Environmental management - Environmental performance evaluation - Guidelines

This document gives guidelines for the design and use of environmental performance evaluation
(EPE) within an organization. It is applicable to all organizations, regardless of type, size, location and
complexity.
This document does not establish environmental performance levels. It is not intended for use for the
establishment of any other environmental management system (EMS) conformity requirements.
The guidance in this document can be used to support an organization’s own approach to EPE including
its commitments to compliance with legal and other requirements, the prevention of pollution and
continual improvement, among others.
NOTE This document is a generic standard and does not include guidance on specific methods for valuing or
weighting different kinds of impacts in different kinds of sectors, disciplines, etc. Depending on the nature of the
organization’s activities, there is often a need to also go to other sources for additional information and guidance
on sector-specific topics, different subject matters or different scientific disciplines.

Umweltmanagement - Umweltleistungsbewertung - Leitlinien

Dieses Dokument gibt Leitlinien zur Gestaltung und Durchführung der Umweltleistungsbewertung innerhalb einer Organisation. Es kann von jeder Organisation unabhängig von deren Organisationstyp, Größe, Standort und Komplexität angewendet werden.
Dieses Dokument legt keine Beurteilungsmaßstäbe für die Umweltleistung fest. Es ist nicht zur Verwendung für die Festlegung anderer Konformitätsanforderungen an ein Umweltmanagementsystem (UMS) vorgesehen.
Die Anleitung in diesem Dokument kann verwendet werden, um den eigenen Ansatz einer Organisation in Bezug auf die Umweltleistungsbewertung zu unterstützen, einschließlich ihrer Verpflichtungen zur Einhaltung von rechtlichen und anderen Anforderungen, zur Vermeidung von Umweltverschmutzung und einer kontinuierlichen Verbesserung.
ANMERKUNG Dieses Dokument ist eine allgemeine Norm und beinhaltet keine Anleitung für spezifische Methoden zur Wertung oder Gewichtung verschiedener Arten von Auswirkungen in unterschiedlichen Sektoren, Disziplinen usw. Abhängig von der Art der Aktivitäten der Organisation ist es oft notwendig, auch andere Quellen für zusätzliche Informationen und Anleitungen zu sektorspezifischen Themen, verschiedenen Fachgebieten oder unterschiedlichen wissenschaftlichen Disziplinen heranzuziehen.

Management environnemental - Évaluation de la performance environnementale - Lignes directrices

Ravnanje z okoljem - Vrednotenje učinkov ravnanja z okoljem - Smernice (ISO 14031:2021)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
31-Jan-2021
Publication Date
29-Aug-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
28-Apr-2021
Due Date
03-Jul-2021
Completion Date
30-Aug-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 14031:2021
01-oktober-2021
Nadomešča:
SIST EN ISO 14031:2013
Ravnanje z okoljem - Vrednotenje učinkov ravnanja z okoljem - Smernice (ISO
14031:2021)
Environmental management - Environmental performance evaluation - Guidelines
Umweltmanagement - Umweltleistungsbewertung - Leitlinien
Management environnemental - Évaluation de la performance environnementale -
Lignes directrices
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 14031:2021
ICS:
13.020.10 Ravnanje z okoljem Environmental management
SIST EN ISO 14031:2021 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 14031:2021
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 14031:2021
EN ISO 14031
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
April 2021
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.020.10 Supersedes EN ISO 14031:2013
English Version
Environmental management - Environmental performance
evaluation - Guidelines (ISO 14031:2021)

Management environnemental - Évaluation de la Umweltmanagement - Umweltleistungsbewertung -

performance environnementale - Lignes directrices Leitlinien (ISO 14031:2021)
(ISO 14031:2021)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 17 March 2021.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 14031:2021 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 14031:2021
EN ISO 14031:2021 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 14031:2021
EN ISO 14031:2021 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 14031:2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 207

"Environmental management" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/SS S26 “Environmental

management” the secretariat of which is held by CCMC.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2021, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by October 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 14031:2013.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 14031:2021 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 14031:2021 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 14031:2021
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SIST EN ISO 14031:2021
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 14031
Third edition
2021-03
Environmental management —
Environmental performance
evaluation — Guidelines
Management environnemental — Évaluation de la performance
environnementale — Lignes directrices
Reference number
ISO 14031:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 14031:2021
ISO 14031:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 14031:2021
ISO 14031:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Terms related to organization and leadership ............................................................................................................ 1

3.2 Terms related to planning ............................................................................................................................................................. 2

3.3 Terms related to support and operation ........................................................................................................................... 4

3.4 Terms related to performance evaluation and improvement ........................................................................ 5

3.5 Terms relating to product system ........................................................................................................................................... 8

3.6 Terms relating to life cycle assessment ............................................................................................................................. 8

4 Environmental performance evaluation ..................................................................................................................................... 9

4.1 General overview .................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

4.1.1 EPE process .......................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.1.2 Indicators for EPE ........................................................................................................................................................10

4.1.3 EPE principles .................................................................................................................................................................12

4.2 Planning EPE (Plan).........................................................................................................................................................................13

4.2.1 General guidance ..........................................................................................................................................................13

4.2.2 Characteristics of EPE indicators ..................................................................................................................13

4.3 Using data and information (Do) ........................................................................................................................................22

4.3.1 Overview ..............................................................................................................................................................................22

4.3.2 Collecting data.................................................................................................................................................................23

4.3.3 Analysing and converting data .........................................................................................................................24

4.3.4 Evaluating information (Review) ...................................................................................................................24

4.3.5 Reporting and communicating .........................................................................................................................25

4.4 Reviewing and improving EPE (Act) ................................................................................................................................26

Annex A (informative) Supplemental guidance on EPE .................................................................................................................28

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................43

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 14031:2021
ISO 14031:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 207, Environmental management,

Subcommittee SC 4, Environmental performance evaluation, in collaboration with the European

Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/SS S26, Environmental management,

in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 14031:2013), of which it constitutes a

minor revision. The changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— terminological entries have been added and updated from ISO 14001 and ISO 14050;

— terms such as “condition of the environment” have been revised to “environmental condition” in

accordance with ISO 14001;
— the references have been updated.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14031:2021
ISO 14031:2021(E)
Introduction

Many organizations are seeking ways to understand, demonstrate and improve their environmental

performance. This can be achieved by effectively managing those elements of their activities, products

and services that can significantly impact the environment.

This document sets out a process called environmental performance evaluation (EPE) which enables

organizations to measure, evaluate and communicate their environmental performance using key

performance indicators (KPIs), based on reliable and verifiable information.

EPE is equally applicable to small and large enterprises and may be used to support an environmental

management system (EMS) or used independently. An organization with an EMS in place should

assess its environmental performance against its environmental policy, objectives, targets and other

environmental performance objectives.

Data and information generated by EPE can be used by an organization to implement other

environmental management tools and techniques in a coherent, transparent and cost-effective way, e.g.

in the ISO 14000 family of standards such as:
— EMS (see ISO 14001 and guidance in ISO 14004, ISO 14005 and ISO 14006);
— environmental declarations (see ISO 14025);
— environmental labelling (see ISO 14024);
— life cycle assessment (LCA) (see ISO 14040 and ISO 14044).
This document may also be used independently.

EPE and environmental audits are complementary tools that can be used to assess environmental

performance and identify areas for improvement. The key aspects, and differences, of these tools are:

— EPE is an ongoing process of collection and assessment of data and information to provide a current

evaluation of performance, as well as performance trends over time;

— environmental audits may be used to gather such data and information, either as part of EPE or as

part of an EMS, to verify whether objectives and targets are being met;

— EMS audits are conducted periodically to verify conformity with specifications and compliance

with legal and other requirements. Guidance on auditing management system standards (MSS)

is provided in ISO 19011.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 14031:2021
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SIST EN ISO 14031:2021
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 14031:2021(E)
Environmental management — Environmental
performance evaluation — Guidelines
1 Scope

This document gives guidelines for the design and use of environmental performance evaluation

(EPE) within an organization. It is applicable to all organizations, regardless of type, size, location and

complexity.

This document does not establish environmental performance levels. It is not intended for use for the

establishment of any other environmental management system (EMS) conformity requirements.

The guidance in this document can be used to support an organization’s own approach to EPE including

its commitments to compliance with legal and other requirements, the prevention of pollution and

continual improvement, among others.

NOTE This document is a generic standard and does not include guidance on specific methods for valuing or

weighting different kinds of impacts in different kinds of sectors, disciplines, etc. Depending on the nature of the

organization’s activities, there is often a need to also go to other sources for additional information and guidance

on sector-specific topics, different subject matters or different scientific disciplines.

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Terms related to organization and leadership
3.1.1
management system

set of interrelated or interacting elements of an organization (3.1.4) to establish policies and objectives

(3.2.5) and processes (3.3.2) to achieve those objectives

Note 1 to entry: A management system can address a single discipline or several disciplines (e.g. quality,

environment (3.2.1), occupational health and safety, energy, financial management).

Note 2 to entry: The system elements include the organization’s structure, roles and responsibilities, planning

and operation, performance evaluation and improvement.

Note 3 to entry: The scope of a management system can include the whole of the organization, specific and

identified functions (3.3.3) of the organization, specific and identified sections of the organization, or one or more

functions across a group of organizations.
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.1.1]
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 14031:2021
ISO 14031:2021(E)
3.1.2
environmental management system
EMS

part of the management system (3.1.1) used to manage environmental aspects (3.2.2), fulfil compliance

obligations (3.2.12), and address risks and opportunities (3.2.9)
[SOURCE: ISO 14050:2020, 3.3.1]
3.1.3
environmental policy

intentions and direction of an organization (3.1.4) related to its environmental performance (3.4.10) as

formally expressed by top management (3.1.5)
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.1.3]
3.1.4
organization

person or group of people that has its own functions (3.3.3) with responsibilities, authorities and

relationships to achieve its objectives (3.2.5)

Note 1 to entry: The concept of organization includes, but is not limited to sole-trader, company, corporation, firm,

enterprise, authority, partnership, charity or institution, or part or combination thereof, whether incorporated

or not, public or private.
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.1.4]
3.1.5
top management

person or group of people who directs and controls an organization (3.1.4) at the highest level

Note 1 to entry: Top management has the power to delegate authority and provide resources within the

organization.

Note 2 to entry: If the scope of the management system (3.1.1) covers only part of an organization, then top

management refers to those who direct and control that part of the organization.
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.1.5]
3.2 Terms related to planning
3.2.1
environment

surroundings in which an organization (3.1.4) operates, including air, water, land, natural resources

(3.2.10), flora, fauna, humans and their interrelationships

Note 1 to entry: Surroundings can extend from within an organization to the local, regional and global system.

Note 2 to entry: Surroundings can be described in terms of biodiversity, ecosystems, climate or other

characteristics.
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.2.1]
3.2.2
environmental aspect

element of an organization’s (3.1.4) activities or products (3.5.1) that interacts or can interact with the

environment (3.2.1)

Note 1 to entry: Significant environmental aspects are determined by the organization applying one or more

criteria.

[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.2.2, modified — “or services” has been deleted from the definition. Note 1

to entry has been deleted and Note 2 to entry has been renumbered.]
2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14031:2021
ISO 14031:2021(E)
3.2.3
environmental condition

state or characteristic of the environment (3.2.1) as determined at a certain point in time

[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.2.3]
3.2.4
environmental impact

change to the environment (3.2.1), whether adverse or beneficial, including possible consequences,

wholly or partially resulting from an organization’s (3.1.4) environmental aspects (3.2.2)

[SOURCE: ISO 14050:2020, 3.2.22]
3.2.5
objective
result to be achieved
Note 1 to entry: An objective can be strategic, tactical, or operational.

Note 2 to entry: Objectives can relate to different disciplines (such as financial, health and safety, and

environmental goals) and can apply at different levels (such as strategic, organization-wide, project, product

(3.5.1), service and process (3.3.2)).

Note 3 to entry: An objective can be expressed in other ways, e.g. as an intended outcome, a purpose, an

operational criterion, as an environmental objective (3.2.6), or by the use of other words with similar meaning

(e.g. aim, goal, or target).
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.2.5]
3.2.6
environmental objective

objective (3.2.5) set by the organization (3.1.4) consistent with the environmental policy (3.1.3)

[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.2.6]
3.2.7
requirement
need or expectation that is stated, generally implied or obligatory

Note 1 to entry: “Generally implied” means that it is custom or common practice for the organization (3.1.4) and

interested parties that the need or expectation under consideration is implied.

Note 2 to entry: A specified requirement is one that is stated, for example in documented information (3.3.4).

Note 3 to entry: Requirements other than legal requirements become obligatory when the organization decides

to comply with them.
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.2.8]
3.2.8
risk
effect of uncertainty

Note 1 to entry: An effect is a deviation from the expected – positive or negative.

Note 2 to entry: Uncertainty is the state, even partial, of deficiency of information related to, understanding or

knowledge of, an event, its consequence, or likelihood.

Note 3 to entry: Risk is often characterized by reference to potential “events” (as defined in ISO Guide 73:2009,

3.5.1.3) and “consequences” (as defined in ISO Guide 73:2009, 3.6.1.3), or a combination of these.

Note 4 to entry: Risk is often expressed in terms of a combination of the consequences of an event (including

changes in circumstances) and the associated “likelihood” (as defined in ISO Guide 73:2009, 3.6.1.1) of occurrence.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 14031:2021
ISO 14031:2021(E)
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.2.10]
3.2.9
risks and opportunities

potential adverse effects (threats) and potential beneficial effects (opportunities)

[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.2.11]
3.2.10
natural resource
part of nature which provides benefits to humans or underpins human well-being
[SOURCE: ISO 14050:2020, 3.2.5]
3.2.11
prevention of pollution

use of processes (3.3.2), practices, techniques, materials, products (3.5.1), or energy to avoid, reduce or

control (separately or in combination) the creation, emission or discharge of any type of pollutant or

waste, in order to reduce adverse environmental impacts (3.2.4)
[SOURCE: ISO 14050:2020, 3.2.10]
3.2.12
compliance obligations (preferred term)
legal requirements and other requirements (admitted term)

legal requirements (3.2.7) that an organization (3.1.4) has to comply with and other requirements that

an organization has to or chooses to comply with

Note 1 to entry: Compliance obligations are related to the environmental management system (3.1.2).

Note 2 to entry: Compliance obligations can arise from mandatory requirements, such as applicable laws and

regulations, or voluntary commitments, such as organizational and industry standards, contractual relationships,

codes of practice and agreements with community groups or non-governmental organizations.

[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.2.9]
3.3 Terms related to support and operation
3.3.1
outsource, verb

make an arrangement where an external organization (3.1.4) performs part of an organization’s function

(3.3.3) or process (3.3.2)

Note 1 to entry: An external organization is outside the scope of the management system (3.1.1), although the

outsourced function or process is within the scope.
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.3.4]
3.3.2
process

set of interrelated or interacting activities which transforms inputs into outputs

Note 1 to entry: A process can be documented or not.
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.3.5]
3.3.3
function

combination of processes (3.3.2), products (3.5.1) or services that achieve a specific, predetermined end,

usually on a repetitive basis
4 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14031:2021
ISO 14031:2021(E)
3.3.4
documented information

information required to be controlled and maintained by an organization (3.1.4) and the medium on

which it is contained

Note 1 to entry: Documented information can be in any format and media, and from any source.

Note 2 to entry: Documented information can refer to:

— the environmental management system (3.1.2), including related processes (3.3.2);

— information created in order for the organization to operate (can be referred to as documentation);

— evidence of results achieved (can be referred to as records).
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.3.2]
3.4 Terms related to performance evaluation and improvement
3.4.1
indicator

quantitative, qualitative or binary variable that can be measured or described, representing the status

of operations, management, conditions or impacts
[SOURCE: ISO 14050:2020, 3.2.24]
3.4.2
key performance indicator
KPI

indicator (3.4.1) of performance (3.4.9) deemed by an organization (3.1.4) to be significant and giving

prominence and attention to certain aspects of operations, management, conditions or impacts

[SOURCE: ISO 14050:2020, 3.2.25]
3.4.3
combined indicator

indicator (3.4.1) that includes information on more than one aspect of operations, management

conditions or impacts

Note 1 to entry: A combined indicator may also be referred to as a composite indicator.

[SOURCE: ISO 14050:2020, 3.2.26, modified — Note 1 to entry has been added.]
3.4.4
environmental condition indicator
ECI

indicator (3.4.1) that provides information about the local, regional, national or global environmental

condition (3.2.3)

Note 1 to entry: “Regional” may refer to a state, a province, or a group of states within a country, or it may refer to

a group of countries or a continent, depending on the scale of the environmental conditions that the organization

(3.1.4) chooses to consider.

[SOURCE: ISO 14050:2020, 3.2.32, modified — The abbreviated term and Note 1 to entry has been added.]

3.4.5
environmental performance indicator
EPI

indicator (3.4.1) that provides information about an organization’s (3.1.4) environmental performance

(3.4.10)
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST EN ISO 14031:2021
ISO 14031:2021(E)
3.4.6
management performance indicator
MPI

environmental performance indicator (3.4.5) that provides information about the management efforts to

influence an organization’s (3.1.4) environmental performance (3.4.10)
[SOURCE: ISO 14050:2020, 3.2.30]
3.4.7
operational performance indicator
OPI

environmental performance indicator (3.4.5) that provides information about the environmental

performance (3.4.10) of an organization’s (3.1.4) operation
[SOURCE: ISO 14050:2020, 3.2.31]
3.4.8
benchmark
reference point against which comparisons can be made
Note 1 to entry: Benchmarking is the process (3.3.2) for making a comparison.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 29155-1:2017, 3.2, modified — Note 1 to entry has been replaced.]

3.4.9
performance
measurable result

Note 1 to entry: Performance can relate either to quantitative or qualitative findings.

Note 2 to entry: Performance can relate to the management of activities, processes (3.3.2), products (3.5.1)

(including services), systems or organizations (3.1.4).
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.4.10]
3.4.10
environmental performance
performance (3.4.9) related to the management of environmental aspects (3.2.2)
Note 1 to entry: For an environmental management system (3.1.2), results can b
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN ISO 14031 rev:2021
01-januar-2021
Ravnanje z okoljem - Vrednotenje učinkov ravnanja z okoljem - Smernice
(ISO/FDIS 14031:2020)
Environmental management - Environmental performance evaluation - Guidelines
Umweltmanagement - Umweltleistungsbewertung - Leitlinien
Management environnemental - Évaluation de la performance environnementale -
Lignes directrices
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN ISO 14031
ICS:
13.020.10 Ravnanje z okoljem Environmental management
oSIST prEN ISO 14031 rev:2021 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN ISO 14031 rev:2021
FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 14031
ISO/TC 207/SC 4
Environmental management —
Secretariat: ANSI
Environmental performance
Voting begins on:
2020­11­24 evaluation — Guidelines
Voting terminates on:
Management environnemental — Évaluation de la performance
2021­02-16
environnementale — Lignes directrices
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO­
ISO/FDIS 14031:2020(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN­
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2020
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oSIST prEN ISO 14031 rev:2021
ISO/FDIS 14031:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

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below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
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Email: copyright@iso.org
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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oSIST prEN ISO 14031 rev:2021
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Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Terms related to organization and leadership ............................................................................................................ 1

3.2 Terms related to planning ............................................................................................................................................................. 2

3.3 Terms related to support and operation ........................................................................................................................... 4

3.4 Terms related to performance evaluation and improvement ........................................................................ 5

3.5 Terms relating to product system ........................................................................................................................................... 8

3.6 Terms relating to life cycle assessment ............................................................................................................................. 8

4 Environmental performance evaluation ..................................................................................................................................... 9

4.1 General overview .................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

4.1.1 EPE process .......................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.1.2 Indicators for EPE ........................................................................................................................................................10

4.1.3 EPE principles .................................................................................................................................................................12

4.2 Planning EPE (Plan).........................................................................................................................................................................13

4.2.1 General guidance ..........................................................................................................................................................13

4.2.2 Characteristics of EPE indicators ..................................................................................................................13

4.3 Using data and information (Do) ........................................................................................................................................22

4.3.1 Overview ..............................................................................................................................................................................22

4.3.2 Collecting data.................................................................................................................................................................23

4.3.3 Analysing and converting data .........................................................................................................................24

4.3.4 Evaluating information (Review) ...................................................................................................................24

4.3.5 Reporting and communicating .........................................................................................................................25

4.4 Reviewing and improving EPE (Act) ................................................................................................................................26

Annex A (informative) Supplemental guidance on EPE .................................................................................................................28

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................43

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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non­governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 207, Environmental management,

Subcommittee SC 4, Environmental performance evaluation, in collaboration with the European

Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/SS S26, Environmental management,

in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 14031:2013), of which it constitutes a

minor revision. The changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— terminological entries have been added and updated from ISO 14001 and ISO 14050;

— terms such as “condition of the environment” have been revised to “environmental condition” in

accordance with ISO 14001;
— the references have been updated.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
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Introduction

Many organizations are seeking ways to understand, demonstrate and improve their environmental

performance. This can be achieved by effectively managing those elements of their activities, products

and services that can significantly impact the environment.

This document sets out a process called environmental performance evaluation (EPE) which enables

organizations to measure, evaluate and communicate their environmental performance using key

performance indicators (KPIs), based on reliable and verifiable information.

EPE is equally applicable to small and large enterprises and may be used to support an environmental

management system (EMS) or used independently. An organization with an EMS in place should

assess its environmental performance against its environmental policy, objectives, targets and other

environmental performance objectives.

Data and information generated by EPE can be used by an organization to implement other

environmental management tools and techniques in a coherent, transparent and cost-effective way, e.g.

in the ISO 14000 family of standards such as:
— EMS (see ISO 14001 and guidance in ISO 14004, ISO 14005 and ISO 14006);
— environmental declarations (see ISO 14025);
— environmental labelling (see ISO 14024);
— life cycle assessment (LCA) (see ISO 14040 and ISO 14044).
This document may also be used independently.

EPE and environmental audits are complementary tools that can be used to assess environmental

performance and identify areas for improvement. The key aspects, and differences, of these tools are:

— EPE is an ongoing process of collection and assessment of data and information to provide a current

evaluation of performance, as well as performance trends over time;

— environmental audits may be used to gather such data and information, either as part of EPE or as

part of an EMS, to verify whether objectives and targets are being met;

— EMS audits are conducted periodically to verify conformity with specifications and compliance

with legal and other requirements. Guidance on auditing EMS is provided in ISO 19011.

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FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 14031:2020(E)
Environmental management — Environmental
performance evaluation — Guidelines
1 Scope

This document gives guidelines for the design and use of environmental performance evaluation

(EPE) within an organization. It is applicable to all organizations, regardless of type, size, location and

complexity.

This document does not establish environmental performance levels. It is not intended for use for the

establishment of any other environmental management system (EMS) conformity requirements.

The guidance in this document can be used to support an organization’s own approach to EPE including

its commitments to compliance with legal and other requirements, the prevention of pollution and

continual improvement, among others.

NOTE This document is a generic standard and does not include guidance on specific methods for valuing or

weighting different kinds of impacts in different kinds of sectors, disciplines, etc. Depending on the nature of the

organization’s activities, there is often a need to also go to other sources for additional information and guidance

on sector-specific topics, different subject matters or different scientific disciplines.

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Terms related to organization and leadership
3.1.1
management system

set of interrelated or interacting elements of an organization (3.1.4) to establish policies and objectives

(3.2.5) and processes (3.3.2) to achieve those objectives

Note 1 to entry: A management system can address a single discipline or several disciplines (e.g. quality,

environment (3.2.1), occupational health and safety, energy, financial management).

Note 2 to entry: The system elements include the organization’s structure, roles and responsibilities, planning

and operation, performance evaluation and improvement.

Note 3 to entry: The scope of a management system can include the whole of the organization, specific and

identified functions (3.3.3) of the organization, specific and identified sections of the organization, or one or more

functions across a group of organizations.
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.1.1]
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3.1.2
environmental management system
EMS

part of the management system (3.1.1) used to manage environmental aspects (3.2.2), fulfil compliance

obligations (3.2.12), and address risks and opportunities (3.2.9)
[SOURCE: ISO 14050:2020, 3.3.1]
3.1.3
environmental policy

intentions and direction of an organization (3.1.4) related to its environmental performance (3.4.10) as

formally expressed by top management (3.1.5)
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.1.3]
3.1.4
organization

person or group of people that has its own functions (3.3.3) with responsibilities, authorities and

relationships to achieve its objectives (3.2.5)

Note 1 to entry: The concept of organization includes, but is not limited to sole-trader, company, corporation, firm,

enterprise, authority, partnership, charity or institution, or part or combination thereof, whether incorporated

or not, public or private.
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.1.4]
3.1.5
top management

person or group of people who directs and controls an organization (3.1.4) at the highest level

Note 1 to entry: Top management has the power to delegate authority and provide resources within the

organization.

Note 2 to entry: If the scope of the management system (3.1.1) covers only part of an organization, then top

management refers to those who direct and control that part of the organization.
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.1.5]
3.2 Terms related to planning
3.2.1
environment

surroundings in which an organization (3.1.4) operates, including air, water, land, natural resources

(3.2.10), flora, fauna, humans and their interrelationships

Note 1 to entry: Surroundings can extend from within an organization to the local, regional and global system.

Note 2 to entry: Surroundings can be described in terms of biodiversity, ecosystems, climate or other

characteristics.
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.2.1]
3.2.2
environmental aspect

element of an organization’s (3.1.4) activities or products (3.5.1) that interacts or can interact with the

environment (3.2.1)

Note 1 to entry: Significant environmental aspects are determined by the organization applying one or more

criteria.

[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.2.2, modified — “or services” has been deleted from the definition. Note 1

to entry has been deleted and Note 2 to entry has been renumbered.]
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3.2.3
environmental condition

state or characteristic of the environment (3.2.1) as determined at a certain point in time

[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.2.3]
3.2.4
environmental impact

change to the environment (3.2.1), whether adverse or beneficial, including possible consequences,

wholly or partially resulting from an organization’s (3.1.4) environmental aspects (3.2.2)

[SOURCE: ISO 14050:2020, 3.2.22]
3.2.5
objective
result to be achieved
Note 1 to entry: An objective can be strategic, tactical, or operational.

Note 2 to entry: Objectives can relate to different disciplines (such as financial, health and safety, and

environmental goals) and can apply at different levels (such as strategic, organization-wide, project, product

(3.5.1), service and process (3.3.2)).

Note 3 to entry: An objective can be expressed in other ways, e.g. as an intended outcome, a purpose, an

operational criterion, as an environmental objective (3.2.6), or by the use of other words with similar meaning

(e.g. aim, goal, or target).
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.2.5]
3.2.6
environmental objective

objective (3.2.5) set by the organization (3.1.4) consistent with the environmental policy (3.1.3)

[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.2.6]
3.2.7
requirement
need or expectation that is stated, generally implied or obligatory

Note 1 to entry: “Generally implied” means that it is custom or common practice for the organization (3.1.4) and

interested parties that the need or expectation under consideration is implied.

Note 2 to entry: A specified requirement is one that is stated, for example in documented information (3.3.4).

Note 3 to entry: Requirements other than legal requirements become obligatory when the organization decides

to comply with them.
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.2.8]
3.2.8
risk
effect of uncertainty

Note 1 to entry: An effect is a deviation from the expected – positive or negative.

Note 2 to entry: Uncertainty is the state, even partial, of deficiency of information related to, understanding or

knowledge of, an event, its consequence, or likelihood.

Note 3 to entry: Risk is often characterized by reference to potential “events” (as defined in ISO Guide 73:2009,

3.5.1.3) and “consequences” (as defined in ISO Guide 73:2009, 3.6.1.3), or a combination of these.

Note 4 to entry: Risk is often expressed in terms of a combination of the consequences of an event (including

changes in circumstances) and the associated “likelihood” (as defined in ISO Guide 73:2009, 3.6.1.1) of occurrence.

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[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.2.10]
3.2.9
risks and opportunities

potential adverse effects (threats) and potential beneficial effects (opportunities)

[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.2.11]
3.2.10
natural resource
part of nature which provides benefits to humans or underpins human well-being
[SOURCE: ISO 14050:2020, 3.2.5]
3.2.11
prevention of pollution

use of processes (3.3.2), practices, techniques, materials, products (3.5.1), or energy to avoid, reduce or

control (separately or in combination) the creation, emission or discharge of any type of pollutant or

waste, in order to reduce adverse environmental impacts (3.2.4)
[SOURCE: ISO 14050:2020, 3.2.10]
3.2.12
compliance obligations (preferred term)
legal requirements and other requirements (admitted term)

legal requirements (3.2.7) that an organization (3.1.4) has to comply with and other requirements that

an organization has to or chooses to comply with

Note 1 to entry: Compliance obligations are related to the environmental management system (3.1.2).

Note 2 to entry: Compliance obligations can arise from mandatory requirements, such as applicable laws and

regulations, or voluntary commitments, such as organizational and industry standards, contractual relationships,

codes of practice and agreements with community groups or non-governmental organizations.

[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.2.9]
3.3 Terms related to support and operation
3.3.1
outsource, verb

make an arrangement where an external organization (3.1.4) performs part of an organization’s function

(3.3.3) or process (3.3.2)

Note 1 to entry: An external organization is outside the scope of the management system (3.1.1), although the

outsourced function or process is within the scope.
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.3.4]
3.3.2
process

set of interrelated or interacting activities which transforms inputs into outputs

Note 1 to entry: A process can be documented or not.
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.3.5]
3.3.3
function

combination of processes (3.3.2), products (3.5.1) or services that achieve a specific, predetermined end,

usually on a repetitive basis
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3.3.4
documented information

information required to be controlled and maintained by an organization (3.1.4) and the medium on

which it is contained

Note 1 to entry: Documented information can be in any format and media, and from any source.

Note 2 to entry: Documented information can refer to:

— the environmental management system (3.1.2), including related processes (3.3.2);

— information created in order for the organization to operate (can be referred to as documentation);

— evidence of results achieved (can be referred to as records).
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.3.2]
3.4 Terms related to performance evaluation and improvement
3.4.1
indicator

quantitative, qualitative or binary variable that can be measured or described, representing the status

of operations, management, conditions or impacts
[SOURCE: ISO 14050:2020, 3.2.24]
3.4.2
key performance indicator
KPI

indicator (3.4.1) of performance (3.4.9) deemed by an organization (3.1.4) to be significant and giving

prominence and attention to certain aspects of operations, management, conditions or impacts

[SOURCE: ISO 14050:2020, 3.2.25]
3.4.3
combined indicator

indicator (3.4.1) that includes information on more than one aspect of operations, management

conditions or impacts

Note 1 to entry: A combined indicator may also be referred to as a composite indicator.

[SOURCE: ISO 14050:2020, 3.2.26, modified — Note 1 to entry has been added.]
3.4.4
environmental condition indicator
ECI

indicator (3.4.1) that provides information about the local, regional, national or global environmental

condition (3.2.3)

Note 1 to entry: “Regional” may refer to a state, a province, or a group of states within a country, or it may refer to

a group of countries or a continent, depending on the scale of the environmental conditions that the organization

(3.1.4) chooses to consider.

[SOURCE: ISO 14050:2020, 3.2.32, modified — The abbreviated term and Note 1 to entry has been added.]

3.4.5
environmental performance indicator
EPI

indicator (3.4.1) that provides information about an organization’s (3.1.4) environmental performance

(3.4.10)
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3.4.6
management performance indicator
MPI

environmental performance indicator (3.4.5) that provides information about the management efforts to

influence an organization’s (3.1.4) environmental performance (3.4.10)
[SOURCE: ISO 14050:2020, 3.2.30]
3.4.7
operational performance indicator
OPI

environmental performance indicator (3.4.5) that provides information about the environmental

performance (3.4.10) of an organization’s (3.1.4) operation
[SOURCE: ISO 14050:2020, 3.2.31]
3.4.8
benchmark
reference point against which comparisons can be made
Note 1 to entry: Benchmarking is the process (3.3.2) for making a comparison.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 29155-1:2017, 3.2, modified — Note 1 to entry has been replaced.]

3.4.9
performance
measurable result

Note 1 to entry: Performance can relate either to quantitative or qualitative findings.

Note 2 to entry: Performance can relate to the management of activities, processes (3.3.2), products (3.5.1)

(including services), systems or organizations (3.1.4).
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.4.10]
3.4.10
environmental performance
performance (3.4.9) related to the management of environmental aspects (3.2.2)

Note 1 to entry: For an environmental management system (3.1.2), results can be measured against the

organization’s (3.1.4) environmental policy (3.1.3), environmental objectives (3.2.6) or other criteria, using

indicators (3.4.1).
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015; 3.4.11]
3.4.11
environmental performance evaluation
EPE

process (3.3.2) to facilitate management decisions regarding an organization’s (3.1.4) environmental

performance (3.4.10) by selecting indicators (3.4.1), collecting and analysing data, assessing information

against environmental performance criteria, reporting and communicating, and periodically reviewing

and improving this process
[SOURCE: ISO 14050:2020, 3.2.28]
3.4.12
audit

systematic, independent and documented process (3.3.2) for obtaining audit evidence and evaluating it

objectively to determine the extent to which the audit criteria are fulfilled

Note 1 to entry: An internal audit is conducted by the organization (3.1.4) itself, or by an external party on its behalf.

Note 2 to entry: An audit can be a combined audit (combining two or more disciplines).

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Note 3 to entry: Independence can be demonstrated by the freedom from responsibility for the activity being

audited or freedom from bias and conflict of interest.

Note 4 to entry: “Audit evidence” consists of records, statements of fact or other information which are relevant

to the audit criteria and are verifiable; and “audit criteria” are the set of policies, procedures or requirements

(3.2.7) used as a reference against which audit evidence is compared, as defined in ISO 14050:2020, 3.4.44 and

3.4.45 respectively.

[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.4.1, modified — “as defined in ISO 14050:2020, 3.4.44 and 3.4.45” has

replaced “as defined in ISO 19011:2011, 3.3 and 3.2” in Note 4 to entry.]
3.4.13
conformity
fulfilment of a requirement (3.2.7)
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.4.2]
3.4.14
nonconformity
non-fulfilment of a requirement (3.2.7)
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.4.3, modified — Note 1 to entry has been deleted.]
3.4.15
corrective action

action to eliminate the cause of a nonconformity (3.4.14) and to prevent recurrence

Note 1 to entry: There can be more than one cause for a nonconformity.
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.4.4]
3.4.16
continual improvement
recurring activity to enhance performance (3.4.9)

Note 1 to entry: Enhancing performance relates to the use of the environmental management system (3.1.2) to

enhance environmental performance (3.4.10) consistent with the organization’s (3.1.4) environmental policy

(3.1.3).

Note 2 to entry: The activity need not take place in all areas simultaneously, or without interruption.

[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.4.5]
3.4.17
monitoring
determining the status of a system, a process (3.3.2) or an activity

Note 1 to entry: To determine the status, there might be a need to check, supervise or critically observe.

[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.4.8]
3.4.18
measurement
process (3.3.2) to determine a value
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.4.9]
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