ISO 16526-3:2011 specifies the test method for a non-invasive measurement of X-ray tube voltages using the energy spectrum of X-rays (spectrometric method). It covers the voltage range from 10 kV to 500 kV.
The intention is to check the correspondence of the actual voltage with the indicated value on the control panel of the X-ray unit. It is intended to measure the maximum energy only and not the complete X-ray spectrum.
The procedure is applicable for tank type and constant potential X-ray units.

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ISO 16526-2:2011 specifies a constancy check of a X-ray system where mainly the X-ray voltage is checked and also the tube current and the constitution of the target which can be changing due to ageing of the tube.
The thick filter method is based on a measurement of the dose rate behind a defined thick filter using defined distances between the X-ray tube, the filter and the measuring device.
This method is very sensitive to changes of the voltage, but it does not provide an absolute value for the X-ray tube voltage. Therefore, a reference value is needed and, it is recommended to find this reference, for example, within the acceptance test of the system.
The thick filter method is a rather simple technique and may be applied by the operator of an X-ray system to perform regularly a constancy check of the system.
The method can also be applied for consistency checks after changing components which may affect the X-ray tube voltage.
This method can be applied for all types of X-ray systems, i. e. for constant potential, half wave and impulse wave generators with a tube current larger than 1 mA.

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ISO 16526-1:2011 specifies a method for the direct and absolute measurement of the average high voltage of constant potential (DC) X-ray systems on the secondary side of the high voltage generator. The intention is to check the correspondence with the indicated high voltage value on the control unit of the X-ray system.
This method is applied to assure a reproducible operation of X-ray systems because the voltage influences particularly the penetration of materials and the contrast of X-ray images and also the requirements concerning the radiation protection.

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ISO 14096-2:2005 specifies three film-digitisation quality classes for the requirements of non-destructive testing. The selected class depends on the radiation energy, penetrated material thickness and the quality level of the original radiographic film. ISO 14096-2:2005 does not address signal processing, display and storage of the digitised data.

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ISO 14096-1:2005 specifies procedures for the evaluation of basic performance parameters of the radiographic film digitisation process such as spatial resolution and spatial linearity, density range, density contrast sensitivity and characteristic transfer curve. They can be integrated into the system software and together with a standard reference film used for quality control of the digitisation process. This reference film provides a series of test targets for performance evaluation. The test targets are suitable for evaluating a digitisation system with a spatial resolution down to 25 micrometres, a density contrast sensitivity down to 0,02 optical density, a density range of 0,5 to 4,5 and a film size capacity of (350 x 430) mm2. This standard does not address signal processing and display of the digitised data.

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This document gives requirements and recommendations for non-destructive testing (NDT) training syllabuses, with the intention of harmonizing and maintaining the general standard of training of NDT personnel for industrial needs.
It also establishes the minimum requirements for effective structured training of NDT personnel to ensure eligibility for qualification examinations leading to third-party certification according to recognized standards. In addition to non-destructive testing in general, its guidelines for syllabuses cover acoustic emission testing, eddy current testing, leak testing, magnetic testing, penetrant testing, radiographic testing, ultrasonic testing, visual testing, thermographic testing, and strain gauge testing.
ISO/TS 25108 gives requirements and recommendations for NDT training organizations.

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This document defines terms used in eddy current testing.

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ISO 16809:2017 specifies the principles for ultrasonic thickness measurement of metallic and non-metallic materials by direct contact, based on measurement of time of flight of ultrasonic pulses only.

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This document defines the general principles to be applied to non-destructive eddy current examination of products and materials in order to ensure defined and repeatable performance.
It includes guidelines for the preparation of application documents which describe the specific requirements for the application of the eddy current method to a particular type of product.

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ISO 15708-2:2017 specifies the general principles of X-ray computed tomography (CT), the equipment used and basic considerations of sample, materials and geometry.
It is applicable to industrial imaging (i.e. non-medical applications) and gives a consistent set of CT performance parameter definitions, including how those performance parameters relate to CT system specifications.
ISO 15708-2:2017 deals with computed axial tomography and excludes other types of tomography such as translational tomography and tomosynthesis.

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ISO 15708-3:2017 presents an outline of the operation of a computed tomography (CT) system and the interpretation of results with the aim of providing the operator with technical information to enable the selection of suitable parameters.
It is applicable to industrial imaging (i.e. non-medical applications) and gives a consistent set of CT performance parameter definitions, including how those performance parameters relate to CT system specifications.
ISO 15708-3:2017 deals with computed axial tomography and excludes other types of tomography such as translational tomography and tomosynthesis.

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ISO 15708-1:2017 gives the definitions of terms used in the field of computed tomography (CT). It presents a terminology that is not only CT-specific but which also includes other more generic terms and definitions spanning imaging and radiography. Some of the definitions represent discussion points aimed at refocusing their terms in the specific context of computed tomography.

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ISO 15708-4:2017 specifies guidelines for the qualification of the performance of a CT system with respect to various inspection tasks.
It is applicable to industrial imaging (i.e. non-medical applications) and gives a consistent set of CT performance parameter definitions, including how those performance parameters relate to CT system specifications.
ISO 15708-4:2017 deals with computed axial tomography and excludes other types of tomography such as translational tomography and tomosynthesis.

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This document gives requirements and recommendations for non-destructive testing (NDT) training organizations, with the intention of harmonizing and maintaining the general standard of training of NDT personnel for industrial needs.
It also establishes the minimum requirements for effective structured training of NDT personnel to ensure eligibility for qualification examinations leading to third-party certification according to recognized standards.
NOTE ISO/TS 25107 gives requirements and recommendations for NDT training syllabuses intended for training.

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This document specifies fundamental techniques of film and digital radiography with the object of enabling satisfactory and repeatable results to be obtained economically. The techniques are based on generally recognized practice and fundamental theory of the subject.
This document applies to the radiographic examination of steel pipes for service induced flaws such as corrosion pitting, generalized corrosion and erosion. Besides its conventional meaning, "pipe" as used in this document is understood to cover other cylindrical bodies such as tubes, penstocks, boiler drums and pressure vessels.
Weld inspection for typical welding process induced flaws is not covered, but weld inspection is included for corrosion/erosion type flaws.
The pipes can be insulated or not, and can be assessed where loss of material due, for example, to corrosion or erosion is suspected either internally or externally.
This document covers the tangential inspection technique for detection and through-wall sizing of wall loss, including with the source:
a) on the pipe centre line; and
b) offset from pipe centre line by the pipe radius.
ISO 20769-2 covers double wall radiography, and note that the double wall double image technique is often combined with tangential radiography with the source on the pipe centre line.
This document applies to tangential radiographic inspection using industrial radiographic film techniques, computed radiography (CR) and digital detector arrays (DDA).

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This document specifies the determination of the size of gamma radiographic sources of 0,5 mm or greater, made from the radionuclides Iridium 192, Ytterbium 169, Selenium 75 or Cobalt 60, by a method of radiography with X-rays. The source size of a gamma radiography source is an important factor which affects the image quality of gamma ray images.
The source size is determined with an accuracy of ± 10 % but typically not better than ± 0,1 mm.
The source size is provided by the manufacturer as the mechanical dimension of the source insert. A measurement may be required if the manufacturing process is validated or monitored after implementation of the source into the holder.
This document can be used for other radionuclides after validation.
The standard test method ASTM E1114 provides further information on the measurement of the Ir-192 source size, the characterization of the source shape, and its correct assembly and packaging.

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This document specifies fundamental techniques of film and digital radiography with the object of enabling satisfactory and repeatable results to be obtained economically. The techniques are based on generally recognized practice and fundamental theory of the subject.
This document applies to the radiographic examination of pipes in metallic materials for service induced flaws such as corrosion pitting, generalized corrosion and erosion. Besides its conventional meaning, "pipe" as used in this document is understood to cover other cylindrical bodies such as tubes, penstocks, boiler drums and pressure vessels.
Weld inspection for typical welding process induced flaws is not covered, but weld inspection is included for corrosion/erosion type flaws.
The pipes can be insulated or not, and can be assessed where loss of material due, for example, to corrosion or erosion is suspected either internally or externally.
This document covers double wall inspection techniques for detection of wall loss, including double wall single image (DWSI) and double wall double image (DWDI).
Note that the DWDI technique described in this document is often combined with the tangential technique covered in ISO 20769-1.
This document applies to in-service double wall radiographic inspection using industrial radiographic film techniques, computed digital radiography (CR) and digital detector arrays (DDA).

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This document specifies a method of determining the total image unsharpness and basic spatial resolution of radiographs and radioscopic images. The IQI with up to 13 wire pairs can be used effectively with tube voltages up to 600 kV. The IQI with more than 13 wire pairs can be used effectively at tube voltages lower than 225 kV. When using source voltages in the megavolt range, it is possible that the results are not be completely satisfactory.

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This document specifies a procedure for the control of film processing systems.

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This document defines the procedures for non-destructive testing using active thermography.
These testing procedures can be applied to different materials (e.g. composites, metals and coatings) and are appointed, but not limited to the:
—   detection of discontinuities (e.g. voids, cracks, inclusions, delaminations);
—   determination of layer or part thicknesses;
—   determination and comparison of thermophysical properties.
This standard is describing data acquisition and analysis principles for active thermography and is giving an informative guideline for appropriate selection of the excitation source. Acceptance criteria are not defined in this standard.
Active thermography is applied in industrial production (e.g. compound materials, vehicle parts, engine parts, power plant parts, joining technology, electronic devices) and in maintenance and repair (e.g. aerospace, power plants, civil engineering).

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ISO 20486:2017 specifies the calibration of those leaks that are used for the adjustment of leak detectors for the determination of leakage rate in everyday use. One type of calibration method is a comparison with a reference leak. In this way, the leaks used for routine use become traceable to a primary standard. In other calibration methods, the value of vapour pressure was measured directly or calculated over a known volume.
The comparison procedures are preferably applicable to helium leaks, because this test gas can be selectively measured by a mass spectrometer leak detector (MSLD) (the definition of MSLD is given in ISO 20484).
Calibration by comparison (see methods A, As, B and Bs below) with known reference leaks is easily possible for leaks with reservoir and leakage rates below 10−7 Pa·m3/s.
Figure 1 gives an overview of the different recommended calibration methods.

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ISO 20485:2017 describes the techniques to be applied for the detection of a leak, using a tracer gas and a tracer gas specific leak detector.

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ISO 16371-2:2017 specifies fundamental techniques of computed radiography with the aim of enabling satisfactory and repeatable results to be obtained economically. The techniques are based on the fundamental theory of the subject and tests measurements. ISO 16371-2:2017 specifies the general rules for industrial computed X-rays and gamma radiography for flaw detection purposes, using storage phosphor imaging plates (IP). It is based on the general principles for radiographic examination of metallic materials on the basis of films, as specified in ISO 5579. The basic set-up of radiation source, detector and the corresponding geometry are intended to be applied in accordance with ISO 5579 and corresponding product standards such as ISO 17636 for welding and EN 12681 for foundry.
ISO 16371-2:2017 does not lay down acceptance criteria of the imperfections. Computed radiography (CR) systems provide a digital grey value image which can be viewed and evaluated on basis of a computer only. This practice describes the recommended procedure for detector selection and radiographic practice. Selection of computer, software, monitor, printer and viewing conditions are important but not the main focus of ISO 16371-2:2017.
The procedure it specifies provides the minimum requirements and practice to permit the exposure and acquisition of digital radiographs with a sensitivity of imperfection detection equivalent to film radiography and as specified in ISO 5579. Some application standards, e.g. EN 16407, can require different and less stringent practice conditions.

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This document specifies minimum requirements in order to obtain and reproduce photographs used as reference records relative to PT (penetrant testing) colour contrast and fluorescent indications. It also provides requirements for the monitoring of resolution when measurements are to be indirectly performed by recording.

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ISO 18563-2:2017 specifies the characterization tests performed at the end of the fabrication of a phased array probe. It defines both methodology and acceptance criteria.
ISO 18563-2:2017 is applicable to the following phased array probes used for ultrasonic non-destructive testing in contact technique (with or without a wedge) or in immersion technique, with centre frequencies in the range 0,5 MHz to 10 MHz:
a) non-matrix array probes:
- linear;
- encircling;
- partial annular sectorial (type "daisy");
b) 2D-matrix array probes.
ISO 18563-2:2017 does not give methods and acceptance criteria to characterize the performance of an ultrasonic phased array instrument or the performance of a combined system. These are given in ISO 18563?1 and in ISO 18563?3.

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This European Standard is concerned only with terms used specifically in acoustic emission testing (AT) and these fall into four parts:
-   terms relating to the physical phenomenon;
-   terms relating to the detection of the acoustic emission;
-   terms relating to the measured characteristics of the signal(s);
-   terms relating to acoustic emission applications.

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This Technical Report describes the good practices of lighting under UV-A radiation and in white light as used for penetrant testing (PT) and magnetic particle testing (MT) for improved probability of detection (POD).
This informative document deals with the irradiance and the illuminance used in PT and MT. It is intended for:
-   manufacturers, who are encouraged to supply the criteria and the restrictions on use of their products, as well as detailed characteristics for the appropriate choice and the optimum use of sources available on the market;
-   users, to enable them to make the best use of lighting sources for efficient inspection in working conditions;
-   supervision and training personnel, who may design and optimally arrange inspection areas, recommend the principles of visual ergonomics for ensuring inspector efficiency, comfort and safety.

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ISO 20484:2017 defines the terms used in leak testing.

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ISO 20339:2017 identifies the functional characteristics of eddy current array probes and their interconnecting elements and provides methods for their measurement and verification.
The evaluation of these characteristics permits a well-defined description and comparability of eddy current array probes.
Where relevant, this document gives recommendations for acceptance criteria for the characteristics.

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ISO 16946:2017 specifies the dimensions, material, and manufacture of a step wedge steel block for the calibration of ultrasonic instruments.

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ISO 5577:2017 defines the terms used in ultrasonic non-destructive testing and forms a common basis for standards and general use. This document does not cover terms used in ultrasonic testing with phased arrays.
NOTE Terms for phased array ultrasonic testing are defined in EN 16018.

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ISO 9934-1:2016 specifies general principles for the magnetic particle testing of ferromagnetic materials. Magnetic particle testing is primarily applicable to the detection of surface-breaking discontinuities, particularly cracks. It can also detect discontinuities just below the surface but its sensitivity diminishes rapidly with depth.
ISO 9934-1:2016 specifies the surface preparation of the part to be tested, magnetization techniques, requirements and application of the detection media, and the recording and interpretation of results. Acceptance criteria are not defined. Additional requirements for the magnetic particle testing of particular items are defined in product standards (see the relevant International Standards or European standards).
ISO 9934-1:2016 does not apply to the residual magnetization method.

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This European Standard specifies the general principles for thermography of non-destructive testing. Thermographic testing is used for the detection and localization of discontinuities (e.g. cracks, delamination and inclusions) in different materials (e.g. composites, metals and coatings).
Usually a thermal stimulation is required. The choice of thermal stimulation depends on the application (e.g. type of material, geometry of test object, type of defects to be determined).
Acceptance criteria are not defined in this standard.

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This Europen Standard establishes terms and definitions for thermographic testing.

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This European Standard describes properties and requirements of infrared cameras used for thermographic testing for non-destructive testing.
This document gives also examples of excitation sources, the properties and requirements are described in application standards for active thermography.

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ISO 18081:2016 specifies the general principles required for leak detection by acoustic emission testing (AT). It is addressed to the application of the methodology on structures and components, where a leak flow as a result of pressure differences appears and generates acoustic emission (AE).
It describes phenomena of the AE generation and influence of the nature of fluids, shape of the gap, wave propagation and environment.
The different application methods, instrumentation and presentation of AE results is discussed. Also included are guidelines for the preparation of application documents which describe specific requirements for the application of the AE method.
Different application examples are given.
Unless otherwise specified in the referencing documents, the minimum requirements of this International Standard are applicable.

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ISO 12707:2016 defines general terms specifically associated with magnetic particle testing.

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This European Standard specifies the general principles for visual testing both directly and remotely when it is used to determine the compliance of a product with specified requirements (e.g. surface condition of the part, alignment of mating surfaces, shape of part).
This European Standard does not apply to viewing activities linked to the use of any other destructive or non-destructive test method.

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ISO 18563-3:2015 addresses ultrasonic test systems implementing linear phased array probes, in contact (with or without wedge) or in immersion, with centre frequencies in the range of 0,5 MHz?10 MHz.
It provides methods and acceptance criteria for verifying the performance of combined equipment (i.e. instrument, probe and cables connected). The methods described are suitable for users working under on-site or shop floor conditions. Its purpose is for the verification of the correct operation of the system prior to testing, and also the characterization of sound beams or verification of the absence of degradation of the system.
The methods are not intended to prove the suitability of the system for particular applications, but are intended to prove the capability of the combined equipment to generate ultrasonic beams according to the settings used.
The calibration of the system for a specific application is outside of the scope of part of ISO 18563 and it is intended that it be covered by the test procedure.
ISO 18563-3:2015 does not address the following:
- encircling arrays;
- series of apertures having a different number of elements;
- different settings for transmitting and receiving (e.g. active aperture, number of active elements, delays);
- techniques using post-processing of the signals of individual elements in a more complex manner than a simple delay law (e.g. full matrix capture).

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ISO 9934-2:2015 specifies the significant properties of magnetic particle testing products (including magnetic ink, powder, carrier liquid, contrast aid paints) and the methods for checking their properties.

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ISO 9934-3:2015 describes three types of equipment for magnetic particle testing:
- portable or transportable equipment;
- fixed installations;
- specialized testing systems for testing components on a continuous basis, comprising a series of processing stations placed in sequence to form a process line.
Equipment for magnetizing, demagnetizing, illumination, measurement, and monitoring are also described.
This part of ISO 9934 specifies the properties to be provided by the equipment supplier, minimum requirements for application and the method of measuring certain parameters. Where appropriate, measuring and calibration requirements and in-service checks are also specified.

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ISO 18563-1:2015 identifies the functional characteristics of a multichannel ultrasonic phased array instrument used for phased array probes and provides methods for their measurement and verification.
ISO 18563-1:2015 can partly be applicable to ultrasonic phased array instruments in automated systems, but then, other tests might be needed to ensure satisfactory performance. When the phased array instrument is a part of an automated system, the acceptance criteria can be modified by agreement between the parties involved.
ISO 18563-1:2015 gives the extent of the verification and defines acceptance criteria within a frequency range of 0,5 MHz to 10 MHz.
The evaluation of these characteristics permits a well-defined description of the ultrasonic phased array instrument and comparability of instruments.

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ISO 18490:2015 specifies the form of the optotype, the quality requirements for the chart, the test procedure, and the acceptance level for near vision acuity of NDT personnel. It also addresses the qualification requirements for personnel permitted to carry out the test.
ISO 18490:2015 only addresses near vision acuity under defined conditions similar to those encountered during routine NDT inspection. It does not address an individual's overall visual acuity and users are advised to consider the need for a general eye examination by specialist medical personnel to ensure general vision acuity is appropriate for job function.
ISO 18490:2015 does not address colour vision requirements.

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This part of this European Standard is concerned with the general terms used in non destructive testing, but which stem from other fields (electricity, vacuum technology, metrology...).
For the sake of consistency, the definition of these terms, which already exist in the documents mentionned in Clause 2 and which are internationally recognized, also apply in non destructive testing.

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ISO 17405:2014 specifies the techniques for manual ultrasonic testing of claddings on steel applied by welding, rolling, and explosion using single-element or dual-element probes. The test is intended to cover detection of two-dimensional or three-dimensional discontinuities in the cladding and in the region of the interface.
ISO 17405:2014 does not give acceptance criteria nor define the extent of testing.

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ISO 16826:2012 defines the principles for tandem‑ and longitudinal-longitudinal-transverse (LLT) wave‑examination for the detection of discontinuities perpendicular to the surface.
The general principles required for the ultrasonic examination of industrial products are described in ISO 16810. A list of symbols and equations is given in ISO 16811.
The tandem‑ or LLT‑examination should be used for the detection of planar discontinuities with distance to the surface greater than 15 mm. ISO 16826:2012 has been prepared for the examination of metallic materials with a thickness between 40 mm and 500 mm with parallel or concentric surfaces. It can, however, be used for other materials and smaller thickness provided special measures are taken.

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ISO 16810:2012 defines the general principles required for the ultra­sonic examination of industrial products that permit the trans­mis­sion of ultrasound.
The specific conditions of application and use of ultrasonic examination, which depend on the type of product examined, are described in documents which could include: a) product standards; b) specifications; c) codes; d) contractual documents; e) written procedures.
Unless otherwise specified in the referencing documents the minimum requirements of ISO 16810:2012 are applicable.
ISO 16810:2012 does not define: 1) extent of examination and scanning plans; 2) acceptance criteria.

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ISO 16811:2012 specifies the general rules for setting the timebase range and sensitivity (i.e. gain adjustment) of a manually operated ultrasonic flaw detector with A-scan display in order that reproducible measurements may be made of the location and echo height of a reflector.
ISO 16811:2012 is applicable to techniques employing a single contact probe with either a single or twin transducers, but excludes the immersion technique and techniques employing more than one probe.

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ISO 16823:2012 specifies the principles of transmis­sion techniques.
Transmission techniques can be used for: a) detection of imperfections; b) determination of attenuation.
The general principles required for the use of ultrasonic examina­tion of in­dustrial products are described in ISO 16810.
The transmission technique is used for examination of flat pro­ducts, e.g. plates and sheets.
Further, it is used for examinations e.g.: 1) where the shape, dimensions or orientation of possible imperfections are unfavourable for direct reflection; 2) in materials with high attenuation; 3) in thin products.

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ISO 16828:2012 defines the general principles for the application of the time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) technique for both detection and sizing of discontinuities in low alloyed carbon steel components. It can also be used for other types of materials, provided the application of the TOFD technique is performed with necessary consideration of geometry, acoustical properties of the materials, and the sensitivity of the examination.
Although it is applicable, in general terms, to discontinuities in materials and applications covered by ISO 16810, it contains references to the application on welds. This approach has been chosen for reasons of clarity as to the ultrasonic probe positions and directions of scanning.
Unless otherwise specified in the referencing documents, the minimum requirements of ISO 16828:2012 are applicable.
Unless explicitly stated otherwise, ISO 16828:2012 is applicable to the following product classes as defined in ISO 16811: a) class 1, without restrictions; b) classes 2 and 3, restrictions apply as stated in Clause 9.
The inspection of products of classes 4 and 5 requires special procedures. These are also addressed in Clause 9.
Techniques for the use of TOFD for weld inspection are described in ISO 10863.
The related acceptance criteria are given in ISO 15626.

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