Optics and photonics - Microlens arrays - Part 1: Vocabulary (ISO 14880-1:2019)

This document defines terms for microlens arrays. It applies to arrays of very small lenses formed inside or on one or more surfaces of a common substrate. This document also applies to systems of microlens arrays.

Optik und Photonik - Mikrolinsenarrays - Teil 1: Begriffe (ISO 14880-1:2019)

Dieses Dokument definiert Begriffe für Mikrolinsenarrays. Er gilt für Arrays sehr kleiner Linsen, die innerhalb oder auf einer oder mehreren Seiten eines gemeinsamen Substrates ausgebildet sind. Dieses Dokument gilt auch für Systeme aus Mikrolinsenarrays.

Optique et photonique - Réseaux de microlentilles - Partie 1: Vocabulaire (ISO 14880-1:2019)

Le présent document définit les termes relatifs aux réseaux de microlentilles. Il s'applique aux réseaux de très petites lentilles formées à l'intérieur ou sur une ou plusieurs surfaces d'un substrat commun. Le présent document s'applique également aux systèmes de réseaux de microlentilles.

Optika in fotonska tehnologija - Vrste mikroleč - 1. del: Slovar (ISO 14880-1:2019)

Ta dokument določa pogoje za vrste mikroleč. Uporablja se za vrste mikroleč, ki so sestavljene iz zelo majhnih leč znotraj ali na eni ali več površinah običajnega substrata. Dokument se uporablja tudi za sisteme vrst mikroleč.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
09-Jul-2019
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
10-Jul-2019
Completion Date
10-Jul-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 14880-1:2019
01-september-2019
Nadomešča:
SIST EN ISO 14880-1:2016

Optika in fotonska tehnologija - Vrste mikroleč - 1. del: Slovar (ISO 14880-1:2019)

Optics and photonics - Microlens arrays - Part 1: Vocabulary (ISO 14880-1:2019)
Optik und Photonik - Mikrolinsenarrays - Teil 1: Begriffe (ISO 14880-1:2019)

Optique et photonique - Réseaux de microlentilles - Partie 1: Vocabulaire (ISO 14880-

1:2019)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 14880-1:2019
ICS:
01.040.31 Elektronika (Slovarji) Electronics (Vocabularies)
31.260 Optoelektronika, laserska Optoelectronics. Laser
oprema equipment
SIST EN ISO 14880-1:2019 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 14880-1:2019
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SIST EN ISO 14880-1:2019
EN ISO 14880-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
July 2019
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 01.040.31; 31.260 Supersedes EN ISO 14880-1:2016
English Version
Optics and photonics - Microlens arrays - Part 1:
Vocabulary (ISO 14880-1:2019)

Optique et photonique - Réseaux de microlentilles - Optik und Photonik - Mikrolinsenarrays - Teil 1:

Partie 1: Vocabulaire (ISO 14880-1:2019) Begriffe (ISO 14880-1:2019)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 10 June 2019.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 14880-1:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 14880-1:2019
EN ISO 14880-1:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 14880-1:2019
EN ISO 14880-1:2019 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 14880-1:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 172 "Optics

and photonics" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 123 “Lasers and photonics” the

secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by January 2020, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by January 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 14880-1:2016.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 14880-1:2019 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 14880-1:2019 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 14880-1:2019
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SIST EN ISO 14880-1:2019
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 14880-1
Third edition
2019-06
Optics and photonics — Microlens
arrays —
Part 1:
Vocabulary
Optique et photonique — Réseaux de microlentilles —
Partie 1: Vocabulaire
Reference number
ISO 14880-1:2019(E)
ISO 2019
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SIST EN ISO 14880-1:2019
ISO 14880-1:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14880-1:2019
ISO 14880-1:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Symbols and units of measure ................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Basic definitions of microlens and microlens array ................................................................................................ 2

3.3 General terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................................... 3

3.4 Terms relating to properties of the microlens array .............................................................................................. 6

3.4.1 Geometrical properties .............................................................................................................................................. 6

3.4.2 Optical properties ........................................................................................................................................................... 7

4 Coordinate system .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5 Properties of individual lenses .............................................................................................................................................................. 9

Annex A (informative) Microlens array applications (1) — Telecommunications ............................................11

Annex B (informative) Microlens array applications (2) — Image sensor arrays ..............................................12

Annex C (informative) Microlens array applications (3) — LCD projection panels .........................................13

Annex D (informative) Microlens array applications (4) — Wavefront sensors ..................................................14

Annex E (informative) Microlens array applications (5) — Stereo displays ............................................................17

Annex F (informative) Microlens array applications (6) — 3D imaging and light-field cameras ......18

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................20

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 14880-1:2019
ISO 14880-1:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 172, Optics and Photonics, Subcommittee

SC 9, Laser and electro-optical systems.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 14880-1:2016), which has been

technically revised.
A list of all parts in the ISO 14880 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14880-1:2019
ISO 14880-1:2019(E)
Introduction

The expanded market in microlens arrays has generated a need to agree on basic terms and definitions

for microlens arrays and systems and this document aims to satisfy that need.

This document aims to improve the compatibility and interchangeability of lens arrays from different

suppliers and to enhance the development of technology using microlens arrays.
[1]

Microoptics and microlens arrays are found in many modern optical devices . They are used as coupling

optics for detector arrays, the digital camera being an example of a mass market application. They are

used to enhance the optical performance of liquid crystal displays, to couple arrays of light sources

and to direct illumination for example in 2D and 3D television, mobile phone and portable computer

displays. Microlens arrays are used in wavefront sensors for optical metrology and astronomy, lightfield

sensors for three–dimensional photography and microscopy and in optical parallel processor elements.

Multiple arrays of microlenses can be assembled to form optical systems such as optical condensers,

[2][3]

controlled diffusers and superlenses . Furthermore, arrays of microoptical elements such as

[4][5]

micro-prisms and micro-mirrors are used .Examples of some of these applications are described in

Annexes A to F.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 14880-1:2019
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SIST EN ISO 14880-1:2019
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 14880-1:2019(E)
Optics and photonics — Microlens arrays —
Part 1:
Vocabulary
1 Scope

This document defines terms for microlens arrays. It applies to arrays of very small lenses formed

inside or on one or more surfaces of a common substrate. This document also applies to systems of

microlens arrays.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/

NOTE 1 The coordinate system used for the description of the microlenses can be found in Figure 1. The

description of the coordinate system and its application can be found in Clause 4.

Key
1 substrate
2 microlenses
Figure 1 — Microlens array with Cartesian coordinate system
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 14880-1:2019
ISO 14880-1:2019(E)

NOTE 2 Five common types of microlenses are illustrated in Figure 5, and described in Clause 5.

NOTE 3 For common microlens array applications, see Annexes A to F.
3.1 Symbols and units of measure
Table 1 lists symbols and units which are used in this document.
Table 1 — Symbols and units of measure
Symbol Unit Term
A mm diffraction-limited optical aperture
A mm geometric aperture
a , a mm lens radius
1 2
2a , 2a mm lens width
1 2
D mm lens density
h mm surface modulation depth
L , L mm edge lengths of substrate
1 2
NA none numerical aperture
NA none diffraction-limited numerical aperture
NA none geometric numerical aperture
n(x, y, z) none refractive index
n none refractive index at the centre of the lens
P , P mm pitch
x y
f mm effective back focal length
E,b
f mm effective front focal length
E,f
R mm radius of curvature
S , S , S mm coordinates of focal spot position
x y z
ΔS , ΔS , ΔS mm focal spot position shift
x y z
T mm thickness of substrate
T mm physical thickness
w , w µm focal spot size
x y
x, y, z mm coordinates of lens aperture centre position
Θ degree acceptance angle
parts of
Φ wavefront aberration
rms
wavelength
λ nm wavelength
v none effective Abbe-number
eff
3.2 Basic definitions of microlens and microlens array
3.2.1
microlens

lens in an array with an aperture of less than a few millimetres including lenses which work by

refraction at the surface, refraction in the bulk of the substrate, diffraction or a combination of these

Note 1 to entry: The microlens can have a variety of aperture shapes: circular, hexagonal or rectangular for

example. The surface of the lens can be flat, convex or concave.
2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14880-1:2019
ISO 14880-1:2019(E)
3.2.2
microlens array
regular arrangement of microlenses on/in a single substrate

Note 1 to entry: Irregular or structured arrays are sometimes used, for example, in beam shaping, diffusion, and

homogenization.
3.3 General terms and definitions
3.3.1
effective front focal length
E,f

distance from the vertex of the microlens to the position of the focus given by finding the maximum of

the power density distribution when collimated radiation is incident from the back of the substrate

Note 1 to entry: The effective front focal length can differ from the paraxial front focal length in the case of

aberrated lenses.

Note 2 to entry: The effective front focal length is different from the classical effective focal length since it is

measured from the lens vertex.
3.3.2
effective back focal length
E,b

distance from the back surface of the substrate or the vertex of the microlens to the position of the focal

point, when collimated radiation is incident from the lens side of the substrate

Note 1 to entry: The effective back focal length can differ from the paraxial back focal length in the case of

aberrated lenses.

Note 2 to entry: In case the microlens or microlenses are formed on both sides of the substrate, “effective back

focal length” is defined from the vertex of the microlens to the position of the focal point.

3.3.3
radius of curvature

distance from the vertex of the microlens to the centre of curvature of the lens surface

Note 1 to entry: The radius of curvature is expressed in millimetres.
3.3.4
wavefront aberration
rms

root mean square of deviation of the wavefront from an ideal spherical or other wavefront

Note 1 to entry: The wavefront aberration is expressed in parts of the wavelength, λ.

3.3.5.1
chromatic aberration
change of the focal length with wavelength

Note 1 to entry: Chromatic aberration is characterized by the effective Abbe-number, which is given by:

f λ
v =
eff
ffλλ
() ()

where the values of λ , λ and λ are specified in order to correspond to current practice in optical lens design.

1 2 3
The effective Abbe-number is dimensionless.
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SIST EN ISO 14880-1:2019
ISO 14880-1:2019(E)

Note 2 to entry: At optical wavelengths the C line (656,3 nm) as λ3, d line (587,56 nm) as λ2, F line (486,1 nm) as

λ1 are generally used. However, other wavelengths such as the infrared spectrum can be used where appropriate,

provided that λ < λ < λ .
1 2 3
3.3.5.2
achromatic microlens array
microlens array designed to limit the effects of chromatic aberration

Note 1 to entry: Achromatic microlens arrays are generally corrected to bring radiation of two wavelengths into

focus in the same plane, for example, red and blue light or infrared wavelengths where appropriate.

3.3.6.1
aperture shape

shape which is specified as square, circular, hexagonal, circular sector or other geometric shape

Note 1 to entry: For non-regular shapes, the vertices of the microlens aperture are to be defined by coordinates,

Xa , Ya , where j is the microlens number index and k is the vertex number index.

jk jk
3.3.6.2
geometric aperture

area in which the optical radiation passing through it is deviated towards the focused image and

contributes to it

Note 1 to entry: For graded index microlenses where no obvious boundary exists, the edge is the locus of points

at which the change of index is 10 % of the maximum value.
Note 2 to entry: The geometric aperture is expressed in square millimetres.
3.3.6.3
lens width
2a , 2a
1 2

width of the microlens on the substrate defined by the geometric aperture of the microlens

Note 1 to entry: The widths are determined by measuring the longest distance (2a ) and the shortest distance

(2a ) between the lens edges as shown in Figure 2. If the lens is circular symmetric, then the term diameter can

be used.
Note 2 to entry: Lens widths are expressed in millimetres.

Note 3 to entry: The geometric aperture of the microlens can be given by a variety of shapes such as circular,

rectangular, elliptical and so on.
3.3.6.4
diffraction-limited optical aperture

area within which the peak-to-valley wavefront aberrations are less than one quarter of the wavelength

of the radiation with which it is tested

Note 1 to entry: The diffraction-limited optical aperture is expressed in square millimetres.

3.3.6.5
geometrical numerical aperture
sine of half the angle subtended by the aperture of the lens at the focal point
3.3.6.6
diffraction-limited numerical aperture

sine of half the angle subtended by the diffraction limited optical aperture of the lens at the focal point

4 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14880-1:2019
ISO 14880-1:2019(E)
3.3.7
focal ratio
ratio of the focal length to the lens width of the geometrical aperture
Note 1 to entry: The focal ratio is equivalent to the practical f-number.
3.3.8
imaging quality

quality of the microlens which is determined by Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) according to

ISO 15529 or the Strehl ratio

Note 1 to entry: The imaging quality should be measured in the conjugates in which the microlenses are to be

used and preferably for a range of angles
...

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