This document provides users of interactive systems with a summary of the existing knowledge about ergonomics considerations for the influence of artificial (electric) and natural lighting of environments on humans other than on vision, with a focus on non-image-forming effects. The document can furthermore be used as guidance on the specification of use environments in consideration of non-visual effects of lighting, also called non-image-forming (NIF) functions. Therapeutic use of light and optical radiation is not part of this document.
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This document provides guidance on the design, selection and optimization of non-contacting hand and arm gestures for human-computer interaction. It addresses the assessment of usability and fatigue associated with different gesture set designs and provides recommendations for approaches to evaluating the design and selection of gestures. This document also provides guidance on the documentation of the process for selecting gesture sets. This document applies to gestures expressed by humans. It does not consider the technology for detecting gestures or the system response when interpreting a gesture. Non-contacting hand gestures can be used for input in a variety of settings, including the workplace or in public settings and when using fixed screens, mobile, virtual reality, augmented reality or mixed-mode reality devices. Some limitations of this document are: — The scope is limited to non-contacting gestures and does not include other forms of inputs. For example, combining gesture with speech, gaze or head position can reduce input error, but these combinations are not considered here. — The scope is limited to non-contacting arm, hand and finger gestures, either unilateral (one-handed) or bilateral (two-handed). — The scope assumes that all technological constraints are surmountable. Therefore, there is no consideration of technological limitations with interpreting ultra-rapid gestures, gestures performed by people of different skin tones or wearing different colours or patterns of clothing. — The scope is limited to UI-based command-and-control human computer interaction (HCI) tasks and does not include gaming scenarios, although the traversal of in-game menus and navigation of UI elements is within scope. — The scope does not include HCI tasks for which an obviously more optimal input method exists. For example, speech input is superior for inputting text than gesture input. — The scope includes virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR) and mixed reality (MR) and the use of head-mounted displays (HMDs). — The scope does not include the discoverability of gestures but does include the learnability and memorability of gestures. It is assumed that product documentation and tutorials will adequately educate end users about which gestures are possible. Therefore, assessing gesture discoverability is not a primary goal of the recommendations in this document.
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This document is intended to provide guidance in the use of anthropometric data within the ISO 9241-500 series.
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This document specifies ergonomic principles which apply to the user requirements, design, and procurement of the physical equipment and environment, which contribute to the context of use of interactive systems. It provides requirements, recommendations and explanations related to these principles. In particular, the general principles and requirements specified in this document apply to the standards specifying functional design of furniture and equipment constituting the environment. The principles specified in this document utilize ergonomic knowledge (from the disciplines anthropometry, acoustics, vision, thermal environments, indoor air quality, mechanical vibrations, etc.) to design and evaluate environments that enhance usability (effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction), accessibility, performance and well-being for organized and non-organized use of interactive systems. The intended users of this document include: — developers of systems, products and services; — public and corporate purchasers; — occupational health and safety professionals; — architects and interior designers; — human resource professionals; — usability/ergonomics/human factors professionals.
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ISO 9241-420:2011 provides guidance for the selection of input devices for interactive systems, based on ergonomic factors, considering the limitations and capabilities of users and the specific tasks and context of use. It describes methods for selecting a device or a combination of devices for the task at hand. It can also be used for evaluating the acceptability of trade-offs under the existing conditions. The target users of ISO 9241-420:2011 are user organizations and systems integrators who tailor systems for a given context of use. It is applicable to the following input devices: keyboards, mice, pucks, joysticks, trackballs, trackpads, tablets and overlays, touch-sensitive screens, styli and light pens. It does not specify design requirements or give recommendations for those devices.
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ISO 9241-410:2008 specifies criteria based on ergonomics factors for the design of physical input devices for interactive systems including keyboards, mice, pucks, joysticks, trackballs, trackpads, tablets and overlays, touch‑sensitive screens, styli and light pens, and voice- and gesture‑controlled devices. It gives guidance on the design of these devices, taking into consideration the capabilities and limitations of users, and specifies generic design criteria for physical input devices, as well as specific criteria for each type of device. Requirements for the design of products are given either as a result of context-free considerations, or else can be determined based on the specified design criteria for the intended use; such specified criteria generally having been subdivided into task‑oriented categories, wherever applicable. ISO 9241-410:2008 does not specify the categories that are appropriate for devices as, according to the concept of usability, a product has no inherent usability. Selecting the category to which a certain property of a device belongs is subject to the design of a product. ISO 9241-410:2008 is expected to be used by the manufacturers of physical input devices, including product designers and test organizations, in determining the design characteristics of a device for its intended context of use (user population, task, software or environment, etc.). The data generated by the users of ISO 9241-410:2007 for the description of the properties of their products can be applied in the selection of a device adequate for the actual context of use on the basis of the task primitives relevant for the task of the specific user population, and for achieving the required level of efficiency and effectiveness for a given system.
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ISO 9241-400:2006 gives guidelines for physical input devices for interactive systems. It provides guidance based on ergonomic factors for the following input devices: keyboards, mice, pucks, joysticks, trackballs, trackpads, tablets and overlays, touch sensitive screens, styli, light pens, voice controlled devices, and gesture controlled devices. It defines and formulates ergonomic principles valid for the design and use of input devices. These principles are to be used to generate recommendations for the design of products and for their use. It also defines relevant terms for the entire 400 series of ISO 9241. For some applications, e.g. in areas where safety is the major concern, other additional principles may apply and take precedence over the guidance given here. ISO 9241-400:2006 also determines properties of input devices relevant for usability including functional, electrical, mechanical, maintainability and safety related properties. Additionally included are aspects of interdependency with the use environment and software.
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