Geotechnical investigation and testing - Geohydraulic testing - Part 1: General rules (ISO/DIS 22282-1:2008)

2010-07-09 EMA: ISO/CS confirmed that no text has been received, WI deleted following the 3-year timeframe exercise.

Geotechnische Erkundung und Untersuchung - Geohydraulische Versuche - Teil 1: Allgemeine Regeln (ISO/DIS 22282-1:2008)

Das vorliegende Dokument behandelt die allgemeinen Regeln und Grundsätze für geohydraulische Versuche in Boden und Fels als Teil der geotechnischen Erkundungsdienste nach EN 1997 1 und prEN 1997 2. Es definiert Begriffe und legt Anforderungen an die Messung der Durchlässigkeit von Boden und Fels fest.
Die verschiedenen Zwecke von geohydraulischen Versuchen bestehen darin, Informationen zur Durchlässigkeit von Boden oder Fels im natürlichen oder behandelten Zustand, zur Transmissivität und zum Speicherkoeffizienten sowie zu den hydrodynamischen Parametern von Grundwasserleitern zu gewinnen.
Geohydraulische Versuche werden zu vielen Zwecken eingesetzt, beispielsweise den folgenden:
a)   Absorptionsvermögen und Wirksamkeit der Verpressung in Gebirge;
b)   Beurteilung der Versickerung und der Entwässerung;
c)   Beurteilung der Arbeiten zur Grundwasserabsenkung;
d)   Auswirkungen der Dichtungen für Talsperren;
e)   Auswirkungen von Tunnel Schachtabsenkungen;
f)   Überprüfung der Dichtheit der Füllung oder Abdeckung;
g)   Beurteilung des Durchflusses von Fluiden und Suspensionen im Baugrund;
h)   Planung von Instandsetzungsmaßnahmen.
ANMERKUNG 1   Geohydraulische Versuche für die Wasserversorgung werden durch ISO 14686 abgedeckt.
ANMERKUNG 2   Für die meisten Arten des Baugrunds ergeben Feldversuche zur Durchlässigkeit zuverlässigere Daten als im Laboratorium durchgeführte Versuche, da ein größeres Materialvolumen untersucht wird und da der Baugrund vor Ort geprüft wird, so dass die Auswirkungen der Konstruktion auf die Masse des Baugrunds mit einbezogen werden, die mit der Probenahme verbundenen Störungen jedoch vermieden werden.
Das Dokument behandelt die Durchführung von Versuchen mit Grundwasser; andere Fluide und Suspensionen werden nicht explizit betrachtet.

Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques - Essais géohydrauliques - Partie 1: Règles générales (ISO/DIS 22282-1:2008)

Geotehnično preiskovanje in preskušanje - Hidrogeološke preiskave - 1. del: Splošna pravila (ISO/DIS 22282-1:2008)

General Information

Status
Not Published
Current Stage
4098 - Decision to abandon - Enquiry
Due Date
09-Jul-2010
Completion Date
09-Jul-2010

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN ISO 22282-1:2008
01-julij-2008
*HRWHKQLþQRSUHLVNRYDQMHLQSUHVNXãDQMH+LGURJHRORãNHSUHLVNDYHGHO
6SORãQDSUDYLOD ,62',6

Geotechnical investigation and testing - Geohydraulic testing - Part 1: General rules

(ISO/DIS 22282-1:2008)

Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques - Essais géohydrauliques - Partie 1: Règles

générales (ISO/DIS 22282-1:2008)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN ISO 22282-1
ICS:
93.020 Zemeljska dela. Izkopavanja. Earthworks. Excavations.
Gradnja temeljev. Dela pod Foundation construction.
zemljo Underground works
oSIST prEN ISO 22282-1:2008 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN ISO 22282-1:2008
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oSIST prEN ISO 22282-1:2008
EUROPEAN STANDARD
DRAFT
prEN ISO 22282-1
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
April 2008
ICS 13.080.40
English Version
Geotechnical investigation and testing - Geohydraulic testing -
Part 1: General rules (ISO/DIS 22282-1:2008)
Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques - Essais
géohydrauliques - Partie 1: Règles générales (ISO/DIS
22282-1:2008)

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for parallel enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/TC 341.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which

stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language

made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,

Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are aware and to

provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without notice and

shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2008 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. prEN ISO 22282-1:2008: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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oSIST prEN ISO 22282-1:2008
prEN ISO 22282-1:2008 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword..............................................................................................................................................................3

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oSIST prEN ISO 22282-1:2008
prEN ISO 22282-1:2008 (E)
Foreword

This document (prEN ISO 22282-1:2008) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 341

"Geotechnical Investigation and Testing", the secretariat of which is held by ELOT, in collaboration with

Technical Committee ISO/TC 182 "Geotechnics".
This document is currently submitted to the parallel Enquiry.
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oSIST prEN ISO 22282-1:2008
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 22282-1
ISO/TC 182/SC 1 Secretariat: DIN
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2008-04-17 2008-09-17

INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION • МЕЖДУНАРОДНАЯ ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ ПО СТАНДАРТИЗАЦИИ • ORGANISATION INTERNATIONALE DE NORMALISATION

Geotechnical investigation and testing — Geohydraulic
testing —
Part 1:
General rules
Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques — Essais géohydrauliques —
Partie 1: Règles générales
ICS 93.020
ISO/CEN PARALLEL ENQUIRY

This draft International Standard is a draft standard developed within the European Committee for

Standardization (CEN) and processed under the CEN-lead mode of collaboration as defined in the

Vienna Agreement. The document has been transmitted by CEN to ISO for circulation for ISO member

body voting in parallel with CEN enquiry. Comments received from ISO member bodies, including those

from non-CEN members, will be considered by the appropriate CEN technical body. Should this DIS be

accepted, a final draft, established on the basis of comments received, will be submitted to a parallel two-

month FDIS vote in ISO and formal vote in CEN.

In accordance with the provisions of Council Resolution 15/1993 this document is circulated in

the English language only.

Conformément aux dispositions de la Résolution du Conseil 15/1993, ce document est distribué

en version anglaise seulement.

To expedite distribution, this document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.

ISO Central Secretariat work of editing and text composition will be undertaken at publication

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Pour accélérer la distribution, le présent document est distribué tel qu'il est parvenu du

secrétariat du comité. Le travail de rédaction et de composition de texte sera effectué au

Secrétariat central de l'ISO au stade de publication.

THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY NOT BE

REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.

IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES, DRAFT

INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO

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RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH

THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION.
International Organization for Standardization, 2008
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oSIST prEN ISO 22282-1:2008
ISO/DIS 22282-1
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ii ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
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oSIST prEN ISO 22282-1:2008
ISO/DIS 22282-1
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction.........................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................1

2 Normative references............................................................................................................................1

3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................2

4 Symbols..................................................................................................................................................4

5 Equipment..............................................................................................................................................4

5.1 General ...................................................................................................................................................4

5.2 Test section support system................................................................................................................5

5.3 Measuring tube ......................................................................................................................................5

5.4 Isolation of the test section..................................................................................................................5

5.5 Measuring and recording devices .......................................................................................................6

5.5.1 Measuring devices for water level.......................................................................................................6

5.5.2 Measuring devices for flow rate...........................................................................................................6

5.5.3 Recording devices.................................................................................................................................6

5.6 Additional equipment............................................................................................................................6

5.7 Calibration..............................................................................................................................................6

6 Planning of geohydraulic investigation and testing..........................................................................6

6.1 General ...................................................................................................................................................6

6.2 Selection of testing locations ..............................................................................................................7

6.3 Selection of test procedure ..................................................................................................................8

6.3.1 General ...................................................................................................................................................8

6.3.2 Water permeability tests in a borehole using open systems..........................................................12

6.3.3 Water pressure test in rocks ..............................................................................................................12

6.3.4 Pumping tests......................................................................................................................................13

6.3.5 Infiltrometer tests ................................................................................................................................14

6.3.6 Water permeability tests in a borehole using closed systems.......................................................14

7 Preparation of the test section and installation of equipment .......................................................14

7.1 Requirements for drilling and the test sections...............................................................................14

7.2 Installation of filter ..............................................................................................................................15

7.3 Checking installation ..........................................................................................................................15

7.4 Safety requirements............................................................................................................................15

7.5 Decommissioning................................................................................................................................16

7.5.1 General .................................................................................................................................................16

7.5.2 Decommissioning of boreholes.........................................................................................................16

7.5.3 Decommissioning of surface facilities..............................................................................................16

7.6 Factors influencing the test results...................................................................................................16

7.6.1 General .................................................................................................................................................16

7.6.2 Viscosity of fluid..................................................................................................................................16

7.6.3 Stratification and fissures ..................................................................................................................17

7.6.4 Variable groundwater levels...............................................................................................................17

Annex A (informative) Examples of possible test section isolation and support methods......................18

Annex B (informative) Examples of shape factors ........................................................................................24

Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................25

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ISO/DIS 22282-1
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 22282-1 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 182, Geotechnics, Subcommittee SC 1, and by

Technical Committee CEN/TC 341, Geotechnical investigation and testing in collaboration.

ISO 22282 consists of the following parts, under the general title Geotechnical investigation and testing —

Geohydraulic testing:
⎯ Part 1: General rules
⎯ Part 2: Water permeability tests in a borehole using an open system
⎯ Part 3: Water pressure test in rocks
⎯ Part 4: Pumping tests
⎯ Part 5: Infiltrometer tests
⎯ Part 6: Water permeability tests in a borehole using a closed system
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ISO/DIS 22282-1
Introduction

The EU water directive requires the member states to increase the activities to protect groundwater and fresh

surface water both quantitatively and qualitatively. At the same time society requires more water and more

and deeper constructions below groundwater level. In addition sea level may rise as the result of climate

change. This contradiction requires engineers working on construction projects below groundwater level to

make more reliable predictions of the effects of such structures on the groundwater conditions. This can partly

be achieved by better assessment of the permeability of the ground by in-situ tests as required in EN 1997-1

Clause 3.3.9.1. According to prEN 1997-2 the following shall apply:
“2.1.4 Groundwater –

(1) Groundwater investigations shall provide all relevant information on groundwater needed for geotechnical

design and construction.
(2) Groundwater investigations should provide, when appropriate, information on:

⎯ the depth, thickness, extent and permeability of water-bearing strata in the ground, and joint systems in

rock;
⎯ the chemical composition and temperature of groundwater.

(3) The information obtained should be sufficient to assess the following aspects, where relevant:

⎯ the scope for and nature of groundwater lowering work;

⎯ possible harmful effects of the groundwater on excavations or on slopes (e.g. risk of hydraulic failure,

excessive seepage pressure or erosion);

⎯ any measures necessary to protect the structure (e.g. water proofing, drainage and measures against

aggressive water);

⎯ effects of groundwater lowering, desiccation, impounding, etc. on the surroundings;

⎯ the capacity of the ground to absorb water injected during construction work;

⎯ whether it is possible to use local groundwater, given its chemical constitution, for construction purposes.

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oSIST prEN ISO 22282-1:2008
prEN ISO 22282-1:2007 (E)
Geotechnical investigation and testing — Geohydraulic
testing —
Part 1:
General rules
1 Scope

This document deals with the general rules and principles for geohydraulic testing in soil and rock as

part of the geotechnical investigation services in accordance with EN 1997-1 and prEN 1997-2. It

defines concepts and specifies requirements relating to permeability measurement in soil and rock.

The different purposes of geohydraulic testing are to obtain information on the permeability of soil or

rock in natural or treated states, transmissivity and storage coefficient, and hydrodynamic parameters

of aquifers.
Geohydraulic testing is used for many purposes, such as:
a) absorption capacity and effectiveness of grouting in rock mass;
b) assessment of seepage and drainage;
c) assessment of groundwater lowering work;
d) effect of cut-offs for dams;
e) effect of tunnels shaft sinking;
f) checking fill or cover tightness
g) assessment of the flow of fluids and suspensions in the ground
h) planning of remedial measures.
NOTE 1 Geohydraulic testing for water supply is covered by ISO 14686.

NOTE 2 For most type of ground, field permeability tests yield more reliable data than those carried out in the

laboratory, because a larger volume of material is tested, and because the ground is tested in situ, thereby

including effects resulting from the structure of the ground mass but avoiding the disturbance associated with

sampling.

The document deals with the execution of tests with groundwater and does not explicitly consider

other fluids and suspensions. The flow of other fluids and suspensions can be considered by applying

the different viscosities and relations between transmissivity, permeability (hydraulic conductivity) and

absolute permeability.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.
EN 791, Drilling rigs — Safety.
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EN 1990, Basis of Structural Design - Guidelines for implementation and application.

EN 1997-1, Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design — Part 1: General Rules.

prEN 1997-2, Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design — Part 2: Ground investigation and testing.

ISO 14686 Hydrometric determinations — Pumping tests for water wells -- Considerations and

guidelines for design, performance and use.

ISO/IEC 17025, General requirement for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories.

ISO 22475-1, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Sampling by drilling and excavation methods

and groundwater measurements — Part 1: Technical principle for execution.

ISO/TS 22475-2, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Sampling by drilling and excavation

methods and groundwater measurements — Part 2: Technical qualification criteria.

ISO/TS 22475-3, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Sampling by drilling and excavation

methods and groundwater measurements — Part 3: Conformity assessment for enterprises and

personnel.
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 1990, EN 1997-1, EN 1997-2,

and EN ISO 22475-1 and the following apply.
3.1
flow rate
The volume of water added or discharged from the test section per time unit
3.2
hydraulic head

the differential pressure between the test section and the surrounding ground, usually expressed in

terms of water level
3.3
test section
a section in a borehole where the test is carried out3.4
skin effect
the effect of the wall of the test section on the test
3.5
permeability coefficient
the flow rate divided by the area unit

NOTE The term "hydraulic conductivity" is also used synonymously for "permeability".

3.6
transmissivity
product of permeability coefficient and thickness of saturated aquifer.
3.7
storage coefficient

volume of water stored or released from a column of aquifer with unit cross section under unit

hydraulic head variation.
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3.8
steady state
state when hydraulic head and the flow rate are constant with time
3.9

transient state prior to the steady state when the flow rate or hydraulic head are not constant with time

3.10
saturated condition
condition of the tested ground with all voids filled with water
3.11
unsaturated condition

condition of the tested ground with voids partially filled with water and partially filled with air or another

gas.
3.12
rising head test

test where the pressure or head in the test section is initially decreased and the rising is recorded

3.13
falling head test

test where the pressure or head in the test section is initially increased and the falling is recorded

3.14
variable head test
rising or falling head test
3.15
constant head test

test where the pressure or head in the test section is kept constant and the change in inflow or outflow

is recorded.
3.16
constant rate test

test where the flow rate in the test section is kept constant and change in pressure or head is recorded

3.17
mud cake
Solids deposited on the filter pack or the borehole wall.
3.18
clogging
decrease of flow rate by blocking of flow paths due to sedimentation
3.19
washing
increase of flow rate by widening or opening of flow paths due to erosion
3.20
shape factor
A model factor used for the interpretation of the test results
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4 Symbols
Table 1 — Symbols
Symbol Designation Unit
A Area of the inner cross section of the casing m
A Area of the inner cross section of the measuring tube m²
A Area of the water surface in the reservoir m
Borehole diameter, diameter of the test section m
F Shape factor m
H Hydraulic head m
H Distance of the water surface from ground level m
H ,H , H
Applied hydraulic heads m
1 2 3
∆H Change in hydraulic head m
k Permeability coefficient m s
K Intrinsic permeability coeeficient
L Length (height) of the test section m
p Pressure kPa
3 -1
Q flow rate m s
3 -1
Q Q Q flow rate at test 1, 2 and 3 m s
1, 2, 3
S Storage coefficient -
T Transmissivity (T = k L) m² s
t Time s
t Time needed to reach the equilibrium s
t Time at test start s
V Volume m
η dynamic viscosity of the fluid Ns/m²
density kg/dm³
5 Equipment
5.1 General

According to the different test methods, the apparatus can comprise the following elements:

⎯ test section support system;
⎯ measuring tube;
⎯ isolation of the test section;
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⎯ measuring and recording devices;
⎯ additional equipment.
5.2 Test section support system

A system for supporting the test section shall be used for tests conducted in soil or rock which do not

maintain the geometry of the test section throughout the test.

A filter or a gravel pack may be used to support the test section. The filter pack shall be stable against

the surrounding ground and the sealing.

The filter material shall be a granular material selected to avoid plugging and/or erosion of the soil

particles from or into the surrounding ground. The permeability of the filter material shall be

considerably higher than the expected value of the permeability of the ground and shall not affect the

test results.
A chemical effect between the filter material and the water shall be avoided.
5.3 Measuring tube

A measuring tube of known cross-section should be used to connect the test section to the ground

surface. The tube shall be dimensionally stable with respect to the applied hydraulic head. The

measurement tube elements shall be chosen to give a minimum number of joints to minimize leakage.

Their diameter shall be adapted to the rate of water level variation.

A valve may be provided on this measuring tube, to allow isolation of the test section or establish

contact with the atmosphere. The closing or opening of this valve shall not induce a change in volume

which can lead to a change of the water pressure. Such changes can influence the quality of the test.

5.4 Isolation of the test section
The test section can be isolated either by
⎯ the casing;
⎯ a sealing plug;
⎯ single packer;
⎯ double or multiple packers.
NOTE see Annex B.

A packer is a high pressure expanding element which is inflated e.g by compressed air and tightly

pressed against the borehole wall to provide a seal. The sealed length shall depend on the evenness

of the borehole wall and the soil and rock type to avoid leakage around the packer and shall not be

less than 0,5 m. The effective pressure of the packer on the borehole wall shall be at least 30% higher

than the maximum test pressure.

Single packers only seal at the top of a test section while double or multiple packers also can seal at

the bottom. Special attention shall be paid to the detection of leakage of the lower packer.

The packer shall be strong enough to resist the inflating pressure with no creep and homogenous

enough to avoid any perforation of the membrane.
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5.5 Measuring and recording devices
5.5.1 Measuring devices for water level
The changes in water levels may be measured:
⎯ by using an electrical measuring tape (water level meter);
⎯ by using a float system;
⎯ by using a pressure transducer system.

NOTE Rapid changes in depth are measured with greater accuracy with pressure sensing devices

since they are able to detect the changes more rapidly than a float. Floats lose most of their accuracy

from cable friction along the well walls.
5.5.2 Measuring devices for flow rate
The changes in flow rate shall be measured:
⎯ by using flow meter;
⎯ by using a calibrated container.
5.5.3 Recording devices
The recording shall be carried out:
⎯ manually;
⎯ analogously;
⎯ digitally.
5.6 Additional equipment

Depending on the kind of the test and the possible impact of local conditions additional equipment

shall be used in order to be able to make corrections for variations in
...

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