Friction stir spot welding - Aluminium - Part 5: Quality and inspection requirements (ISO 18785-5:2018)

This document specifies a method to determine the capability of a manufacturer to use friction stir spot welding (FSSW) for production of products of the specified quality.
It specifies quality requirements, but does not assign those requirements to any specific product group.
In this document, the term "aluminium" refers to aluminium and its alloys.

Rührreibpunktschweißen - Aluminium - Teil 5: Qualitäts- und Prüfanforderungen (ISO 18785-5:2018)

Dieses Dokument legt ein Verfahren fest, mit dem die Fähigkeit des Herstellers ermittelt werden kann, das Rührreibpunktschweißen (FSSW) zur Fertigung von Produkten mit festgelegter Qualität einzusetzen.
Es legt spezifische Qualitätsanforderungen fest, weist diese Anforderungen aber keiner spezifischen Produktgruppe zu.
Der Begriff "Aluminium" bezieht sich in diesem Dokument auf Aluminium und seine Legierungen.

Soudage par friction-malaxage par points - Aluminium - Partie 5: Exigences de qualité et de contrôle (ISO 18785-5:2018)

Le présent document spécifie une méthode permettant de déterminer l'aptitude d'un fabricant à utiliser le procédé de soudage par friction-malaxage par points pour la fabrication de produits ayant la qualité spécifiée.
Elle spécifie des exigences de qualité, mais n'assigne pas ces exigences à un groupe spécifique de produits. Dans la présente norme, le terme «aluminium» se rapporte à l'aluminium et ses alliages.

Točkovno varjenje z gnetenjem - Aluminij - 5. del: Zahteve za kakovost in kontrolo (ISO 18785-5:2018)

General Information

Status
Published
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
13-Jan-2021
Completion Date
13-Jan-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 18785-5:2021
01-marec-2021

Točkovno varjenje z gnetenjem - Aluminij - 5. del: Zahteve za kakovost in kontrolo

(ISO 18785-5:2018)

Friction stir spot welding - Aluminium - Part 5: Quality and inspection requirements (ISO

18785-5:2018)

Rührreibpunktschweißen - Aluminium - Teil 5: Qualitäts- und Prüfanforderungen (ISO

18785-5:2018)

Soudage par friction-malaxage par points - Aluminium - Partie 5: Exigences de qualité et

de contrôle (ISO 18785-5:2018)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 18785-5:2021
ICS:
25.160.10 Varilni postopki in varjenje Welding processes
77.120.10 Aluminij in aluminijeve zlitine Aluminium and aluminium
alloys
SIST EN ISO 18785-5:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 18785-5:2021
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 18785-5:2021
EN ISO 18785-5
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
January 2021
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 25.160.10
English Version
Friction stir spot welding - Aluminium - Part 5: Quality and
inspection requirements (ISO 18785-5:2018)

Soudage par friction-malaxage par points - Aluminium Rührreibpunktschweißen - Aluminium - Teil 5:

- Partie 5: Exigences de qualité et de contrôle (ISO Qualitäts- und Prüfanforderungen (ISO 18785-5:2018)

18785-5:2018)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 6 December 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 18785-5:2021 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 18785-5:2021
EN ISO 18785-5:2021 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 18785-5:2021
EN ISO 18785-5:2021 (E)
European foreword

The text of ISO 18785-5:2018 has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/IIW "International

Institute of Welding” of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and has been taken

over as EN ISO 18785-5:2021 by Technical Committee CEN/TC 121 “Welding and allied processes” the

secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by July 2021, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by July 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 18785-5:2018 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 18785-5:2021 without any

modification.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 18785-5:2021
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 18785-5:2021
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18785-5
First edition
2018-11
Friction stir spot welding —
Aluminium —
Part 5:
Quality and inspection requirements
Soudage par friction-malaxage par points — Aluminium —
Partie 5: Exigences de qualité et de contrôle
Reference number
ISO 18785-5:2018(E)
ISO 2018
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 18785-5:2021
ISO 18785-5:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 18785-5:2021
ISO 18785-5:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Quality requirements ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Welding personnel ............................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2.2 Weld setter and welding operator .................................................................................................................... 2

4.3 Inspection and testing personnel ........................................................................................................................................... 2

4.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.3.2 Personnel performing non-destructive testing and visual testing ....................................... 2

4.3.3 Destructive testing personnel .............................................................................................................................. 2

4.4 Equipment ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.4.1 Suitability of equipment ............................................................................................................................................ 2

4.4.2 Equipment acquisition ........................................................................................................................................... ..... 2

4.4.3 Validation tests for qualified machine welding settings ................................................................ 3

4.4.4 Equipment maintenance ........................................................................................................................................... 3

4.5 Welding procedure specification (WPS) ........................................................................................................................... 3

4.6 Friction stir spot welding tool ................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.6.1 Identification ....................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.6.2 FSSW tool inspection.................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.7 Pre-weld joint preparation and fit-up ................................................................................................................................. 4

4.7.1 Joint preparation .............................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.7.2 Pre-weld cleaning............................................................................................................................................................ 4

4.8 Thermal control ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.9 Welding .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.10 Post-weld heat treatment .............................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.11 Inspection and testing ...................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.11.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.11.2 Inspection and testing before welding.......................................................................................................... 4

4.11.3 Inspection and testing during welding ......................................................................................................... 5

4.11.4 Inspection and testing after welding .............................................................................................................. 5

4.11.5 Damaged and non-conforming welds ............................................................................................................ 6

4.11.6 Weld flash correction ................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.12 Identification and traceability ................................................................................................................................................... 6

Annex A (normative) Imperfections, testing and examination................................................................................................. 7

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................11

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 18785-5:2021
ISO 18785-5:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www. iso. org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www. iso.org/patent s).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www.

iso .org/iso/foreword. html.

This document was prepared by the IIW, International Institute of Welding, Commission III, Resistance

welding, solid state welding and allied joining processes.

Any feedback, question or request for official interpretation related to any aspect of this document

should be directed to IIW via your national standards body. A complete listing of these bodies can be

found at www. iso. org/members. html.
A list of all parts in the ISO 18785 series can be found on the ISO website.
iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 18785-5:2021
ISO 18785-5:2018(E)
Introduction

Welding processes are widely used in the fabrication of engineered structures. During the second half

of the twentieth century, fusion welding processes, wherein fusion is obtained by the melting of parent

material and usually a filler metal, dominated the welding of large structures. In 1991, friction stir

welding (FSW), which is carried out entirely in the solid phase (no melting), was invented.

Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) processes are spot-like variants of the FSW process. Unlike FSW, there

is minimal or no traverse motion of the tool. In basic FSSW, the joint is created by plunging a rotating

tool into the work piece and retracting the tool out of the overlapping sheets. Other FSSW variants

include additional tool movements. Frictional heat is generated from the contact between the tool and

the material to be welded resulting in softening of this material. The softened material is stirred to form

a metallurgical connection which is aided by the forge action applied by the tool shoulder contacting

the upper sheet surface.

The increasing use of FSSW has created the need for a FSSW standard in order to ensure that welding

is carried out in the most effective way and that appropriate control is exercised over all aspects of the

operation. The ISO 18785 series focuses on the FSSW of aluminium because, at the time this document

was developed, the majority of commercial applications for FSW involved aluminium. Examples include

railway cars, consumer products, food processing equipment, automotive components, aerospace

structures, and marine vessels.
To be effective, w
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN ISO 18785-5:2020
01-oktober-2020
[Not translated]

Friction stir spot welding - Aluminium - Part 5: Quality and inspection requirements (ISO

18785-5:2018)

Rührreibpunktschweißen - Aluminium - Teil 5: Qualitäts- und Prüfanforderungen (ISO

18785-5:2018)

Soudage par friction-malaxage par points - Aluminium - Partie 5: Exigences de qualité et

de contrôle (ISO 18785-5:2018)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN ISO 18785-5
ICS:
25.160.10 Varilni postopki in varjenje Welding processes
77.120.10 Aluminij in aluminijeve zlitine Aluminium and aluminium
alloys
oSIST prEN ISO 18785-5:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 18785-5:2020
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 18785-5:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18785-5
First edition
2018-11
Friction stir spot welding —
Aluminium —
Part 5:
Quality and inspection requirements
Soudage par friction-malaxage par points — Aluminium —
Partie 5: Exigences de qualité et de contrôle
Reference number
ISO 18785-5:2018(E)
ISO 2018
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 18785-5:2020
ISO 18785-5:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 18785-5:2020
ISO 18785-5:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Quality requirements ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Welding personnel ............................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2.2 Weld setter and welding operator .................................................................................................................... 2

4.3 Inspection and testing personnel ........................................................................................................................................... 2

4.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.3.2 Personnel performing non-destructive testing and visual testing ....................................... 2

4.3.3 Destructive testing personnel .............................................................................................................................. 2

4.4 Equipment ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.4.1 Suitability of equipment ............................................................................................................................................ 2

4.4.2 Equipment acquisition ........................................................................................................................................... ..... 2

4.4.3 Validation tests for qualified machine welding settings ................................................................ 3

4.4.4 Equipment maintenance ........................................................................................................................................... 3

4.5 Welding procedure specification (WPS) ........................................................................................................................... 3

4.6 Friction stir spot welding tool ................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.6.1 Identification ....................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.6.2 FSSW tool inspection.................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.7 Pre-weld joint preparation and fit-up ................................................................................................................................. 4

4.7.1 Joint preparation .............................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.7.2 Pre-weld cleaning............................................................................................................................................................ 4

4.8 Thermal control ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.9 Welding .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.10 Post-weld heat treatment .............................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.11 Inspection and testing ...................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.11.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.11.2 Inspection and testing before welding.......................................................................................................... 4

4.11.3 Inspection and testing during welding ......................................................................................................... 5

4.11.4 Inspection and testing after welding .............................................................................................................. 5

4.11.5 Damaged and non-conforming welds ............................................................................................................ 6

4.11.6 Weld flash correction ................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.12 Identification and traceability ................................................................................................................................................... 6

Annex A (normative) Imperfections, testing and examination................................................................................................. 7

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................11

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 18785-5:2020
ISO 18785-5:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www. iso. org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www. iso.org/patent s).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www.

iso .org/iso/foreword. html.

This document was prepared by the IIW, International Institute of Welding, Commission III, Resistance

welding, solid state welding and allied joining processes.

Any feedback, question or request for official interpretation related to any aspect of this document

should be directed to IIW via your national standards body. A complete listing of these bodies can be

found at www. iso. org/members. html.
A list of all parts in the ISO 18785 series can be found on the ISO website.
iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 18785-5:2020
ISO 18785-5:2018(E)
Introduction

Welding processes are widely used in the fabrication of engineered structures. During the second half

of the twentieth century, fusion welding processes, wherein fusion is obtained by the melting of parent

material and usually a filler metal, dominated the welding of large structures. In 1991, friction stir

welding (FSW), which is carried out entirely in the solid phase (no melting), was invented.

Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) processes are spot-like variants of the FSW process. Unlike FSW, there

is minimal or no traverse motion of the tool. In basic FSSW, the joint is created by plunging a rotating

tool into the work piece and retracting the tool out of the overlapping sheets. Other FSSW variants

include additional tool movements. Frictional heat is generated from the contact between the tool and

the material to be welded resulting in softening of this material. The softened material is stirred to form

a metallurgical connection which is aided by the forge action applied by the tool shoulder contacting

the upper sheet surface.

The increasing use of FSSW has created the need for a FSSW standard in order to ensure that welding

is carried out in the most effective way and that appropriate control is exercised over all aspects of the

operation. The ISO 18785 series focuses on the FSSW of aluminium because, at the time this document

was developed, the majority of commercial applications for FSW involved aluminium. Examples include

railway cars, consumer products, food processing equipment, automotive components, aerospace

structures, and marine vessels.

To be effective, welded structures should be free from serious problems in production and in service. To

achieve that goal, it is necessary to provide controls from the design phase through material selection,

fabrication, and inspection. For example, poor design can create serious and costly difficulties in the

workshop, on site, or in service. Incorrect material selection can result in welding problems such as

cracking. Welding procedures need to be correctly formulated and approved to avoid imperfections. To

ensure the fabrication of a quality product, management needs to understand the sources of potential

trouble and introduce appropriate quality and inspection procedures, and supervision should be

implemented to ensure that the specified quality is achieved.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 18785-5:2020
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 18785-5:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18785-5:2018(E)
Friction stir spot welding — Aluminium —
Part 5:
Quality and inspection requirements
1 Scope

This document specifies a method to determine the capability of a manufacturer to use friction stir

spot welding (FSSW) for production of products of the specified quality.

It specifies quality requirements, but does not assign those requirements to any specific product group.

In this document, the term "aluminium" refers to aluminium and its alloys.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3452 (all parts), Non-destructive testing — Penetrant testing

ISO 9015-1, Destructive tests on welds in metallic materials — Hardness testing — Part 1: Hardness test on

arc welded joints
ISO 9015-2, Destructive tests on welds in me
...

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