Soil quality - Determination of the water-retention characteristic - Laboratory methods (ISO 11274:2019)

This document specifies laboratory methods for determination of the soil water-retention characteristic.
This document applies only to measurements of the drying or desorption curve.
Four methods are described to cover the complete range of soil water pressures as follows:
a) method using sand, kaolin or ceramic suction tables for determination of matric pressures from 0 kPa to −50 kPa;
b) method using a porous plate and burette apparatus for determination of matric pressures from 0 kPa to −20 kPa;
c) method using a pressurized gas and a pressure plate extractor for determination of matric pressures from −5 kPa to −1 500 kPa;
d) method using a pressurized gas and pressure membrane cells for determination of matric pressures from −33 kPa to −1 500 kPa.
Guidelines are given to select the most suitable method in a particular case.

Bodenbeschaffenheit - Bestimmung des Wasserrückhaltevermögens - Laborverfahren (ISO 11274:2019)

Dieses Dokument legt Laborverfahren für die Ermittlung des Wasserrückhaltevermögens des Bodens fest.
Dieses Dokumentgilt nur für Messungen der Trocknungs- oder Desorptionskurve.
Vier Verfahren sind beschrieben, damit der gesamte Bereich der Bodenwasserdrücke wie folgt abgedeckt wird:
a) Verfahren, bei dem Sand-, Kaolin- oder Keramiksaugtische für die Ermittlung von Matrixdrücken von 0 kPa bis −50 kPa verwendet werden;
b) Verfahren, bei dem eine poröse Platte und Büretten-Apparatur für die Ermittlung von Matrixdrücken von 0 kPa bis −20 kPa verwendet werden;
c) Verfahren, bei dem ein Druckgas und Druckplattenextraktor für die Ermittlung von Matrixdrücken von −5 kPa bis −1 500 kPa verwendet werden;
d) Verfahren, bei dem ein Druckgas und Druckmembranzellen für die Ermittlung von Matrixdrücken von −33 kPa bis −1 500 kPa verwendet werden.
Anleitungen für die Auswahl des für den Einzelfall am besten geeigneten Verfahrens sind enthalten.

Qualité du sol - Détermination de la caractéristique de la rétention en eau - Méthodes de laboratoire (ISO 11274:2019)

Le présent document décrit les méthodes de laboratoire permettant de déterminer la caractéristique de rétention en eau du sol.
Le présent document s'applique uniquement aux mesurages effectués pour établir les courbes de séchage et de désorption.
Il existe quatre méthodes pour prendre en compte l'ensemble du domaine des pressions de l'eau des sols, à savoir:
a) méthode utilisant des tables à succion à sable, kaolin ou céramique permettant de déterminer des pressions matricielles comprises entre 0 kPa et −50 kPa;
b) méthode associant une plaque poreuse à un appareillage à burette permettant de déterminer des pressions matricielles comprises entre 0 kPa et −20 kPa;
c) méthode utilisant un gaz sous pression et un extracteur à plaque poreuse permettant de déterminer des pressions matricielles comprises entre −5 kPa et −1 500 kPa;
d) méthode utilisant un gaz sous pression et des cellules à membrane sous pression permettant de déterminer des pressions matricielles comprises entre −33 kPa et −1 500 kPa.
Des lignes directrices sont données pour faciliter le choix de la méthode la mieux adaptée à chaque cas particulier.

Kakovost tal - Določevanje karakteristik zadrževanja vode - Laboratorijske metode (ISO 11274:2019)

Ta standard določa laboratorijske metode za določevanje karakteristik zadrževanja vode v tleh. Ta dokument se uporablja samo za merjenje sušilne ali desorpcijske krivulje. Za zajem celotnega spektra vodnega tlaka v tleh so v standardu opisane naslednje štiri metode: a) metoda z uporabo sesalnih tabel iz peska, kaolina ali keramike za določanje matričnih tlakov od 0 do –50 kPa; b) metoda z uporabo porozne plošče in birete za določanje matričnih tlakov od 0 do –20 kPa; c) metoda z uporabo stisnjenega plina in tlačnega ekstraktorja za določanje matričnih tlakov od –5 kPa do –1500 kPa; d) metoda z uporabo stisnjenega plina in celic tlačne membrane za določanje matričnih tlakov od –33 do –1500 kPa. Podane so smernice za izbiro najprimernejše metode v posameznem primeru.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
15-Oct-2019
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
16-Oct-2019
Completion Date
16-Oct-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 11274:2020
01-januar-2020
Nadomešča:
SIST EN ISO 11274:2014

Kakovost tal - Določevanje karakteristik zadrževanja vode - Laboratorijske metode

(ISO 11274:2019)

Soil quality - Determination of the water-retention characteristic - Laboratory methods

(ISO 11274:2019)
Bodenbeschaffenheit - Bestimmung des Wasserrückhaltevermögens - Laborverfahren
(ISO 11274:2019)

Qualité du sol - Détermination de la caractéristique de la rétention en eau - Méthodes de

laboratoire (ISO 11274:2019)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 11274:2019
ICS:
13.080.40 Hidrološke lastnosti tal Hydrological properties of
soils
SIST EN ISO 11274:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 11274:2020
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SIST EN ISO 11274:2020
EN ISO 11274
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
October 2019
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.080.40 Supersedes EN ISO 11274:2014
English Version
Soil quality - Determination of the water-retention
characteristic - Laboratory methods (ISO 11274:2019)

Qualité du sol - Détermination de la caractéristique de Bodenbeschaffenheit - Bestimmung des

la rétention en eau - Méthodes de laboratoire (ISO Wasserrückhaltevermögens - Laborverfahren (ISO

11274:2019) 11274:2019)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 8 September 2019.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 11274:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 11274:2020
EN ISO 11274:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 11274:2020
EN ISO 11274:2019 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 11274:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 190 "Soil

quality" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 444 “Test methods for environmental

characterization of solid matrices” the secretariat of which is held by NEN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by April 2020, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by April 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 11274:2014.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 11274:2019 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 11274:2019 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 11274:2020
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SIST EN ISO 11274:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 11274
Second edition
2019-09
Soil quality — Determination of the
water-retention characteristic —
Laboratory methods
Qualité du sol — Détermination de la caractéristique de la rétention
en eau — Méthodes de laboratoire
Reference number
ISO 11274:2019(E)
ISO 2019
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SIST EN ISO 11274:2020
ISO 11274:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 11274:2020
ISO 11274:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Guidelines for choice of method........................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Sand, kaolin or ceramic suction tables for determination of pressures from 0 kPa

to −50 kPa .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.3 Porous plate and burette apparatus for determination of pressures from 0 kPa to

−20 kPa .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.4 Pressure plate extractor for determination of pressures from −5 kPa to −1 500 kPa .............. 2

4.5 Pressure membrane cells for determination of pressures from −33 kPa to −1 500 kPa ........ 3

5 Sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.1 General requirements ....................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Sample preparation ............................................................................................................................................................................ 4

6 Determination of the soil water characteristic using sand, kaolin and ceramic

suction tables ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.1 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.2 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.3 Preparation of suction tables...................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.4 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.5 Expression of results .......................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.5.1 Procedure for soils containing less than 20 % stones (diameter greater

than 2 mm)............................................................................................................................................................................ 6

6.5.2 Conversion of results to a fine soil basis ..................................................................................................... 7

7 Determination of soil water characteristic using a porous plate and burette .....................................8

7.1 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

7.2 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.3 Assembly of porous plate/burette apparatus .............................................................................................................. 8

7.4 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.5 Expression of results .......................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8 Determination of soil water characteristic by pressure plate extractor .................................................11

8.1 Principle .....................................................................................................................................................................................................11

8.2 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................................................11

8.3 Assembly of apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................12

8.4 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................12

8.5 Calculation and expression of results...............................................................................................................................13

8.5.1 Procedure for stoneless soils .............................................................................................................................13

8.5.2 Procedure for stony soils .......................................................................................................................................13

9 Determination of soil water characteristic using pressure membrane cells .....................................14

9.1 Principle .....................................................................................................................................................................................................14

9.2 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................................................14

9.3 Assembly of apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................14

9.4 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................15

9.5 Expression of results .......................................................................................................................................................................16

9.6 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................16

10 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................16

11 Precision ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................17

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 11274:2020
ISO 11274:2019(E)

Annex A (informative) Construction of suction tables ....................................................................................................................18

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................23

iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 11274:2020
ISO 11274:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 190, Soil quality, Subcommittee SC 3,

Chemical methods and soil characteristics.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 11274:1998), which has been technically

revised. It also incorporates the Technical Corrigendum ISO 11274:1998/Cor. 1:2009.

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 11274:2020
ISO 11274:2019(E)
Introduction

Soil water content and matric pressure are related to each other and determine the water-retention

characteristics of a soil. Soil water which is in equilibrium with free water is at zero matric pressure

(or suction) and the soil is saturated. As the soil dries, matric pressure decreases (i.e. becomes more

negative), and the largest pores empty of water. Progressive decreases in matric pressure will continue

to empty finer pores until eventually water is held in only the finest pores. Not only is water removed

from soil pores, but the films of water held around soil particles are reduced in thickness. Therefore a

[9][10]

decreasing matric pressure is associated with a decreasing soil water content . Laboratory or field

measurements of these two parameters can be made and the relationship plotted as a curve, called the

soil water-retention characteristic. The relationship extends from saturated soil (approximately 0 kPa)

to oven-dry soil (about −10 kPa).

The soil water-retention characteristic is different for each soil type. The shape and position of the

curve relative to the axes depend on soil properties such as texture, density and hysteresis associated

with the wetting and drying history. Individual points on the water-retention characteristic may be

determined for specific purposes.
The results obtained using these methods can be used, for example:

— to provide an assessment of the equivalent pore size distribution (e.g. identification of macro- and

micropores);

— to determine indices of plant-available water in the soil and to classify soil accordingly (e.g. for

irrigation purposes);

— to determine the drainable pore space (e.g. for drainage design, pollution risk assessments);

— to monitor changes in the structure of a soil (caused by e.g. tillage, compaction or addition of organic

matter or synthetic soil conditioners);

— to ascertain the relationship between the negative matric pressure and other soil physical properties

(e.g. hydraulic conductivity, thermal conductivity);

— to determine water content at specific negative matric pressures (e.g. for microbiological degradation

studies);
— to estimate other soil physical properties (e.g. hydraulic conductivity).
vi © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 11274:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 11274:2019(E)
Soil quality — Determination of the water-retention
characteristic — Laboratory methods
1 Scope

This document specifies laboratory methods for determination of the soil water-retention characteristic.

This document applies only to measurements of the drying or desorption curve.

Four methods are described to cover the complete range of soil water pressures as follows:

a) method using sand, kaolin or ceramic suction tables for determination of matric pressures from

0 kPa to −50 kPa;

b) method using a porous plate and burette apparatus for determination of matric pressures from

0 kPa to −20 kPa;

c) method using a pressurized gas and a pressure plate extractor for determination of matric

pressures from −5 kPa to −1 500 kPa;

d) method using a pressurized gas and pressure membrane cells for determination of matric pressures

from −33 kPa to −1 500 kPa.
Guidelines are given to select the most suitable method in a particular case.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1
soil water-retention characteristic

relation between soil water content and soil matric head of a given soil (sample)

3.2
pressure
pressure equivalent of soil water potential
3.3
matric pressure

amount of work done in order to transport, reversibly and isothermally, an infinitesimal quantity

of water, identical in composition to the soil water, from a pool at the elevation and the external gas

pressure of the point under consideration, to the soil water at the point under consideration, divided by

the volume of water transported
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 11274:2020
ISO 11274:2019(E)
3.4
water content mass ratio

mass of water evaporating from the soil when dried to constant mass at 105 °C, divided by the dry mass

of the soil (i.e. the ratio between the masses of water and solid particles within a soil sample)

3.5
water content volume fraction

volume of water evaporating from the soil when dried to constant mass at 105 °C, divided by the original

bulk volume of the soil (i.e. the ratio between the volume of liquid water within a soil sample and the

total volume including all pore space of that sample)

Note 1 to entry: The soil water-retention characteristic is identified in the scientific literature by various names

including soil water release curve, soil water-retention curve, pF curve and the capillary pressure-saturation

curve. Use of these terms is deprecated.

Note 2 to entry: The Pascal is the standard unit of pressure but many other units are still in use. Table A.1

provides conversions for most units.

Note 3 to entry: Sometimes suction is used instead of pressure to avoid the use of negative signs (see Introduction).

However, this term can cause confusion and is deprecated as an expression of the matric pressure.

Note 4 to entry: For swelling and shrinking soils, seek the advice of a specialist laboratory since interpretation of

water-retention data will be affected by these properties.
4 Guidelines for choice of method
4.1 General

Guidelines are given below to help selecting the most suitable method in a particular case.

4.2 Sand, kaolin or ceramic suction tables for determination of pressures from 0 kPa

to −50 kPa

The sand, kaolin and ceramic suction table methods are suitable for large numbers of determinations

at high pressures on cores or aggregates of different shapes and sizes. Analyses on samples of a wide

range of textures and organic matter contents can be carried out simultaneously since equilibration is

determined separately for each core. The suction table methods are suitable for a laboratory carrying

out analyses on a routine basis and where regular equipment maintenance procedures are implemented.

4.3 Porous plate and burette apparatus for determination of pressures from 0 kPa
to −20 kPa

The porous plate and burette apparatus allow analysis of only one sample at a time, and several sets

of equipment are therefore necessary to enable replication and full soil profile characterization. The

method is particularly suited to soils with weak structures and sands which are susceptible to slumping

or slaking, since minimal sample disturbance occurs. Capillary contact is not broken during the

procedure and all samples, particularly soils with higher organic matter content or sandy textures, will

equilibrate more rapidly using this technique. This is a simple technique suitable for small laboratories.

4.4 Pressure plate extractor for determination of pressures from −5 kPa to −1 500 kPa

The pressure plate method can be used for determinations of all pressures to −1 500 kPa. However,

different specifications of pressure chambers and ceramic plates are required for the range of pressures,

e.g. 0 kPa to −20 kPa, −20 kPa to −100 kPa and −100 kPa to −1 500 kPa. The method is, however, best

suited to pressures of −33 kPa or lower, since air entrapment at high negative pressures can occur. It is

preferable that soils with similar water-release properties are analysed together to ensure equilibration

2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 11274:2020
ISO 11274:2019(E)

times are approximately the same, though in practice it may be difficult. Sample size is usually smaller

than for the previous two methods and therefore the technique is less suitable for heterogeneous soil

horizons, or for those with a strong structural composition. Analysis of disturbed soils is traditionally

carried out using this method.
4.5 Pressure membrane cells for determination of pressures from −33 kPa to
−1 500 kPa

The pressure membrane cell should only be used for pressures below −33 kPa. Capillary contact at

higher pressures is not satisfactory for this method. The method is appropriate for all soil types though

the use of double membranes is recommended for coarse (sandy) textured soils. Sample size can be

selected (according to the size of the pressure cell) to take into account soil structure. Different textures

can be equilibrated separately using a suite of cells linked to one pressure source.

5 Sampling
5.1 General requirements

It is essential that undisturbed soil samples are used for measurement at the high matric pressure

range 0 kPa to −100 kPa, since soil structure has a strong influence on water-retention characteristics.

Use either undisturbed cores or, if appropriate, individual peds for low matric pressure methods

(<−100 kPa).

Soil cores shall be taken in a metal or plastic sleeve of a height and diameter such that they are

representative of the natural soil variability and structure. The dimensions of samples taken in the field

are dependent on the texture and structure of the soil and the test method to be used. Table 1 provides

guidance on suitable sample sizes for the different methods and soil structure.

Take soil cores carefully to ensure minimal compaction and disturbance to structure, either by hand

pressure in suitable material or by using a suitable soil corer. Take a minimum of three representative

replicates for each freshly exposed soil horizon or layer; more replicates are required in stony soils.

Record the sampling date, sample grid reference, horizon and sampling depths. Dig out the sleeve

carefully with a trowel, trim roughly the two faces of the cylinder with a knife and if necessary, adjust

the sample within the sleeve before fitting lids to each end, and label the top clearly with the sample

grid reference, the direction of the sampling (horizontal or vertical), horizon number and sample depth.

Wrap the samples (e.g. in plastic bags) to prevent drying. Wrap aggregates (e.g.in aluminium foil

or plastic film) to retain structure and prevent drying. Alternatively, excavate blocks measuring

approximately 30 cm cube of undisturbed soil in the field, wrap in metal foil, wax (to retain structure

and prevent drying) and take to the laboratory for subdivision. Store the samples at 1 °C to 2 °C to

reduce water loss and suppress biological activity until they are required for analyses. Treat samples

having obvious macrofaunal activity with a suitable biocide, e.g. 0,05 % copper sulfate solution.

Other relevant site information should be noted, e.g. soil water status, topsoil/surface conditions, etc.

(see 5.2).

Table 1 — Recommended sample sizes (height × diameter) for the different test methods

Dimensions in millimetres
Structure
Test method
Coarse Medium Fine
Suction table 50 × 100 40 × 76 24 × 50
Porous plate 50 × 76 40 × 76 20 × 36
Pressure plate — 10 × 76 10 × 50
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 11274:2020
ISO 11274:2019(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Structure
Test method
Coarse Medium Fine
Pressure membrane — 20 × 76 10 × 50

NOTE 1 The points mentioned here are specific to water-retention analyses. Reference is made to

ISO 18400-101 in which general adv
...

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