Characterization of waste - Guidance on the use of ecotoxicity tests applied to waste

Ecotoxicity tests can be applied to wastes to identify their potential hazardous properties with respect to the environment or to assess the risk related to a site-specific exposure scenario. This document provides guidance for the selection and use of ecotoxicity tests for both applications.
This document focuses on the following selected field of applications:
a)   Basic ecotoxicological characterization;
b)   Site-specific exposure scenario;
c)   Landfill management:
1)   monitoring of leachates;
2)   mineral waste going to non-controlled landfill sites.
d)   Re-use of waste:
1)   use of sludge in agriculture;
2)   use of mineral waste in road construction.
The user should be aware that other fields of application can also be covered by ecotoxicological testing not being in the scope of the document. The ecotoxicological assessment of waste within other scenarios might need the development of other test strategies.
Depending on the waste type and the assessment goal, relevant criteria are described for the selection of a test strategy and the suitable ecotoxicity test(s).
This document also provides guidance for individual ecotoxicity test protocols to meet the specific demands of waste testing (e.g. limitations, test design, confounding factors).The tests recommended represent a minimum test battery that may be accomplished by additional tests or even be replaced by others according to the waste, the intended use or protection goal envisaged.

Charakterisierung von Abfällen - Anleitung zur Anwendung von Ökotoxizitätsprüfungen auf Abfälle

Die Ökotoxizitätsprüfungen können auf Abfälle angewendet werden, um deren potentielle umweltgefährdende Eigenschaften zu identifizieren oder um das auf ein standortspezifisches Expositionsszenarium zurückgehen-de Risiko abzuschätzen. Dieses Dokument stellt eine Anleitung zur Auswahl und zum Einsatz von Ökotoxizi-tätsprüfungen für beide Anwendungen zur Verfügung.
Die Schwerpunkte dieses Dokuments liegen auf den folgenden ausgewählten Anwendungsbereichen:
a)   grundlegende ökotoxikologische Charakterisierung;
b)   standortspezifisches Expositionsszenarium;
c)   Deponiemanagement:
1)   Überwachung von Sickerwasser;
2)   mineralische Abfälle, die auf unüberwachten Deponien abgelagert werden.
d)   Abfallwiederverwertung:
1)   landwirtschaftliche Wiederverwertung von Schlamm;
2)   Wiederverwertung von mineralischen Abfällen im Straßenbau.
Der Anwender sollte sich dessen bewusst sein, dass weitere, außerhalb des Anwendungsbereiches dieses Dokuments liegende Anwendungsgebiete ebenfalls durch ökotoxikologische Prüfung abgedeckt werden können. Die ökotoxikologische Bewertung von Abfällen innerhalb weiterer Szenarien kann die Entwicklung weiterer Prüfstrategien erfordern.
Die relevanten Kriterien für die Auswahl einer Prüfstrategie und der geeigneten Ökotoxizitätsprüfung(en) sind in Abhängigkeit von der Abfallart und dem Bewertungszweck beschrieben.
Dieses Dokument stellt ebenfalls eine Anleitung hinsichtlich einzelner ökotoxikologischer Prüfverfahren zur Verfügung (z. B. im Hinblick auf Einschränkungen, das Prüfkonzept oder störende Faktoren), um spezifische Anforderungen der Abfallprüfung zu erfüllen. Die empfohlenen Prüfungen stellen eine Mindesttestbatterie dar, die durch zusätzliche Prüfverfahren ergänzt oder durch andere Prüfverfahren entsprechend dem Abfall, der beabsich¬tigten Verwendung oder dem anvisierten Schutzziel ersetzt werden kann.

Caractérisation des déchets - Lignes directrices pour l'utilisation des essais d'écotoxicité appliqués aux déchets

Les essais d'écotoxicité peuvent être appliqués aux déchets pour identifier leurs propriétés de danger potentiel en fonction de l'environnement ou pour évaluer le risque lié à un scénario d'exposition site-spécifique. Le présent document fournit des lignes directrices relatives à la sélection et l'utilisation d'essais d'écotoxicité pour les deux applications.
Le présent document concerne les domaines d'application sélectionnés suivants :
a)   Caractérisation écotoxicologique de base ;
b)   Scénario d'exposition site-spécifique ;
c)   Gestion des décharges :
1)   surveillance des lixiviats ;
2)   déchets minéraux sur des sites d’enfouissement non contrôlés.
d)   Réutilisation des déchets :
1)   utilisation des boues en agriculture ;
2)   utilisation des déchets minéraux dans le domaine de la construction de routes.
Il convient que l'utilisateur sache que d'autres domaines d'application peuvent également être couverts par des essais écotoxicologiques qui ne font pas partie du domaine d'application du document. L'évaluation écotoxicologique des déchets effectuée dans d'autres situations peut nécessiter le développement d'autres stratégies d'essai.
Selon le type de déchets et l'objectif d'évaluation, des critères pertinents sont décrits pour la sélection d'une stratégie d'essai et du ou des essai(s) d'écotoxicité approprié(s).
Le présent document fournit également des lignes directrices relatives à des protocoles d'essai d'écotoxicité individuels afin de répondre aux demandes spécifiques des essais portant sur les déchets (par exemple limites, dispositif d'essai, facteurs confondants). Les essais recommandés représentent une batterie minimale d'essais qui peut comprendre des essais supplémentaires ou encore être remplacés par d'autres, selon les déchets, l'utilisation prévue ou l'objectif de protection envisagé.

Karakterizacija odpadkov - Navodilo za uporabo ekotoksikoloških preskusov za odpadke

Ekotoksikološki preskusi se lahko uporabljajo za odpadke, za ugotovitev njihovih morebitnih nevarnih lastosti glede okolja ali za ocenitev tveganja, povezanega s scenarijem izpostavljenosti za posamezno lokacijo. To tehnično poročilo zagotavlja navodilo za izbor in uporabo ekotoksikoloških preskusov za obe uporabi.
Ta dokument se osredotoča na naslednja izbrana področja uporabe:
a) osnovno ekotoksikološko karakterizacijo;
b) scenarij izpostavljenosti za posamezno lokacijo;
c) upravljanje odlagališč:
1) spremljanje in nadzorovanje izcednih vod;
2) mineralnih odpadkov na nekontroliranih odlagališčih;
d) ponovna uporaba odpadkov:
1) uporaba mulja v kmetijstvu;
2) uporaba mineralnih odpadkov pri gradnji cest.
Uporabnik se mora zavedati, da druga področja uporabe lahko prav tako pokrivajo ekotoksikološki preskusi, ki niso zajeti v področje tega dokumenta. Za ekotoksikološko oceno odpadkov v drugih scenarijih bo morda treba razviti druge strategije preskušanja.
Glede na vrsto odpadkov in cilj ocenjevanja so opisana ustrezna merila za izbiro preskusne strategije in primernih ekotoksikoloških preskusov.
Ta dokument tudi podaja vodilo za posamezne ekotoksikološke preskusne protokole, ki ustrezajo specifičnim zahtevam preskušanja odpadkov (npr. omejitve, zasnova preskusa, moteči dejavniki). Priporočeni preskusi predstavljajo najmanjši sistem preskusov, ki jih je mogoče doseči z dodatnimi preskusi ali celo nadomestiti z drugimi, glede na odpadke, nameravano uporabo ali cilj zaščite.

General Information

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Published
Publication Date
14-Dec-2010
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
21-Sep-2010

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 16110:2011
01-maj-2011
Karakterizacija odpadkov - Navodilo za uporabo ekotoksikoloških preskusov za
odpadke

Characterization of waste - Guidance on the use of ecotoxicity tests applied to waste

Charakterisierung von Abfällen - Anleitung zur Beurteilung von Biotests zur
ökotoxikologischen Charakterisierung von Abfällen

Caractérisation des déchets - Lignes directrices pour l'utilisation des essais d'écotoxicité

appliqués aux déchets
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 16110:2010
ICS:
13.030.01 Odpadki na splošno Wastes in general
SIST-TP CEN/TR 16110:2011 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 16110:2011
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SIST-TP CEN/TR 16110:2011
TECHNICAL REPORT
CEN/TR 16110
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
December 2010
ICS 13.030.01
English Version
Characterization of waste - Guidance on the use of ecotoxicity
tests applied to waste

Caractérisation des déchets - Lignes directrices pour Charakterisierung von Abfällen - Anleitung zur Anwendung

l'utilisation des essais d'écotoxicité appliqués aux déchets von Ökotoxizitätsprüfungen auf Abfälle

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 14 September 2010. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 292.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,

Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2010 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TR 16110:2010: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3

Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................4

1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................5

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................5

3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................7

4 General information provided by the content of the guidance document.......................................8

5 Sampling, transport, storage and sample preparation ......................................................................8

6 Leaching procedures for ecotoxicological testing ............................................................................8

6.1 Overview of methods ............................................................................................................................8

6.1.1 General ....................................................................................................................................................8

6.1.2 Basic characterization ...........................................................................................................................9

6.1.3 Compliance tests ...................................................................................................................................9

6.1.4 "On-site verification" .............................................................................................................................9

6.2 Selection of leaching tests ................................................................................................................ 10

7 Ecotoxicological testing .................................................................................................................... 13

7.1 General remarks about the use of ecotoxicity tests ....................................................................... 13

7.2 General criteria for selection of tests for establishing a test battery ............................................ 13

7.3 Limitations of proposed ecotoxicity tests for waste characterization .......................................... 15

8 Selected field of applications ............................................................................................................ 16

8.1 Basic ecotoxicological characterization .......................................................................................... 16

8.1.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 16

8.1.2 Sample pre-treatment and leaching procedure ............................................................................... 16

8.1.3 Recommendation of minimum test battery ...................................................................................... 17

8.2 Site specific exposure scenarios ...................................................................................................... 17

8.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 17

8.2.2 Landfill management .......................................................................................................................... 17

8.2.3 Re-Use of waste .................................................................................................................................. 20

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 23

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Foreword

This document (CEN/TR 16110:2010) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 292

“Characterization of waste”, the secretariat of which is held by NEN.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document is a Technical Report.
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Introduction

Ecotoxicity can be estimated using two approaches: a chemical-specific approach and a toxicity-based

approach. In the first situation, chemical analyses are compared to quality criteria or threshold values to

estimate toxicity. In the second case, toxicity is measured directly using toxicity tests. These two approaches

complement each other. However, determination of pollutants in complex mixtures of unknown composition (a

characteristic of many wastes) does not allow a relevant estimation of toxicity. For such samples, the toxicity-

based approach is usually recognised to be the best approach to assess toxicity. Ecotoxicity tests integrate

the effects of all contaminants including additive, synergistic and antagonistic effects. They are sensitive to the

bioavailable fraction of the contaminants only and integrate the effects of all contaminants, including those, not

considered or detected by chemical analyses.

Ecotoxicity tests may be applied to wastes to identify their potential hazardous intrinsic properties with respect

to the environment for basic characterization or to assess the risk related to a site-specific exposure scenario.

The majority of existing ecotoxicity tests being internationally harmonized were developed to describe the

ecotoxic potential of a test substance when added to water or to soil/soil material, of waste water or of eluates.

These methods can be applied with some modifications for the ecotoxicological characterization of wastes. In

this situation, users of these methods should be aware that the validation of the methods is not complete.

Several studies as well as an International ring test have been conducted to validate some test methods for

waste samples and the results have been used as background information.
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1 Scope

Ecotoxicity tests can be applied to wastes to identify their potential hazardous properties with respect to the

environment or to assess the risk related to a site-specific exposure scenario. This document provides

guidance for the selection and use of ecotoxicity tests for both applications.
This document focuses on the following selected field of applications:
a) Basic ecotoxicological characterization;
b) Site-specific exposure scenario;
c) Landfill management:
1) monitoring of leachates;
2) mineral waste going to non-controlled landfill sites.
d) Re-use of waste:
1) use of sludge in agriculture;
2) use of mineral waste in road construction.

The user should be aware that other fields of application can also be covered by ecotoxicological testing not

being in the scope of the document. The ecotoxicological assessment of waste within other scenarios might

need the development of other test strategies.

Depending on the waste type and the assessment goal, relevant criteria are described for the selection of a

test strategy and the suitable ecotoxicity test(s).

This document also provides guidance for individual ecotoxicity test protocols to meet the specific demands of

waste testing (e.g. limitations, test design, confounding factors).The tests recommended represent a minimum

test battery that may be accomplished by additional tests or even be replaced by others according to the

waste, the intended use or protection goal envisaged.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 12457-1:2002, Characterisation of waste  Leaching  Compliance test for leaching of granular waste

materials and sludges  Part 1:One stage batch test at a liquid to solid ratio of 2 l/kg for materials with high

solid content and with particle size below 4 mm (without or with size reduction)

EN 12457-2:2002, Characterisation of waste  Leaching  Compliance test for leaching of granular waste

materials and sludges  Part 2: One stage batch test at a liquid to solid ratio of 10 l/kg for materials with

particle size below 4 mm (without or with size reduction)

EN 12457-4:2002, Characterisation of waste  Leaching  Compliance test for leaching of granular waste

materials and sludges  Part 4: One stage batch test at a liquid to solid ratio of 10 l/kg for materials with

particle size below 10 mm (without or with size reduction)
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EN 12920:2006, Characterization of waste  Methodology for the Determination of the Leaching Behaviour of

Waste under Specified Conditions

CEN/TR 13097:2010, Characterization of sludges  Good practice for sludge utilisation in agriculture

CEN/TS 14405:2004, Characterization of waste  Leaching behaviour test  Up-flow percolation test (under

specified conditions)

CEN/TS 14429:2005, Characterization of waste  Leaching behaviour tests  Influence of pH on leaching

with initial acid/base addition

EN 14735:2005, Characterization of waste  Preparation of waste samples for ecotoxicity tests

EN 14899:2005, Characterization of waste  Sampling of waste materials  Framework for the preparation

and application of a Sampling Plan

CEN/TR 15584:2007, Characterisation of sludges  Guide to risk assessment especially in relation to use

and disposal of sludges

EN ISO 6341:1996, Water quality  Determination of the inhibition of the mobility of Daphnia magna Straus

(Cladocera, Crustacea)  Acute toxicity test (ISO 6341:1996)

EN ISO 8692:2004, Water quality  Freshwater algal growth inhibition test with unicellular green algae (ISO

8692:2004)

EN ISO 11348-1:2008, Water quality  Determination of the inhibitory effect of water samples on the light

emission of Vibrio fischeri (Luminescent bacteria test)  Part 1: Method using freshly prepared bacteria (ISO

11348-1:2007)

EN ISO 11348-2:2008, Water quality  Determination of the inhibitory effect of water samples on the light

emission of Vibrio fischeri (Luminescent bacteria test)  Part 2: Method using liquid-dried bacteria (ISO

11348-2:2007)

EN ISO 11348-3:2008, Water quality  Determination of the inhibitory effect of water samples on the light

emission of Vibrio fischeri (Luminescent bacteria test)  Part 3: Method using freeze-dried bacteria (ISO

11348-3:2007)

EN ISO 20079:2006, Water quality  Determination of the toxic effect of water constituents and waste water

on duckweed (Lemna minor)  Duckweed growth inhibition test (ISO 20079:2005)

EN ISO/TS 21268-2:2007, Soil quality — Leaching procedures for subsequent chemical and ecotoxicological

testing of soil and soil materials — Part 2: Bach test using a liquid to solid ratio of 10 L/kg dry matter (ISO/TS

21268-2:2007)

EN ISO/TS 21268-3:2007, Soil quality — Leaching procedures for subsequent chemical and ecotoxicological

testing of soil and soil materials — Part 3: Up-flow percolation test (ISO/TS 21268-3:2007)

EN ISO/TS 21268-4:2007, Soil quality  Leaching procedures for subsequent chemical and ecotoxicological

testing of soil and soil materials — Part 4: Influence of pH on leaching with initial acid/base addition (ISO/TS

21268-4:2007)

ISO 10706:2000, Water quality  Determination of long term toxicity of substances to Daphnia magna Straus

(Cladocera, Crustacea)

ISO 11268-2;1998, Soil quality  Effects of pollutants on earthworms (Eisenia fetida)  Part 2: Determination

of effects on reproduction
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ISO 11269-2:2005, Soil quality  Determination of the effects of pollutants on soil flora  Part 2: Effects of

chemicals on the emergence and growth of higher plants

ISO 14238:1997, Soil quality  Biological methods  Determination of nitrogen mineralization and

nitrification in soils and the influence of chemicals on these processes

ISO 16387:2004, Soil quality  Effects of pollutants on Enchytraeidae (Enchytraeus sp.)  Determination of

effects on reproduction and survival

ISO 17616:2008, Soil quality  Guidance on the choice and evaluation of bioassays for ecotoxicological

characterization of soils and soil materials

ISO 18772:2008, Soil quality — Guidance on leaching procedures for subsequent chemical and

ecotoxicological testing of soils and soil materials

ISO 20665:2008, Water quality  Determination of chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
ecotoxicological properties

potential adverse effects to ecological systems which a waste has an inherent capacity to cause

3.2
eluate
aqueous solution recovered from a leaching test
3.3
waste

any substance or object in the categories set out in Annex I which the holder discards or intends or is required

to discard
[Directive 2006/12/EC]
3.4
leachant

liquid used in a leaching test. For the purpose of this Technical report the leachant is water

3.5
leaching test

test during which a waste is put into contact with a leachant and some constituents of the material are

extracted
3.6
leachate

any liquid percolating through the deposited waste and emitted from or contained within a landfill

3.7
inert waste

waste that does not undergo any significant physical, chemical or biological transformations

NOTE Inert waste does not dissolve, burn or otherwise physically or chemically react, biodegrade, or adversely affect

other matter with which it comes into contact in a way likely to give rise to environmental pollution or harm human health.

The total leachability and pollutant content of the waste and the ecotoxicity of the leachate must be insignificant, and in

particular not endanger the quality of surface and/or groundwater. [adapted from Directive 1993/31/EC]

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4 General information provided by the content of the guidance document

This document gives guidance for the selection of a suitable test design e.g. determination of

concentration/effect relationship, single concentration test (limit test). Additionally leaching tests are suggested

for each field of application and, for some ecotoxicity tests, information about confounding factors or

interactions with the test material is given.

Where test strategy and selection of test methods for basic characterization is favoured by standardization

and harmonization, a site-specific scenario might require a more tailor-made approach. Comparisons with

other locations and situations become less important, which open the way for the use of less known

organisms, specific exposure scenarios or non-standardized methods. Other criteria as sensitivity,

practicability and cost efficiency however still holds.

For some site-specific scenarios, choices regarding test strategy and test methods might strongly depend on

available information. For example, the outcome of the assessment before treatment should be taken into

account in the re-assessment of treated waste. In other situations emphasis should be paid to expected

changes in the waste material after application. For example, in the reuse of sludge as well as for the reuse of

mineral waste, changes in physico-chemical composition after application can be expected which influence

availability of toxicants and as a consequence possible ecological effects. The overall strategy should cover

these aspects.

In most other cases of site-specific characterization of waste material the principles for the definition of test

strategy and selection of test methods do not differ strongly from those proposed for the site-specific

assessment of contaminated soils in general. For guidance on these aspects, reference is therefore made to

general textbooks, reviews and guidelines (e.g. ISO 17616, ISO 18772).
5 Sampling, transport, storage and sample preparation

Before waste is assessed by any of the methods proposed, samples need to be collected from the site of

waste origin and, depending on the potential reuse scenario, from the site of future reapplication. Sampling of

waste should be carried out by trained operators with sufficient knowledge of sampling, handling of samples

and safety measures at waste treatment plants, industrial sites or contaminated locations. The sampling

strategy and handling should be determined according to the waste or site to be investigated, the kind of

contamination and the aim of the biological tests.

Instructions on the design of sampling plan, transport, storage and sample preparation are given in the

documents EN 14899, CEN/TR 15310-1 to -5 and EN 14735.

Addition of preservatives (e.g. acids, basic solutions, biocides) in order to retard chemical and biological

activity is prohibited.
6 Leaching procedures for ecotoxicological testing
6.1 Overview of methods
6.1.1 General

For the selected fields of application, a key aspect regards the assessment of ecotoxic effects on organisms

exposed via the water phase. Indeed, the release of soluble constituents upon contact with water can be

regarded as a main mechanism of release which results in a potential risk to the environment during the reuse

or disposal of waste materials.

In order to generate a water extract from a solid material, several methods have been developed and a wide

variety of test protocols is available in literature. The following sub-clause does not intend to describe all types

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of extraction methods but gives some relevant information on the selection of the appropriate method

according to the aim of the study.

The leaching of contaminants from waste is controlled by several parameters and external factors. These

factors include the physical/chemical nature of the waste especially in terms of pH, reducing properties and

degradable organic matter content, the nature of the leachant, the contact time of the leachant with the waste,

the particle size and the liquid to solid ratio (L/S). The outcome of which also influences the ecotoxicological

response of the waste leachate (see Van der Sloot & van Zomeren, 2009; Postma et al, 2009).

European Standards have been developed to investigate mainly inorganic constituents from waste. They do

not take into account the particular characteristics of non-polar organic constituents nor the consequences of

microbiological processes in organic degradable wastes, and need to be adapted in some cases (e.g. table 3).

Some information is provided in EN ISO/TS 21268-3 and EN ISO/TS 21268-4 to address organic

contaminants.

Leaching tests, performed to characterise waste materials according to the Landfill Directive, can be divided

into three categories: basic characterisation, compliance tests and on-site verification tests.

6.1.2 Basic characterization

Leaching tests belonging to this category are used to obtain information on the short and long term leaching

behaviour and characteristic properties of waste materials. They allow characterizing the source term in

accordance with a given scenario which can either be generic or site specific. Liquid/solid (L/S) ratios,

leachant composition, factors controlling leachability such as pH, redox potential, complexing capacity and

physical parameters are addressed in these tests. They can be subdivided as follows:

 Parametric tests. These tests are intended for measuring an intrinsic property of a material or the effects

(correlated) of specific parameters on release on the basis of a contaminated material in a defined

scenario. CEN/TS 14429 is a typical parametric test;

 Temperature, pH-value, liquid/solid ratio, redox potential, chemical properties or leaching agent flow rate

are examples of specific parameters which influence the behaviour towards leaching;

 Multiparametric tests. These tests are intended to measure the combined effect of different parameters

on release from a contaminated material in a relevant scenario. For a typical multiparametric leaching test

(see CEN/TS 14405).

NOTE A methodology for the determination of the leaching behaviour of waste has been developed within TC 292

and formulated in EN 12920.
6.1.3 Compliance tests

Tests belonging to this category are used to determine whether the waste complies with specific reference

values. They also allow intercomparison and classification of different types of wastes. These tests focus on

key variables and leaching behaviour identified by basic characterization tests. In contrast to characterization

tests, this type of tests is relatively simple and quick. It is not designed to provide information on leaching

mechanisms and controlling factors. However, it should be possible to link the information obtained with such

tests to the more elaborated characterization tests.

Batch leaching tests developed by CEN/TC 292: EN 12457-1 to EN 12457-4 belong to this category and are

based on different liquid to solid (L/S) ratios (2 - 10) and different particle sizes (4 mm – 10 mm).

6.1.4 "On-site verification"

Tests belonging to this category are used as a rapid check to confirm that the waste is the same as that which

has been subjected to the compliance test(s).
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6.2 Selection of leaching tests

In addition to those mentioned above, some other parameters shall be taken into account when selecting

leaching procedures for ecotoxicological testing such as duration of leaching test, amount of eluate needed to

perform ecotoxicological tests and separation of solid and liquid phases.

For example, for the leaching test procedure described in CEN/TS 14405, a linear leachant velocity of

15 cm/day has been fixed. This enables the test to be carried out to a final L/S = 10 l/kg in approximately

30 days and to reach L/S = 2 l/kg within approximately one week. This however leads to extended storage

period of eluate (for batch leaching tests, the contact time does not exceed 24 hours) and may induce

significant changes in its toxicity before performing ecotoxicity tests.

The advantages and limitations of the available techniques are given in Table 1, Table 2 and Table 3.

It is recommended to use the same leaching protocol for chemical analyses and for ecotoxicity tests in order

to facilitate the interpretation of the results.

For more information on the L/S ratio for batch tests and other leaching protocols refer also to ISO 18772.

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 16110:2011
CEN/TR 16110:2010 (E)

Table 1 — Advantages and limitations of leaching procedures for ecotoxicity testing

Parameter Advantages Limitations

- Covering the water available fraction, - Separation may cause loss of compounds

Static test (as
simulation of leaching depending on - Substantial higher release of organic
EN 12457-1 to
L/S ratio contaminants observed in batch L/S=10
-4)
compared to cumulative release in
- Quick, most experience, reproducible
percolation test
- Simulation of leaching, covering - The time required to obtain a sufficient
Type of
leaching in the field, risk assessment in volume of eluate (depending on column
test
terms of contact time diameter and L / S ratio) can be long. It may
lead to changing characteristics of the eluate
Dynamic test
- Separation of solid materials is not
during the storage period prior to ecotoxicity
(as CEN/TS
needed (no turbidity)
tests
14405)
- Contact time can be adapted to
scenario conditions
- More realistic test conditions possible

- Limits the dilution of the extracted - The extraction method is not applicable to

constituents which are therefore less waste with high water holding capacity. Such

likely to be present in concentrations kind of wastes limits the recovery of the
below the limit of detection and/or eluate or even makes it impossible.
toxicity.
- The separation of the liquid phase may be
Low L/S

- Close to pore water (first eluate of more difficult. Centrifugation methods might

percolation test) be required.
(e.g. L/S
=2 l/kg as - Depending on the subsequent
EN 12457-1, characterization to be performed (especially if
first fractions of chronic tests are included), the available
CEN/TS volumes may be insufficient. It may be
14405) necessary to perform more than one test
(e.g. parallel leachings) to produce the
needed volume of eluate.
- Negative effects of confounding factors (e.g.
extreme pH values, NH , conductivity) are
more likely to occur at low L/S.
L/S mass
- The method is applicable to most - The high volume of leaching solution
ratio
waste typologies. The volume provided generally produces a “diluted” eluate
is considerably greater than the compared to the one obtained at low L/S
maximum water holding capacity. ratio. For low-contaminated waste, this can
lead to a lack of effects in the ecotoxicity
- The extraction capacity is high
tests. - Even for highly contaminated wastes
(saturation of the solution being more
the high L/S of the eluates produced are
difficult, taking into account the
unlikely to account for certain complexing
high L/S
volume). The transfer is thus
effects which would occur under field
maximised.
conditions.
(e.g. L/S =
- The obtaining of eluate is generally
10 l/kg as
easier (less quantity of solid particles to
EN 12457-2
separate).
and -4)
- The obtained volumes of eluate are
likely to be sufficient for the subsequent
ecotoxicological characterization to be
performed.
- Most of the available ecotoxicological
data were obtained using this
extraction method.
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SIST-TP CEN/TR 16110:2011
CEN/TR 16110:2010 (E)
Table 2 – Advantages and limitations of different leachants
Parameter Advantages Limitations
- Provide comparable results by
- In EN 12457-1 to -4, the pH conditions of the tests are
minimizing interactions between
currently imposed by the material itself. The sensitivity of
leachant and waste
leaching to relatively small changes in pH may be
Demineralised
significant.
water
- The ionic composition of the eluate may be a
confounding factor
Demineralised

- Scenario covering acidic leaching - If toxic effects are observed in the dilutions where pH is

water adjusted
in the field. not compatible with the tolerance of the organisms, pH
to a defined pH
needs to be further adapted for biotesting.
- Information on contaminant
with acid or
composition and for modell
...

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