Hardmetals - Metallographic determination of microstructure - Part 4: Characterisation of porosity, carbon defects and eta-phase content (ISO 4499-4:2016)

ISO 4499-4:2016 specifies methods for the metallographic determination of the presence, type, and distribution of porosity, uncombined carbon and eta-phase in hardmetals.

Hartmetalle - Metallographische Bestimmung der Mikrostruktur - Teil 4: Charakterisierung von Porosität, Kohlenstofffehlern und Anteil an Eta-Phase (ISO 4499-4:2016)

Métaux-durs - Détermination métallographique de la microstructure - Partie 4: Caractérisation de la porosité, des défauts carbone et de la teneur en phase êta (ISO 4499-4:2016)

L'ISO 4499-4:2016 spécifie des méthodes de détermination métallographique de la présence, du type et de la répartition de la porosité, du carbone non combiné et de la phase êta dans les métaux-durs.

Trdine - Metalografsko določevanje mikrostrukture - 4. del: Opis značilnosti poroznosti, oglikovih hib in vsebine v eta-fazi (ISO 4499-4:2016)

Ta del standarda ISO 4499 določa metode za metalografsko določevanje prisotnosti, vrste in distribucije poroznosti, ogljikovih hib in eta-faze v trdinah.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
15-Mar-2016
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
16-Mar-2016
Completion Date
16-Mar-2016

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 4499-4:2016
01-maj-2016
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 24505:2000
7UGLQH0HWDORJUDIVNRGRORþHYDQMHPLNURVWUXNWXUHGHO2SLV]QDþLOQRVWL
SRUR]QRVWLRJOLNRYLKKLELQYVHELQHYHWDID]L ,62

Hardmetals - Metallographic determination of microstructure - Part 4: Characterisation of

porosity, carbon defects and eta-phase content (ISO 4499-4:2016)
Hartmetalle - Metallographische Bestimmung der Mikrostruktur - Teil 4:

Charakterisierung von Porosität, Kohlenstofffehlern und Anteil an Eta-Phase (ISO 4499-

4:2016)
Métaux-durs - Détermination métallographique de la microstructure - Partie 4:

Caractérisation de la porosité, des défauts carbone et de la teneur en phase êta (ISO

4499-4:2016)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 4499-4:2016
ICS:
77.040.99 Druge metode za Other methods of testing of
preskušanje kovin metals
77.160 Metalurgija prahov Powder metallurgy
SIST EN ISO 4499-4:2016 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 4499-4:2016
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SIST EN ISO 4499-4:2016
EN ISO 4499-4
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
March 2016
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 77.040.99; 77.160 Supersedes EN 24505:1993
English Version
Hardmetals - Metallographic determination of
microstructure - Part 4: Characterisation of porosity,
carbon defects and eta-phase content (ISO 4499-4:2016)

Métaux-durs - Détermination métallographique de la Hartmetalle - Metallographische Bestimmung der

microstructure - Partie 4: Caractérisation de la Mikrostruktur - Teil 4: Charakterisierung von

porosité, des défauts carbone et de la teneur en phase Porosität, Kohlenstofffehlern und Anteil an Eta-Phase

êta (ISO 4499-4:2016) (ISO 4499-4:2016)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 4 February 2016.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2016 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 4499-4:2016 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 4499-4:2016
EN ISO 4499-4:2016 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 4499-4:2016
EN ISO 4499-4:2016 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 4499-4:2016) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 119 "Powder

metallurgy".

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by September 2016, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by September 2016.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.
This document supersedes EN 24505:1993.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 4499-4:2016 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 4499-4:2016 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 4499-4:2016
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SIST EN ISO 4499-4:2016
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 4499-4
First edition
2016-02-15
Hardmetals — Metallographic
determination of microstructure —
Part 4:
Characterisation of porosity, carbon
defects and eta-phase content
Métaux-durs — Détermination métallographique de la
microstructure —
Partie 4: Caractérisation de la porosité, des défauts carbone et de la
teneur en phase êta
Reference number
ISO 4499-4:2016(E)
ISO 2016
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SIST EN ISO 4499-4:2016
ISO 4499-4:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
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Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 4499-4:2016
ISO 4499-4:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and Units ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

5 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

6 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

7 Calibration of measurement apparatus ....................................................................................................................................... 2

8 Preparation of test samples ...................................................................................................................................................................... 2

8.1 Methods of preparation ................................................................................................................................................................... 2

8.2 Characterisation of porosity and carbon (graphite) defects ........................................................................... 3

8.3 Characterisation of eta-phase .................................................................................................................................................... 3

9 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

9.2 Determination of porosity ............................................................................................................................................................. 3

9.3 Determination of carbon defects ............................................................................................................................................. 4

9.4 Determination of the η-phase (eta-phase)...................................................................................................................... 7

10 Uncertainty of measurement ................................................................................................................................................................... 9

11 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 4499-4:2016
ISO 4499-4:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 119, Powder metallurgy, Subcommittee SC 4,

Sampling and testing methods for hardmetals.

This first edition of ISO 4499-4 cancels and replaces ISO 4505:1978, which has been technically revised.

ISO 4499 consists of the following parts, under the general title Hardmetals — Metallographic

determination of microstructure:
— Part 1: Photomicrographs and description
— Part 2: Measurement of WC grain size

— Part 3: Measurement of microstructural features in Ti (C,N) and WC/cubic carbide based hardmetals

— Part 4: Characterisation of porosity, carbon defects and eta-phase content
iv © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 4499-4:2016
ISO 4499-4:2016(E)
Introduction

In standard WC/Co hardmetals, the chemistry, magnetic properties and density are generally controlled

[1][2][3]

so that only two phases WC and Co are present. The Co phase is an alloy and contains some W

and C in solid solution. The WC phase is stoichiometric. If the composition is either high or low in total

carbon content, then it is possible to see a third phase in the structure. For high C, this is graphite; for

low C, it is eta phase (η); typically, an M C or M C carbide where M is (Co W ). This part of ISO 4499

6 12 x y

is concerned with the detection and measurement of these microstructural features together with the

measurement of porosity levels. Porosity is important since these materials are manufactured by a

powder metallurgical route and although the technique of liquid phase sintering is used to consolidate

the multiphase structure, low levels of porosity can arise in some instances and affect properties such

as density and strength.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 4499-4:2016
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SIST EN ISO 4499-4:2016
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 4499-4:2016(E)
Hardmetals —
...

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