Additive manufacturing of metals - Process characteristics and performance - Metal powder bed fusion process to meet critical applications (ISO/ASTM DIS 52904:2022)

1.1 This practice describes the operation and production control of metal powder bed fusion (PBF) machines and processes to meet critical applications such as commercial aerospace components and medical implants. The requirements contained herein are applicable for production components and mechanical test specimens using powder bed fusion (PBF) with both laser and electron beams.
1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro-priate safety, health, and environmental practices and deter-mine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.3 This international standard was developed in accor-dance with internationally recognized principles on standard-ization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recom-mendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

Additive Fertigung von Metallen - Prozessanforderungen und Qualifizierung - Pulverbettbasiertes Schmelzen von Metallen für kritische Anwendungen (ISO/ASTM DIS 52904:2022)

Fabrication additive de métaux - Caractéristiques et performances du procédé - Procédé de fusion sur lit de poudre métallique en vue de répondre aux applications critiques (ISO/ASTM DIS 52904:2022)

1.1 La présente pratique décrit le fonctionnement et le contrôle de production des machines et des procédés de fusion sur lit de poudre métallique (PBF) pour répondre à des applications critiques, telles que les composants aérospatiaux commerciaux et les implants médicaux. Les exigences contenues ci-après sont applicables aux composants de production et aux éprouvettes d'essai mécaniques utilisant la fusion sur lit de poudre (PBF) avec des faisceaux laser et électroniques.
1.2 La présente norme ne prétend pas traiter de tous les problèmes de sécurité, s'ils existent, associés à son utilisation. Il est de la responsabilité de l'utilisateur de la présente norme d'établir des pratiques de sécurité, d'hygiène et d'environnement appropriées, et de déterminer l'applicabilité des restrictions réglementaires avant utilisation.
1.3 La présente Norme internationale a été élaborée conformément aux principes internationalement reconnus de normalisation établis dans la Décision sur les principes pour l'élaboration de normes internationales, guides et recommandations publiée par le Comité des obstacles techniques au commerce (OTC) de l'Organisation mondiale du commerce.

Aditivna proizvodnja kovin - Značilnosti in tehnične lastnosti procesa - Proces spajanja kovinskega prahu v postelji za doseganje kritičnih/zahtevnih aplikacij (ISO/ASTM DIS 52904:2022)

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Publication Date
05-Nov-2024
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Start Date
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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN ISO/ASTM 52904:2022
01-december-2022
Aditivna proizvodnja kovin - Značilnosti in tehnične lastnosti procesa - Proces

fuzije plasti kovinskih prašnih delcev za doseganje kritičnih aplikacij (ISO/ASTM

DIS 52904:2022)

Additive manufacturing of metals - Process characteristics and performance - Metal

powder bed fusion process to meet critical applications (ISO/ASTM DIS 52904:2022)

Additive Fertigung von Metallen - Prozessanforderungen und Qualifizierung -

Pulverbettbasiertes Schmelzen von Metallen für kritische Anwendungen (ISO/ASTM DIS

52904:2022)

Fabrication additive de métaux - Caractéristiques et performances du procédé - Procédé

de fusion sur lit de poudre métallique en vue de répondre aux applications critiques

(ISO/ASTM DIS 52904:2022)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN ISO/ASTM 52904
ICS:
25.030 3D-tiskanje Additive manufacturing
oSIST prEN ISO/ASTM 52904:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN ISO/ASTM 52904:2022
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oSIST prEN ISO/ASTM 52904:2022
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/ASTM DIS 52904
ISO/TC 261 Secretariat: DIN
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2022-10-12 2023-01-04
Additive manufacturing of metals — Process
characteristics and performance — Metal powder bed
fusion process to meet critical applications

Fabrication additive de métaux — Caractéristiques et performances du procédé — Procédé de fusion sur lit

de poudre métallique en vue de répondre aux applications critiques
ICS: 25.030
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/ASTM DIS 52904:2022(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. © ISO/ASTM International 2022
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oSIST prEN ISO/ASTM 52904:2022
ISO/ASTM DIS 52904:2022(E)
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/ASTM DIS 52904
ISO/TC 261 Secretariat: DIN
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
Additive manufacturing of metals — Process
characteristics and performance — Metal powder bed
fusion process to meet critical applications

Fabrication additive de métaux — Caractéristiques et performances du procédé — Procédé de fusion sur lit

de poudre métallique en vue de répondre aux applications critiques
ICS: 25.030
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/ASTM International 2022 THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester. In the United States, such requests should be sent to ASTM International.

IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
ISO copyright office ASTM International
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700
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POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
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WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
Email: copyright@iso.org Email: khooper@astm.org
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
Website: www.iso.org Website: www.astm.org ISO/ASTM DIS 52904:2022(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
Published in Switzerland
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
© ISO/ASTM International 2022 – All rights reserved
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. © ISO/ASTM International 2022
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oSIST prEN ISO/ASTM 52904:2022
ISO/ASTM DIS 52904:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Personnel requirements .............................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5 Digital data ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.1 Digital data records............................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5.2 Digital data processing ................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6 PBF equipment requirements ................................................................................................................................................................3

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.2 Build consumables .............................................................................................................................................................................. 3

6.2.1 Build platform ....................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.2.2 Shielding gases ..................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.2.3 Recoater blade ...................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.2.4 Compressed air .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.3 Auxiliary tools and equipment ................................................................................................................................................. 4

6.4 Machine operating software ...................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.5 Environmental controls ................................................................................................................................................................. 4

7 Feedstock requirements ........................................................................................................................................... ...................................4

7.1 Purchasing feedstock ....................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.2 Control of feedstock ........................................................................................................................................................................... 5

8 Qualification ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

8.1 Design checks .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

8.1.1 Part files ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

8.1.2 Machining allowance ...................................................................................................................................................... 5

8.1.3 Orientation and location .............................................................................................................................................. 5

8.1.4 Parts nesting .......................................................................................................................................................................... 5

8.2 Pre-build checks .................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

8.2.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

8.2.2 Maintenance status .......................................................................................................................................................... 6

8.2.3 PBF machine elements and systems ................................................................................................................. 6

8.2.4 Build chamber environment .................................................................................................................................... 6

8.2.5 Build platform ....................................................................................................................................................................... 6

8.2.6 Spreading device (recoater blade) ...................................................................................................................... 6

8.2.7 Gas supply ................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

8.2.8 Feedstock condition and quantity ...................................................................................................................... 7

8.2.9 Baseline machine and process parameters ................................................................................................ 7

8.3 Periodic preventive maintenance .......................................................................................................................................... 7

8.3.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

8.3.2 Energy delivery verification .................................................................................................................................... 7

8.3.3 Z-axis movement ................................................................................................................................................................ 7

8.3.4 Compressed air .................................................................................................................................................................... 7

8.3.5 Oxygen and vacuum ........................................................................................................................................................ 7

8.3.6 Laser field alignment (LFA) ...................................................................................................................................... 8

8.3.7 Other recommended preventive maintenance ........................................................................................ 8

8.4 Machine, process, and part qualification ........................................................................................................................ 8

8.4.1 Process qualification ...................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.4.2 Build platform ....................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.4.3 Test specimens ..................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.4.4 Requalification .................................................................................................................................................................. 10

8.5 Consolidated material and part ............................................................................................................................................ 10

8.5.1 Material properties ....................................................................................................................................................... 10

iii
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8.5.2 Part properties .................................................................................................................................................................. 10

8.5.3 Non conformities ............................................................................................................................................................. 10

9 Manufacturing plan and documentation ................................................................................................................................11

9.1 Manufacturing plan ......................................................................................................................................................................... 11

9.2 Documentation .................................................................................................................................................................................... 11

Annex A (informative) Example of a manufacturing plan .........................................................................................................13

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................16

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oSIST prEN ISO/ASTM 52904:2022
ISO/ASTM DIS 52904:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 261, Additive manufacturing, in cooperation with

ASTM Committee F42, Additive Manufacturing Technologies, on the basis of a partnership agreement

between ISO and ASTM International with the aim to create a common set of ISO/ASTM standards on

Additive Manufacturing.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/ASTM 52904:2019), which has been

technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— restructuring acc. the process chain,

— added various references to new AM standards that cover the previous requirements,

— update in figure 1,
— restructuring of manufacturing plan.
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oSIST prEN ISO/ASTM 52904:2022
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/ASTM DIS 52904:2022(E)
Additive manufacturing of metals — Process
characteristics and performance — Metal powder bed
fusion process to meet critical applications
1 Scope

This document provides recommendations for the operation and production control of metal powder

bed fusion (PBF) machines and processes for areas of critical applications. A critical application is

assumed once failing parts-functionality leads to immediate threats.

This document is applicable for production components and mechanical test specimens using powder

bed fusion (PBF) with both laser and electron beams.

This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its

use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health,

and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to

use.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 8573-1, Compressed air — Part 1: Contaminants and purity classes

ISO/ASTM 52921, Standard terminology for additive manufacturing — Coordinate systems and test

methodologies

ISO/ASTM/TS 52930:2021, Additive manufacturing — Qualification principles — Installation, operation

and performance (IQ/OQ/PQ) of PBF-LB equipment
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in Specification F2924,

ISO/ASTM 52900, ISO/ASTM 52921, Guide E2910 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
build programmer

person responsible for programming a build including part orientation, part(s) nesting, and the

application of critical build parameters
3.2
machine operator

person responsible for initiating builds and turning over machines, which includes, but is not limited

to, loading feedstock powder, loading build platforms, removing completed builds and routine machine

cleaning and filter changes
© ISO/ASTM International 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/ASTM DIS 52904:2022(E)
3.3
recoater blade
rake
recoater
roller
brush

portion of the machine that comes in contact with and spreads feedstock across the build area

4 Personnel requirements

The personnel involved in operating the PBF-equipment shall be qualified in accordance with the

manufacturer or sector specific requirements (see ISO/ASTM 52926 parts 1 and 2 for PBF-LB operators

or parts 1 and 3 for PBF-EB operators).

Records of qualification shall be maintained by the manufacturer in accordance with manufacturer or

sector specific requirements (for example, ISO 9001, ISO 13485, ASQC C1, AS 9100).

5 Digital data
5.1 Digital data records

The component manufacturer shall maintain records of all software, CAD, and part nesting layouts

used in the production of components, including:

— PBF machine operation software version, as recorded on the manufacturing plan (Clause 9);

— Customer supplied or customer approved CAD files;

— Modifications to the customer CAD files, which shall be in accordance with Clause 8, and files such

as AMF and STL that are converted from customer-supplied CAD files. The party that performs the

translation from native CAD format to triangulated format (e.g. AMF, STL) is also responsible for

performing a quality check of the translated file to ensure there are no unacceptable errors (e.g.

bad/free edges, overlapping or intersecting triangles) and confirm that all required geometrical

features are still present;
— Slice or layer files used by the PBF machines;

— Record of part nesting and build layout (for example, data-preparation files; screenshots of isometric

view);
— PBF machine build log file.

Any other customer-supplied electronic data, dimensional drawings, statement of work, PBF machine

log file, or combination thereof, shall be maintained and saved. Multiple build cycles in a manufacturing

lot shall be recorded their unique manufacturing plan number.

The record retention period shall be as required for the relevant application/sector, or where not

otherwise specified, shall be a minimum of 5 years.
5.2 Digital data processing

The component manufacturer shall have a manual or automated method for engineering file

configuration control to ensure that the correct file designation on the purchase order is processed via

PBF and, if necessary, final machining.

If the build model is modified from the original form received from the customer (e.g. to add machining

allowance), the modification shall be performed in an engineering file format that allows for geometric

inspection of the preform. Support structures added to aid PBF processing shall not be considered as

modifications to the original form. Modified CAD files shall be verified in the same manner as 8.1.

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ISO/ASTM DIS 52904:2022(E)

When engineering files, such as CAD files, are converted to triangulated surfaces for purposes of PBF

processing, parameters used for the triangulation resolution of surfaces (e.g. chord height) shall be

specified and recorded.

All CAD file translations necessary to support PBF processing, shall be configuration controlled.

NOTE PBF machines with the ability to program builds from native CAD files would significantly reduce the

probability of configuration control errors.
6 PBF equipment requirements
6.1 General
Requirements for the following aspects are available in ISO/ASTM 52930:

— Build consumables (build platform, recoater, gases) see ISO/ASTM 52930:2021 section 6.4.2.1;

— Auxiliary tools and equipment;
— Machine operating software;
— Environmental controls.

For PBF-LB, the component manufacturer shall specify shielding gases that, as a minimum, includes

consideration of the gas composition and compatibility with the feedstock grade, build platform used

and the PBF machine.
6.2 Build consumables
6.2.1 Build platform

The component manufacturer shall define a build platform specification that, as a minimum, includes

consideration of the following:

— compatibility of the substrate material grade with the feedstock grade and any shielding gases

used;

— geometrical requirements, such as size, thickness and parallelism requirements;

— where the build platform is intended to be reused, sufficient additional thickness beyond the

minimum specified by the machine manufacturer to allow for thinning during subsequent recovery

of the build surface with each reuse;
— surface finish and cleanliness requirements.
6.2.2 Shielding gases

For PBF-LB, the component manufacturer shall specify shielding gases that, as a minimum, includes

consideration of the following:
— gas composition and purity
— compatibility with the feedstock and build platform used
— PBF machine requirements;
6.2.3 Recoater blade

The component manufacturer shall specify and select a recoater material with consideration of the

material compatibility with feedstock and consolidated material.
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oSIST prEN ISO/ASTM 52904:2022
ISO/ASTM DIS 52904:2022(E)
6.2.4 Compressed air

Compressed air requirements for the PBF machine shall be in accordance with the machine provider’s

recommendations, under consideration of ISO 8573-1.
6.3 Auxiliary tools and equipment

Auxiliary equipment (for example, sieves, hand tools, power tools, powder storage containers, powder

transport systems and delivery mechanism to machine) shall be cleaned and maintained in a manner to

prevent cross contamination from different feedstock types, gases, dust and foreign objects.

Particular care shall be taken with tools being used in the PBF machine build chamber to prevent

contamination of the feedstock. Any tool or accessories used in the build chamber, such as spatulas,

wrenches, vacuum attachments or similar, shall be non-contaminating to the feedstock.

Cooling systems/chillers, where used, shall be operated in accordance with the cooling system

manufacturer’s recommendations.
6.4 Machine operating software
Refer to ISO/ASTM 52930 for software and data control requirements.
6.5 Environmental controls

Temperature and humidity controls in the manufacturing cell and storage areas shall be in accordance

with the machine and feedstock manufacturers’ specifications (see material safety datasheet provided

with the feedstock) and any limits specified by the component manufacturer.
7 Feedstock requirements
7.1 Purchasing feedstock

Feedstock shall be purchased in accordance with the specifications of the Quality Management system

(QMS), for example included within an Approved Supplier List (ASL).

The component manufacturer shall provide a feedstock purchase specification against which feedstock

may be ordered and accepted. The requirements stated in the feedstock purchase specification shall

include, as a minimum, those prescribed by ISO/ASTM 52907, which covers:
— Product description (alloy designation)
— Powder storage and handling
— Powder sampling
— Powder characterization
— Documentation and traceability

Third-party certification of powder may be included as a requirement within the purchase specification,

where required.

The feedstock supplier shall supply the powder in accordance with the requirements of the feedstock

purchase specification (and hence, ISO/ASTM 52907). All feedstock shall be provided with a certificate

of conformity from the feedstock supplier, declaring that the feedstock meets the feedstock purchase

specification requirements.
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oSIST prEN ISO/ASTM 52904:2022
ISO/ASTM DIS 52904:2022(E)
7.2 Control of feedstock

All documentation received with the feedstock (e.g. certificate of conformity, safety datasheet) shall be

referenced within the manufacturing plan (see Clause 9) and retained by the component manufacturer

(see Clause 5.1).
Feedstock shall be store
...

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