified — “or product system value assessment” has been inserted.]

3.15
critical review

process intended to ensure consistency between an eco-efficiency (3.6) assessment and the

principles and requirements of the International Standards on eco-efficiency assessment

[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.45, modified — “Life cycle assessment” has been replaced by “eco-efficiency

assessment”.]
3.16
comparative eco-efficiency assertion

claim in eco-efficiency (3.6) regarding the superiority or equivalence of one product (3.1) versus a competitor’s

product that performs the same function

Note 1 to entry: This definition does not interpret, change, or subtract from the requirements of ISO 14044 on

comparative assertions.
4 General description of eco-efficiency
4.1 Principles of eco-efficiency
4.1.1 General

The following principles are fundamental and serve as guidance for decisions relating to both the planning and

the conducting of an eco-efficiency assessment.
4.1.2 Life cycle perspective

An eco-efficiency assessment considers the entire life cycle from raw material extraction and acquisition,

through energy and material production and manufacturing, to use and end-of-life treatment and final disposal.

Through such a systematic overview and perspective, the shifting of a potential impact between life cycle

stages or individual processes can be identified and assessed with a view to an overall eco-efficiency.

4.1.3 Iterative approach

Eco-efficiency assessment is an iterative technique. The individual phases of an eco-efficiency assessment

(see Figure 1) use results of the other phases. The iterative approach within and between the phases contributes

to the comprehensiveness and consistency of the eco-efficiency assessment and the reported results.

4.1.4 Transparency

Due to the inherent complexity in eco-efficiency assessment, transparency is an important guiding principle in

executing an eco-efficiency assessment, in order to ensure a proper interpretation of the results.

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 14045:2012
ISO 14045:2012(E)
4.1.5 Comprehensiveness

An eco-efficiency assessment considers all attributes and aspects of environment and product system value.

By considering all attributes and aspects within one eco-efficiency assessment, potential trade-offs can be

identified and assessed.
4.1.6 Priority of scientific approach

Decisions within an eco-efficiency assessment are preferably based on scientific data, methodology and other

evidence. If this is not possible, decisions based on international conventions may be used. If neither a scientific

basis exists nor international conventions can be referred to, then decisions may be based on value choices.

4.2 Phases of an eco-efficiency assessment
An eco-efficiency assessment comprises five phases:

a) goal and scope definition (including system boundaries, interpretation and limitations);

b) environmental assessment;
c) product system value assessment;
d) quantification of eco-efficiency;
e) interpretation (including quality assurance).
Goal and scope definition
Applications :
- Product development
and improvment
Product-
Environmental
assessment system-value
- Strategic planning
assessment - Budgeting
- Investment analysis
- Public policy making
- Marketing
- Supply chain management
Quantification of eco-efficiency
- Awareness raising
- Sustainability assessment
- Other
Interpretation
(including quality assurance)
Eco-efficiency assessment
Figure 1 — Phases of an eco-efficiency assessment
4 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14045:2012
ISO 14045:2012(E)
4.3 Key features of an eco-efficiency assessment

An eco-efficiency assessment is an assessment of the environmental performance of a product system in

relation to its value.

Eco-efficiency is a practical tool for managing environmental and value aspects in parallel.

The result of the eco-efficiency assessment relates to the product system, not the product per se. A product

cannot be eco-efficient, only its product system which includes the production, use, disposal, i.e. the full life

cycle, can be. Also, eco-efficiency is a relative concept and a product system is only more-or-less eco-efficient

in relation to another product system.
5 Methodological framework
5.1 General requirements

Eco-efficiency assessments shall include goal and scope definition, environmental assessment, product

system value assessment, quantifications of eco-efficiency and interpretation.

5.2 Goal and scope definition (including system boundaries, interpretation and limitations)

5.2.1 Overview of requirements

5.2.1.1 In defining the goal, the following items shall be considered and clearly described:

— the purpose of the eco-efficiency assessment;
— the intended audience;
— the intended use of the results.

5.2.1.2 In defining the scope, the following items shall be considered and clearly described:

— the product system to be assessed;
— the function and functional unit;
— the system boundary of the product system;
— the allocations to external systems;
— the environmental assessment method and types of impacts;
— the value assessment method and type of product system value;
— the choice of eco-efficiency indicator(s);
— the interpretation to be used;
— the limitations;
— the reporting and disclosure of results.
5.2.2 The product system to be assessed

The product system shall be defined by its name and the scale, location, time and main stakeholders which

are involved.
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST EN ISO 14045:2012
ISO 14045:2012(E)
5.2.3 Function and functional unit

The scope of an eco-efficiency assessment shall clearly specify the functions (performance characteristics) of

the product system being studied. A functional unit shall be defined that is consistent with the goal and scope

of the eco-efficiency assessment.

One of the primary purposes of a functional unit is to provide a reference for the environmental assessment and

for the product system value assessment. Therefore, the functional unit shall be measurable and clearly defined.

5.2.4 System boundary
The system boundary shall be described as specified in ISO 14044.

The system boundary shall be the same for the environmental and the product system value assessment.

5.2.5 Allocations to external systems

Allocations to adjacent systems outside the system boundary shall be identified and allocation principles used

shall be described.
5.2.6 Environmental assessment method and types of impacts

It shall be determined which elementary flows, cut-off criteria, allocation rules, impact categories, category

indicators, characterization models and weighting methods will represent the environmental aspect in the eco-

efficiency assessment. The selection of elementary flows, cut-off criteria, allocation rules, impact categories,

category indicators, characterization models and weighting methods shall be consistent with the goal of the study.

Exclusions made for the purpose of the eco-efficiency assessment shall be described and justified.

5.2.7 The product system value

Different stakeholders may encounter different values for the same product system. For instance, the product

system value to the consumer may be different from the product system value to the producer, and in turn

different from the product system value to the investor.

It shall be described which stakeholder’s value(s), type of value(s) and methods used to determine the product

system value(s) are to be used in the assessment. The value(s) shall be quantifiable with reference to the

functional unit according to the goal and scope of the eco-efficiency assessment.

NOTE The types of product system values can be as follows:
— functional value;
— monetary value;
— other values.
5.2.8 Choice of eco-efficiency indicator(s)

There are several types of eco-efficiency indicators that may be chosen to express a quantitative statement

on eco-efficiency.

The eco-efficiency indicator(s) to be used in the assessment shall be described. The evaluation method(s) and

the presentation format of the eco-efficiency assessment shall be defined.
For the choice of eco-efficiency indicators, the following requirements apply:

— increasing efficiency at the same product system value shall represent an improved environment;

— increasing efficiency at the same environmental impact shall represent an improved product system value.

6 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14045:2012
ISO 14045:2012(E)
5.2.9 Interpretation to be used
The need for the following aspects of interpretation shall be clearly defined:

— an identification of the significant issues based on the results of the environmental and product system

value assessment phases;

— an evaluation that considers aspects of completeness, sensitivity, uncertainty and consistency;

— the formulation of conclusions, limitations and recommendations;
— a comparison of eco-efficiency assessment results.
5.2.10 Limitations

The scope in itself defines the conditions under which the assessment is made. In principle, the results are not

valid outside the scope.

Choices made to define the scope for the eco-efficiency assessment implicitly also define and limit the

applicability of the results from the assessment.

To prevent misuse of the results, the specific applications for which the results are not intended to be used may

be identified.
5.2.11 Reporting and disclosure of results
The type and format of the report and the means of disclosure shall be defined.
5.3 Environmental assessment
5.3.1 General

Environmental assessment shall be based on life cycle assessment according to ISO 14040 and ISO 14044.

5.3.2 Life cycle inventory (LCI) results

The result of an LCI study may be used directly as input to an eco-efficiency assessment. For instance, where

resource use and emissions predominantly originate from the use of fossil oil, the crude oil flow may be used

as the sole environmental input.
5.3.3 Life cycle impact assessment
5.3.3.1 General

Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), if it is done, shall be in accordance with ISO 14040 and ISO 14044.

5.3.3.2 Impact category indicator results

Life cycle impact category indicator results, as determined according to ISO 14044, may be used for eco-

efficiency assessments. Such data will typically result in an eco-efficiency profile, where several environmental

aspects are considered in parallel.
5.3.3.3 Weighting

Weighting shall not be used in eco-efficiency assessments for comparative eco-efficiency assertions intended

to be disclosed to the public.
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 7
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SIST EN ISO 14045:2012
ISO 14045:2012(E)

If weighting is used for eco-efficiency assessment, additional requirements to those in ISO 14044 apply. The

following shall be described:
— weighting principles;
— weighting factors;
— how the weighting factors were determined including:
— methodology;
— which stakeholder values have been used to determine the weighting factors.
5.4 Product system value assessment
5.4.1 General

The product system value assessment shall consider the full life cycle of the product system.

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