Hardmetals - Metallographic determination of microstructure - Part 1: Photomicrographs and description (ISO 4499-1:2020)

This document specifies the methods of metallographic determination of the microstructure of hardmetals using photomicrographs.

Hartmetalle - Metallographische Bestimmung der Mikrostruktur - Teil 1: Gefügebilder und Beschreibung (ISO 4499-1:2020)

Dieses Dokument legt die Verfahren für die metallographische Bestimmung der Mikrostruktur von Hart¬metallen unter Benutzung von Gefügebildern fest.

Métaux-durs - Détermination métallographique de la microstructure - Partie 1: Prises de vue photomicrographiques et description (ISO 4499-1:2020)

Le présent document spécifie les méthodes de détermination métallographique de la microstructure de métaux-durs au moyen de prises de vue photomicrographiques.

Trdine - Metalografsko določevanje mikrostrukture - 1. del: Fotomikrografi in opisi (ISO 4499-1:2020)

General Information

Status
Published
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
05-Aug-2020
Completion Date
05-Aug-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 4499-1:2020
01-oktober-2020
Nadomešča:
SIST EN ISO 4499-1:2010

Trdine - Metalografsko določevanje mikrostrukture - 1. del: Fotomikrografi in opisi

(ISO 4499-1:2020)

Hardmetals - Metallographic determination of microstructure - Part 1: Photomicrographs

and description (ISO 4499-1:2020)

Hartmetalle - Metallographische Bestimmung der Mikrostruktur - Teil 1: Gefügebilder und

Beschreibung (ISO 4499-1:2020)

Métaux-durs - Détermination métallographique de la microstructure - Partie 1: Prises de

vue photomicrographiques et description (ISO 4499-1:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 4499-1:2020
ICS:
77.040.99 Druge metode za Other methods of testing of
preskušanje kovin metals
77.160 Metalurgija prahov Powder metallurgy
SIST EN ISO 4499-1:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 4499-1:2020
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SIST EN ISO 4499-1:2020
EN ISO 4499-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
August 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 77.040.99; 77.160 Supersedes EN ISO 4499-1:2010
English Version
Hardmetals - Metallographic determination of
microstructure - Part 1: Photomicrographs and description
(ISO 4499-1:2020)

Métaux-durs - Détermination métallographique de la Hartmetalle - Metallographische Bestimmung der

microstructure - Partie 1: Prises de vue Mikrostruktur - Teil 1: Gefügebilder und Beschreibung

photomicrographiques et description (ISO 4499- (ISO 4499-1:2020)
1:2020)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 1 August 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 4499-1:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 4499-1:2020
EN ISO 4499-1:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 4499-1:2020
EN ISO 4499-1:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 4499-1:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 119 "Powder

metallurgy" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/SS M11 “Powder metallurgy” the

secretariat of which is held by CCMC.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by February 2021, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by February 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 4499-1:2010.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 4499-1:2020 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 4499-1:2020 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 4499-1:2020
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SIST EN ISO 4499-1:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 4499-1
Second edition
2020-07
Hardmetals — Metallographic
determination of microstructure —
Part 1:
Photomicrographs and description
Métaux-durs — Détermination métallographique de la
microstructure —
Partie 1: Prises de vue photomicrographiques et description
Reference number
ISO 4499-1:2020(E)
ISO 2020
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SIST EN ISO 4499-1:2020
ISO 4499-1:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 4499-1:2020
ISO 4499-1:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

5 Preparation of testpiece section .......................................................................................................................................................... 2

6 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6.1 Metallographic preparation ......................................................................................................................................................... 2

6.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6.1.2 Sectioning ............................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6.1.3 Mounting ................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

6.1.4 Grinding ................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.1.5 Lapping..................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.1.6 Polishing .................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

6.1.7 Cleaning ................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2 Etching ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 4499-1:2020
ISO 4499-1:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 119, Powder metallurgy, Subcommittee

SC 4, Sampling and testing methods for hardmetals, in collaboration with the European Committee for

Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/SS M11, Powder metallurgy, in accordance with the

Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 4499-1:2008), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— in Clause 2 and 6.1.4: reference to ISO 3878 has been removed;
— an apparatus (4.3) Electron Back Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) has been added;
— 3.3: “TaC” corrected.
A list of all parts in the ISO 4499 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 4499-1:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 4499-1:2020(E)
Hardmetals — Metallographic determination of
microstructure —
Part 1:
Photomicrographs and description
1 Scope

This document specifies the methods of metallographic determination of the microstructure of

hardmetals using photomicrographs.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 4499-2, Hardmetals — Metallographic determination of microstructure — Part 2: Measurement of WC

grain size
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
α-phase
tungsten carbide
3.2
β-phase
binder phase (for example, based on Co, Ni, Fe)
3.3
γ-phase

carbide having a cubic lattice (for example, TiC, TaC) which may contain other carbides (for example

WC) in solid solution
4 Apparatus

4.1 Metallographic microscope, permitting observations at magnifications up to 1 500 × .

4.2 Scanning electron microscope for magnification over 1 500 × .
4.3 Electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD).
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 4499-1:2020
ISO 4499-1:2020(E)
4.4 Equipment for preparation of testpiece sections.
5 Preparation of testpiece section

The testpiece section shall be prepared as for metallographic examination, and the surface to be

examined shall be free from grinding and polishing marks. Care shall be taken to avoid tearing-out of

particles, which can lead to a wrong evaluation of microstructure.

NOTE There are several methods for preparation of hardmetal surfaces for metallographic examination.

Firstly, careful coarse grinding is carried out to remove sufficient material to ensure that the true structure is

revealed. After grinding with fine diamond-grit wheels, polishing is effected by using diamond paste or diamond

powders, of progressively finer grain size down to 1 µm, on rigidly supported laps of, for example, thin plastic,

[1]

thin felt or paper. A Good Practice Guide has been written by the UK National Physical Laboratory that gives

detailed guidelines on microstructural preparation. Key points from the Good Practice Guide are included in 6.1.

[2]

ASTM has also prepared a thorough standard on sample preparation that merits study (ASTM B665) .

6 Procedure
6.1 Metallographic preparation
6.1.1 General

Good metallographic preparation is essential to produce a plane polished sample that, when etched,

reveals the true microstructure of the hardmetal. Bad preparation can lead to grain tear-out, uneven

etching and misleading detail in the microstructure which will affect any subsequent measurement.

Preparation and etching procedures can require toxic or dangerous chemicals. Personnel should be

adequately trained, and facilities and precautions as laid down in the relevant safety guidelines in place

at the laboratory concerned should be observed.
6.1.2 Sectioning

In many cases, the hardmetal sample might have to be sectioned into smaller samples f

...

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