Postal services - Quality of service - Measurement of loss and substantial delay in priority and first class single piece mail using a survey of test letters

This document specifies methods for measuring the level of loss and substantial delay, using a survey of test letters, of domestic and cross-border priority and first class single piece letter mail, collected, processed and distributed by postal service operators.
It is impossible in practice to distinguish between items which will never arrive and items which have been delayed for a very long time. A minimum period is therefore defined after which an item that has been sent shall be treated as if it has been lost or substantially delayed for the purposes of measurement.
The resulting overall figure for loss and substantial delay is to be expressed as a percentage of the total posted priority and first class single piece mail. This indicator does not measure the postal operator's overall performance in a way which provides direct comparison of postal service operators, and does not include other service performance indicators other than those related to loss and substantial delay.
According to this document, loss and substantial delay is estimated within specified accuracy limits. When the level of loss is very small it may only be possible to estimate an upper limit for the level of loss.
This document has been developed from and is compatible with the requirements of EN 13850 for the measurement of the transit time of end-to-end services for single piece priority mail and first class mail, so that the same survey may be used to measure loss and substantial delay and on-time performance. Thus it comprises a set of requirements for the design of a measuring system involving the selection and distribution of test letters sent and received by selected panellists, according to a specification that ensures that the test letter sample design is representative of the real mail flows.

Postalische Dienstleistungen - Dienstqualität - Messung des Verlustes und der erheblichen Verzögerungen von Vorzugssendungen und Einzelsendungen erster Klasse unter Verwendung von Testbriefen

Dieses Dokument legt Verfahren für die Messung von Verlusten und erheblichen Verspätungen mit Hilfe einer Erhebung von Testsendungen, nationalen und grenzüberschreitenden Vorrangsendungen und First-Class-Sendungen festgelegt, die von Postdienstleistern abgeholt, bearbeitet und verteilt werden.
Es ist praktisch unmöglich, zwischen Sendungen zu unterscheiden, welche nie ihren Bestimmungsort erreichen, und solchen, die sich sehr lange verspäten. Aus diesem Grund wird ein Mindestzeitraum festgelegt, nach dem eine versandte Sendung zu Messzwecken so zu behandeln ist, als sei sie verloren gegangen oder erheblich verspätet.
Der so gewonnene Gesamtparameter für den Verlust oder die erhebliche Verspätung wird als Prozentsatz aller aufgegebenen Vorrangsendungen und First-Class-Sendungen ausgedrückt. Dieser Indikator misst nicht die Gesamtleistung des Postbetreibers durch einen direkten Vergleich der Postdienstbetreiber und enthält nur Leistungsindikatoren, die sich auf einen Verlust bzw. auf die erhebliche Verspätung beziehen.
Nach diesem Dokument werden der Verlust und die erhebliche Verspätung innerhalb festgelegter Genauigkeitsgrenzen geschätzt. Ist der Verlustgrad sehr gering, lässt sich möglicherweise nur eine Obergrenze für den Verlustgrad schätzen.
Dieses Dokument wurde aus den in EN 13850 enthaltenen Erfordernissen für die Messung der Laufzeit von End-to-End-Dienstleistungen für einzelne Vorrangsendungen und First-Class-Sendungen entwickelt und ist mit diesen kompatibel, so dass dieselbe Erhebung für die Messung des Verlusts und der erheblichen Verspätung sowie der pünktlichen Leistung verwendet werden kann. Somit umfasst sie einen Anforderungskatalog für die Planung eines Messsystems, einschließlich der Auswahl und Verteilung von Testbriefen, die von ausgewählten Panelteilnehmer versendet und empfangen werden, und zwar nach einer Spezifikation, die sicherstellt, dass der Stichprobenaufbau der Testbriefe für echte Sendungsströme repräsentativ ist.
Dieses Dokument

Services postaux - Qualité du service - Mesure des pertes et des retards importants pour le courrier prioritaire égrené et de 1ére classe, à partir d'une enquête utilisant des lettres témoin

Le présent document spécifie les méthodes permettant de mesurer le niveau de perte et de retard considérable, grâce à des envois témoin, du courrier prioritaire égrené de première classe national et transfrontière, collecté, traité et distribué par des opérateurs de service postal.
En pratique, il est impossible de faire la distinction entre les envois qui n'arriveront jamais à destination et ceux qui mettent très longtemps à arriver. Par conséquent, une période minimale est définie au terme de laquelle, pour les besoins de la mesure, un envoi doit être traité comme s'il avait été perdu ou considérablement retardé.
Le chiffre de perte et de retard considérable global qui en résulte doit être exprimé en pourcentage du courrier total égrené de première classe prioritaire posté. Cet indicateur ne mesure pas la performance globale de l'opérateur postal, d'une manière qui permette une comparaison directe entre les opérateurs du service postal, et il n'inclut pas d'indicateurs de performance de service autres que ceux relatifs à la perte et au retard considérable.
Conformément au présent document, la perte et le retard considérable sont évalués dans des limites précises spécifiées. Si le niveau de perte est très faible, il peut être uniquement possible d'estimer une limite supérieure du niveau de perte.
Le présent document a été développé à partir de la norme EN 13850 relative à la mesure du délai d'acheminement des services de bout en bout pour le courrier prioritaire égrené et de première classe, et se conforme à ses exigences, de sorte que la même enquête puisse être utilisée pour mesurer les pertes, les retards considérables et la performance par rapport au délai contractuel. Par conséquent, il comprend un ensemble d'exigences requises pour la conception d'un système de mesure intégrant la sélection et la distribution des envois témoin envoyés et reçus par des panélistes sélectionnés, conformément à une spécification qui garantit que la modélisation de l'échantill

Poštne storitve – Kakovost storitve – Merjenje izgub in znatnih upočasnitev pri prednostnih in prvorazrednih pošiljkah z uporabo preskusnih pisem

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Status
Published
Publication Date
31-Aug-2004
Current Stage
9093 - Decision to confirm - Review Enquiry
Completion Date
13-Nov-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS CEN/TS 14773:2005
01-januar-2005
3RãWQHVWRULWYH±.DNRYRVWVWRULWYH±0HUMHQMHL]JXELQ]QDWQLKXSRþDVQLWHYSUL
SUHGQRVWQLKLQSUYRUD]UHGQLKSRãLOMNDK]XSRUDERSUHVNXVQLKSLVHP

Postal services - Quality of service - Measurement of loss and substantial delay in

priority and first class single piece mail using a survey of test letters
Postalische Dienstleistungen - Dienstqualität - Messung des Verlustes und der
erheblichen Verzögerungen von Vorzugssendungen und Einzelsendungen erster Klasse
unter Verwendung von Testbriefen

Services postaux - Qualité du service - Mesure des pertes et des retards importants pour

le courrier prioritaire égrené et de 1ére classe, a partir d'une enquete utilisant des lettres

témoin
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TS 14773:2004
ICS:
03.240 Poštne storitve Postal services
SIST-TS CEN/TS 14773:2005 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 14773:2005
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 14773:2005
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
CEN/TS 14773
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
September 2004
ICS 03.240
English version
Postal services - Quality of service - Measurement of loss and
substantial delay in priority and first class single piece mail using
a survey of test letters

Services postaux - Qualité du service - Mesurage des Postalische Dienstleistungen - Dienstqualität - Messung

pertes et des retards importants pour le courrier prioritaire des Verlustes und der erheblichen Verzögerungen von

égrené et de 1ére classe, à partir d'une enquête utilisant Vorzugssendungen und Einzelsendungen erster Klasse

des lettres d'essai unter Verwendung von Testbriefen

This Technical Specification (CEN/TS) was approved by CEN on 26 January 2004 for provisional application.

The period of validity of this CEN/TS is limited initially to three years. After two years the members of CEN will be requested to submit their

comments, particularly on the question whether the CEN/TS can be converted into a European Standard.

CEN members are required to announce the existence of this CEN/TS in the same way as for an EN and to make the CEN/TS available

promptly at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in parallel to the CEN/TS)

until the final decision about the possible conversion of the CEN/TS into an EN is reached.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,

Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia,

Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2004 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TS 14773:2004: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST-TS CEN/TS 14773:2005
CEN/TS 14773:2004 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................. 4

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ 5

1 Scope...................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 8

4 Loss as a quality of service indicator............................................................................................... 14

4.1 General................................................................................................................................................. 14

4.2 Calculation and presentation of loss and substantial delay .......................................................... 15

4.2.1 General................................................................................................................................................. 15

4.2.2 Period after which an item is considered to be lost or substantially delayed.............................. 15

4.2.3 Service performance indicator .......................................................................................................... 15

5 Methodology........................................................................................................................................ 16

5.1 General................................................................................................................................................. 16

5.2 Estimators............................................................................................................................................ 16

5.2.1 General................................................................................................................................................. 16

5.2.2 Accuracy .............................................................................................................................................. 16

5.2.3 Measurement results .......................................................................................................................... 17

5.2.4 Calculation of the accuracy ............................................................................................................... 17

5.2.5 Aggregation of results........................................................................................................................ 17

5.3 Validation and control of panellist information ............................................................................... 17

5.3.1 General................................................................................................................................................. 17

5.3.2 Panellist requirements........................................................................................................................ 18

5.3.3 Validation of information.................................................................................................................... 18

5.4 Treatment of clusters of lost items ................................................................................................... 18

6 Test mail characteristics .................................................................................................................... 19

7 Report................................................................................................................................................... 19

8 Quality control and auditing .............................................................................................................. 20

Annex A (normative) Calculation of the accuracy of the estimator of the performance

indicator ............................................................................................................................................... 21

Annex B (normative) Panellist management and validation ...................................................................... 24

B.1 Management, guidance, training and monitoring of panellists ..................................................... 24

B.2 Item validation ..................................................................................................................................... 24

B.3 Panellists validation............................................................................................................................ 25

Annex C (normative) Quality control and auditing...................................................................................... 27

C.1 General................................................................................................................................................. 27

C.2 Sending test items .............................................................................................................................. 27

C.3 Receiving test items ........................................................................................................................... 27

Annex D (informative) Use of different rules for defining substantial delay ............................................ 28

D.1 General................................................................................................................................................. 28

D.2 Circumstances when additional analysis is appropriate................................................................ 28

D.3 Reporting requirements for additional analyses ............................................................................. 29

Annex E (informative) Experience of measuring loss................................................................................. 30

E.1 General................................................................................................................................................. 30

E.2 Experience in Portugal ....................................................................................................................... 30

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 14773:2005
CEN/TS 14773:2004 (E)

E.2.1 General................................................................................................................................................. 30

E.2.2 Brief description of the Portuguese system .................................................................................... 30

E.3 Experience in United Kingdom.......................................................................................................... 31

E.4 Experience in Germany ...................................................................................................................... 31

E.5 Comments from International Post Corporation ............................................................................. 31

E.5.1 General................................................................................................................................................. 31

E.5.2 Response Rates (Referring to requirements under 5.3) ................................................................. 32

E.5.3 Clustering (Referring to requirements under 5.4) ........................................................................... 33

E.5.4 Sample sizes (Referring to Annex A)................................................................................................ 33

E.5.5 Matching reality................................................................................................................................... 33

E.6 Comments from France...................................................................................................................... 33

E.6.1 General................................................................................................................................................. 33

E.6.2 Panel efficiency rate ........................................................................................................................... 34

E.6.3 Confirmation procedures ................................................................................................................... 34

E.7 Concluding Remarks .......................................................................................................................... 35

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 36

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 14773:2005
CEN/TS 14773:2004 (E)
Foreword

This document (CEN/TS 14773:2004) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 331

"Postal Services", the secretariat of which is held by NEN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by March 2005, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by March 2005.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to announce this CEN Technical Specification: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus,

Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland,

Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia,

Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

For compatibility between CEN and UPU versions of this document, the term 'document' is used. In a

CEN context, this should be interpreted as being equivalent to the deliverable mentioned on the title

page of this document. In a UPU context, this should be interpreted as being equivalent to 'standard'."

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 14773:2005
CEN/TS 14773:2004 (E)
Introduction

In the Green paper on postal services in 1992 the European Commission emphasised the need to

establish common rules for the development of community postal services and the improvement of

quality of service. The Commission identified requirements for quality of service measurement that

included the reliability of services and treatment of problems of loss, theft and damage.

CEN was asked to draw up standards related to the methodology for the measurement of loss of mail

at reasonable cost for some mail types within the universal service.

There has been only limited experience in using sample surveys to measure the level of loss in postal

services and it is not possible to define a standard for measurement at present. However it is possible

to set out the main requirements that would probably be included in such a standard in order that the

methodology may be applied and tested. Once this has been done and experience has been gained

this document may be developed into a standard.

This document sets out a methodology for a more precise measure of the level of loss and substantial

delay of single piece priority letters than can be obtained from the measurement of complaints. This

document refers to a number of principles and minimum requirements to be applied for the

measurement of the level of loss and substantial delay of national and cross-border priority and first

class letter mail.

Annex E of this document describes the experience of measuring loss and contains comments

relating to the implementation of the Technical Specification which have already been reported to

CEN. Since the Technical Specification is to some extent experimental, CEN would particularly like to

collect experience on its use from those who have implemented it. This will be valuable in determining

how the Technical Specification may best be developed into a standard.
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SIST-TS CEN/TS 14773:2005
CEN/TS 14773:2004 (E)
1 Scope

This document specifies methods for measuring the level of loss and substantial delay, using a survey

of test letters, of domestic and cross-border priority and first class single piece letter mail, collected,

processed and distributed by postal service operators.

It is impossible in practice to distinguish between items which will never arrive and items which have

been delayed for a very long time. A minimum period is therefore defined after which an item that has

been sent shall be treated as if it has been lost or substantially delayed for the purposes of

measurement.

The resulting overall figure for loss and substantial delay is to be expressed as a percentage of the

total posted priority and first class single piece mail. This indicator does not measure the postal

operator’s overall performance in a way which provides direct comparison of postal service operators,

and does not include other service performance indicators other than those related to loss and

substantial delay.

According to this document, loss and substantial delay is estimated within specified accuracy limits.

When the level of loss is very small it may only be possible to estimate an upper limit for the level of

loss.

This document has been developed from and is compatible with the requirements of EN 13850 for the

measurement of the transit time of end-to-end services for single piece priority mail and first class mail,

so that the same survey may be used to measure loss and substantial delay and on-time performance.

Thus it comprises a set of requirements for the design of a measuring system involving the selection

and distribution of test letters sent and received by selected panellists, according to a specification

that ensures that the test letter sample design is representative of the real mail flows.

This document relates to the measurement of the so called “normal” services given to private persons

/ households and businesses that post mail at street letter boxes, over the counter at post offices,

have pick ups at their offices or give their mail directly at postal service operators’ sorting centres.

For technical reasons this document may not in all parts be suitable for the measuring of very small

volumes of mail and for operators with limited coverage.

This document is not applicable for measuring the level of loss or substantial delay for large bulk

mailers’ services and hybrid mail which require different measurement systems and methodologies.

This document includes specifications for the quality control and auditing of the measurement system

and for the reporting of loss and substantial delay of mail.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 13850:2002, Postal services - Quality of service - Measurement of the transit time of end-to-end

services for single piece priority mail and first class mail

EN 14012, Postal services - Quality of service - Measurement of complaints and redress procedures.

EN ISO 9000, Quality management systems — Fundamentals and vocabulary (ISO 9000:2000).

ISO 3534-1:1993, Statistics — Vocabulary and symbols — Part 1: Probability and general statistical

terms.
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SIST-TS CEN/TS 14773:2005
CEN/TS 14773:2004 (E)

ISO 3534-2:1993, Statistics — Vocabulary and symbols — Part 2: Statistical quality control.

ISO 19011, Guidelines for quality and/or environmental management systems auditing

International Chamber of Commerce / ESOMAR International Code of Marketing and Social Research

Practice, with attachments.

This document can be obtained from www.esomar.org and from www.iccwbo.org . ESOMAR Central

Secretariat (email@esomar.nl)
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SIST-TS CEN/TS 14773:2005
CEN/TS 14773:2004 (E)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
accuracy
closeness of agreement between a test result and the accepted reference value

NOTE 1 The term accuracy, when applied to a set of test results, involves a combination of random

components and a common systematic error or bias component [ISO 3534-1:1993].

NOTE 2 In this document the accuracy is given by the length of the confidence interval at the confidence level

95 % for the parameter being estimated, namely the probability of being lost or substantially delayed

3.2
aggregation

compounding of primary data into an aggregate for the purpose of expressing them in a summary

form
3.3
audit

systematic and independent examination to determine whether activities and related results comply

with planned arrangements and whether these arrangements are implemented effectively and are

suitable to achieve objectives [EN ISO 9000]
3.4
average (arithmetic mean)
sum of values divided by the number of values [ISO 3534-1:1993]
3.5
business
bodies, other than households, that receive and send mail
3.6
characteristic

property which helps to identify or differentiate between items of a given population

NOTE 1 The characteristics may be either quantitative - by variables, or qualitative - by attributes

[ISO 3534-1:1993]

NOTE 2 In this document the population is postal test items and the characteristics are related to type of

senders, type of receivers, times and types of induction or delivery, physical aspects of test items, franking, etc.

3.7
conformity
fulfilment of specified requirements [EN ISO 9000]
3.8
corrective action

action taken to eliminate the causes of an existing non-conformity, defect or other undesirable

situation in order to prevent recurrence [EN ISO 9000]
3.9
correctly addressed letter

letter with an address that conforms to a recognized international or national standard on the postal

item concerned
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SIST-TS CEN/TS 14773:2005
CEN/TS 14773:2004 (E)

NOTE The basic elements of the address are; identification information, delivery address and post code,

and postal address of the addressee, and, in the case of cross-border mail, also the name of the country of

destination.
3.10
correlation

relationship between two or several random variables within a distribution of two or more random

variables

NOTE Most statistical measures of correlation measure only the degree of linear relationship.

[ISO 3534-1:1993]
3.11
correlation coefficient

ratio of the covariance of two random variables to the product of their standard deviations

[ISO 3534-1:1993]
3.12
country
territory of a nation with its own government
3.13
cross-border mail
mail distributed from one country to another country
3.14
customer
natural or legal person having a business relation with a postal operator
3.15
date of delivery
date on which a postal item is delivered to the address or the addressee
3.16
date of deposit

day on which a postal item is posted, provided posting takes place before the last collection of that

day

NOTE 1 The term date of deposit is used in relation to quality of service measurement. The definition is based

on the Postal Directive 97/67/EC.

NOTE 2 Last collection refers to the advertised last time for collection (not the actual time).

3.17
delivery point

physical location at which delivery of postal items delivered by a postal operator takes place and

where they leave the operator’s responsibility
3.18
design factor

ratio of the variance of the estimator in the given sample design by the variance of the estimator in an

elementary sample design of the same size
NOTE The design factor is related to a given sample design and estimator.
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SIST-TS CEN/TS 14773:2005
CEN/TS 14773:2004 (E)
3.19
discriminant (characteristic)
characteristic affecting the outcome

NOTE In this document a characteristic is discriminant when transit time differs according to the different

modes of the characteristic.
3.20
distribution

process from collecting mail at collecting points through sorting at the distribution centre to delivery of

mail items to the addressee
3.21
domestic mail
mail items sent and received within one country
3.22
end-to-end (transit time)

from the point mail is placed into the collection/acceptance system under the responsibility of the

collecting postal operator to the final delivery point under the responsibility of the delivering postal

operators
3.23
estimate
value of an estimator obtained as a result of an estimation [ISO 3534-1:1993]
3.24
estimator
statistic used to estimate a population parameter [ISO 3534-1:1993]

NOTE In this document, a function of the observed values of test item transit times allowing the estimation

of the probability of the item being lost or substantially delayed.
3.25
expectation

for a discrete random variable X taking the values x , with the probabilities p the expectation if it

i i,
exists, is:
µ==EXpΣx

the sum being extended over all the values x which can be taken by X [ISO 3534-1:1993]

3.26
field of study
total mail flow between defined postal areas
NOTE 1 Field of study could be defined for example as:
- Domestic — one operator in one country
- Domestic — one operator in one part of a country
- Domestic — a group of operators in one country
- Cross-border — one operator to one country
- Cross-border — one operator to a group of countries
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SIST-TS CEN/TS 14773:2005
CEN/TS 14773:2004 (E)
- Cross-border — one country to one country
- Cross-border — one country to a group of countries

NOTE 2 Some mail flows between postal operators may not meet the technical requirements in this document

to qualify as fields of study
3.27
geographical coverage
spread of postal services within a pre-defined geographical area
3.28
independent performance monitoring organisation

body charged with the monitoring of the quality of service according to the methodology specified in

this document and which body is external to, and having no links of ownership or control with the

postal service provider thus monitored
3.29
independence

two random variables are independent if their distribution functions are related by

F(x, y) = F(x, ∞) × F(∞,y) = G(x) × H(y)

where F(x, ∞) = G(x) and F(∞ , y) =H(y) are the marginal distribution functions of X and Y, respectively

for all pairs (x, y) [ISO 3534-1]
3.30
induction
deposition of mail into the postal network
3.31
inspection

activity such as measuring, examining, testing or gauging one or more characteristics of an entity and

comparing the results with specified requirements in order to establish whether conformity is achieved

for each characteristic [EN ISO 9000 and ISO 3534-2:1993]
3.32
item arriving late

postal item delivered to the recipient in a time longer than the service provider’s promised service

standard but within a specified period of time [EN 14012]
NOTE The specified period is defined in 4.2.2
cf. item lost or substantially delayed (3.33)
3.33
item lost or substantially delayed

postal item that is not delivered to the recipient or is only delivered after substantial delay

NOTE For the purposes of this document, lost items include items with substantial delay.

cf. item arriving late (3.32), substantial delay (3.57)
3.34
observed value

value of a characteristic obtained as the result of a single observation [ISO 3531-1:1993]

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 14773:2005
CEN/TS 14773:2004 (E)
3.35
on-time performance

proportion of postal items within a given period of time t with transit times meeting the specification

Nt()

Formal definition: X where N()t is the total number of postal items inducted during

Nt()
i=1

the period, and X =1 if postal items i fulfils the specification and otherwise X = 0

i i
3.36
on-time probability

probability of the event that the transit time of a mail item meets the specification

EXAMPLE If the transit time of a mail item is T and the specification is that the transit time does not exceed s

days, then the on-time probability is Pr ( T ≤ s).
3.37
performance indicator

expression derived from postal transit time statistics and data used to characterise the performance of

a postal operator
3.38
postal service

services involving the clearance, sorting, transport and delivery of postal items

3.39
priority item
first class item
A-class item

letter post item sent with priority by air or by surface and receiving different processing compared to

items classified as non-priority
3.40
probability distribution

function giving the probability that a random variable takes any given value or belongs to a given set

of values [ISO 3534-1:1993]
3.41
quality

totality of characteristics of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated and implied needs

[EN ISO 9000]
3.42
quality assurance

all the planned and systematic activities implemented within the quality system and demonstrated as

needed, to provide adequate confidence that an entity will fulfil requirements for quality [EN ISO 9000]

3.43
quality control

operational techniques and activities that are used to fulfil requirements for quality [EN ISO 9000 and

ISO 3534-2:1993]
3.44
quality evaluation

systematic examination of the extent to which an entity is capable of fulfilling specified requirements

[EN ISO 9000]
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SIST-TS CEN/TS 14773:2005
CEN/TS 14773:2004 (E)
3.45
random sample

sample of n items taken from a population of N items in such a way that each item in the population

has a strictly positive probability of being selected
3.46
random variable

variable that may take any of the values of a specific set of values and which is associated with a

probability distribution [ISO 3534-1:1993]
3.47
real mail
...

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