This document describes a non-destructive method to verify (confirm) the precious metal fineness of finished and semifinished jewellery item(s) considered homogeneous by ED-XRF (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence), including alloys according to ISOÂ 9202. This document is not suitable for any coated items. WD-XRF (wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence) equipment cannot be used.

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This document specifies the technical requirements and test procedures for penetrant materials for their type testing and batch testing. This document covers the temperature range from 10 °C to 50 °C. Additional tests in ISO 3452-5 or ISO 3452-6 can be required outside this range. On-site control tests and methods are detailed in ISO 3452‑1.

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This document specifies a method of penetrant testing used to detect discontinuities, e.g. cracks, laps, folds, porosity and lack of fusion, which are open to the surface of the material to be tested using white light or UV-A (365Â nm) radiation. It is mainly applied to metallic materials, but can also be performed on other materials, provided that they are inert to the test media and not excessively porous (castings, forgings, welds, ceramics, etc.) This document also includes requirements for process and control testing, but is not intended to be used for acceptance criteria. It gives neither information relating to the suitability of individual test systems for specific applications nor requirements for test equipment. NOTEÂ 1Â Â Methods for determining and monitoring the essential properties of penetrant testing products to be used are specified in ISO 3452-2 and ISO 3452-3. NOTEÂ 2Â Â The term "discontinuity" is used in this document in the sense that no evaluation concerning acceptability or non-acceptability is included. NOTEÂ 3Â Â CEN/TR 16638 addresses penetrant testing using actinic blue light.

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This document specifies a method for the measurement of effective focal spot dimensions above 0,1 mm of X-ray systems up to and including 1000 kV tube voltage by means of the pinhole camera method with digital evaluation. The tube voltage applied for this measurement is restricted to 200 kV for visual film evaluation.
The imaging quality and the resolution of X-ray images depend highly on the characteristics of the effective focal spot, in particular the size and the two dimensional intensity distribution as seen from the detector plane.
This test method provides instructions for determining the effective size (dimensions) of standard (macro focal spots) and mini focal spots of industrial X-ray tubes. This determination is based on the measurement of an image of a focal spot that has been radiographically recorded with a "pinhole" technique and evaluated with a digital method.
For the characterization of commercial X-ray tube types (i.e. for advertising or trade) it is advised that the specific FS values of Annex A are used.

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This International Standard describes methods and acceptance criteria for verifying the performance of ultrasonic equipment (i.e. instrument and probe combined as defined in Part 1 and Part 2) by the use of appropriate standard calibration blocks. These methods are not intended to prove the suitability of the equipment for particular applications. The methods described are suitable for the use by operators working under site or shop floor conditions. The methods only apply to pulse echo equipment using Ascan presentation, with gain controls or attenuators calibrated in steps not greater than 2 dB and used essentially in contact testing. These methods are specifically intended for manual testing equipment.
For automated testing different tests can be needed to ensure satisfactory performance.

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This document defines the terms related to phased arrays used in ultrasonic non-destructive testing.
Note: The general terms used in ultrasonic non-destructive testing are defined in EN ISO 5577.

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This document gives general provisions for applying ultrasonic testing with arrays using FMC/TFM techniques and related technologies. It is intended to promote the adoption of good practice either at the manufacturing stage or for in-service testing of existing installations or for repairs. Some examples of applications considered in this document deal with characterization and sizing in damage assessment. Materials considered are low-alloyed carbon steels and common aerospace grade aluminium and titanium alloys, provided they are homogeneous and isotropic, but some recommendations are given for other materials (e.g. austenitic ones). This document does not include acceptance levels for discontinuities. For the application of FMC/TFM to testing of welds, see ISO 23864.

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This document defines terms used in ultrasonic testing with arrays. This includes phased array technology and signal processing technology using arrays, e. g. the full-matrix capture (FMC) (3.3.1.28) and the total focusing technique (TFM) (3.3.1.35).

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This document provides general principles for thermoelastic stress measuring method of infrared thermographic testing in the field of industrial non-destructive testing (NDT).

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This document describes the test method for determining residual stresses in polycrystalline materials
by neutron diffraction. It is applicable to both homogeneous and inhomogeneous materials including
those containing distinct phases.
The principles of the neutron diffraction technique are outlined. Suggestions are provided on:
— the selection of appropriate diffracting lattice planes on which measurements should be made for
different categories of materials,
— the specimen directions in which the measurements should be performed, and
— the volume of material examined in relation to the material grain size and the envisaged stress state.
Procedures are described for accurately positioning and aligning test pieces in a neutron beam and for
precisely defining the volume of material sampled for the individual measurements.
The precautions needed for calibrating neutron diffraction instruments are described. Techniques for
obtaining a stress-free reference are presented.
The methods of making individual measurements by neutron diffraction are described in detail.
Procedures for analysing the results and for determining their statistical relevance are presented.
Advice is provided on how to determine reliable estimates of residual stresses from the strain data and
on how to estimate the uncertainty in the results.

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This International Standard covers probes used for ultrasonic testing in the following categories with centre frequencies in the range 0,5 MHz to 15 MHz, focusing and without focusing means:
a) single or dual-transducer contact probes generating longitudinal or transverse waves;
b) single-transducer immersion probes generating longitudinal waves.

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This International Standard specifies methods and acceptance criteria for assessing the electrical performance of analogue and digital ultrasonic instruments for pulse operation using A-scan display, employed for manual ultrasonic non-destructive testing with single or dual-transducer probes operating within the centre frequency range 0,5 MHz to 15 MHz. Ultrasonic instruments for continuous waves are not included in this standard. This standard may partly be applicable to ultrasonic instruments in automated systems but then other tests can be needed to ensure satisfactory performance.

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This document specifies methods, tolerances and acceptance criteria for verifying the performance of combined ultrasonic test equipment (i.e. instrument, probes and cables connected) by the use of appropriate standard calibration blocks. These methods are specifically intended for manual test equipment, i.e. ultrasonic instruments according to ISO 22232-1, and for manual ultrasonic non-destructive testing with single- or dual-transducer probes according to ISO 22232-2. This document is also applicable for multi-channel instruments. For automated test equipment, different tests can be needed to ensure satisfactory performance. The specified methods are intended for the use by operators working under site or shop floor conditions. These methods are not intended to prove the suitability of the equipment for particular applications. This document excludes ultrasonic instruments for continuous waves. This document also excludes ultrasonic phased array systems, see e. g. ISO 18563-3. If a phased array instrument is used in combination with single- or dual-transducer probes, this document is applicable to this combination.

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This document specifies the characteristics of probes used for non-destructive ultrasonic testing in the following categories with centre frequencies in the range of 0,5 MHz to 15 MHz, focusing or without focusing means: a) single- or dual-transducer contact probes generating longitudinal and/or transverse waves; b) single-transducer immersion probes. Where material-dependent ultrasonic values are specified in this document they are based on steels having a sound velocity of (5 920 ± 50) m/s for longitudinal waves, and (3 255 ± 30) m/s for transverse waves. This document excludes periodic tests for probes. Routine tests for the verification of probes using on-site procedures are given in ISO 22232-3. If parameters in addition to those specified in ISO 22232-3 are to be verified during the probe's life time, as agreed upon by the contracting parties, the procedures of verification for these additional parameters can be selected from those given in this document. This document also excludes ultrasonic phased array probes, therefore see ISO 18563-2.

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This document specifies methods and acceptance criteria within the frequency range of 0,5 MHz to 15 MHz, for assessing the electrical performance of digital ultrasonic instruments for pulse operation using A-scan display, for manual ultrasonic non-destructive testing with single- or dual-transducer probes. This document is also applicable for multi-channel instruments. This document can partly be applicable to ultrasonic instruments in automated systems, but other tests can be needed to ensure satisfactory performance. This document excludes ultrasonic instruments for continuous waves. This document also excludes ultrasonic phased array instruments, see e.g. ISO 18563-1. If a phased array instrument has dedicated connectors for single- or dual-transducer probes this document is applicable for these channels.

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This document is used for non-destructive testing by the gamma ray scanning method for troubleshooting and testing process columns in industries. This document is applicable to the testing of all kinds of separation processes columns and pipes. This includes columns with different tray configurations and with packed beds.

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ISO 16526-1:2011 specifies a method for the direct and absolute measurement of the average high voltage of constant potential (DC) X-ray systems on the secondary side of the high voltage generator. The intention is to check the correspondence with the indicated high voltage value on the control unit of the X-ray system.
This method is applied to assure a reproducible operation of X-ray systems because the voltage influences particularly the penetration of materials and the contrast of X-ray images and also the requirements concerning the radiation protection.

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ISO 16526-3:2011 specifies the test method for a non-invasive measurement of X-ray tube voltages using the energy spectrum of X-rays (spectrometric method). It covers the voltage range from 10 kV to 500 kV.
The intention is to check the correspondence of the actual voltage with the indicated value on the control panel of the X-ray unit. It is intended to measure the maximum energy only and not the complete X-ray spectrum.
The procedure is applicable for tank type and constant potential X-ray units.

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ISO 16526-2:2011 specifies a constancy check of a X-ray system where mainly the X-ray voltage is checked and also the tube current and the constitution of the target which can be changing due to ageing of the tube.
The thick filter method is based on a measurement of the dose rate behind a defined thick filter using defined distances between the X-ray tube, the filter and the measuring device.
This method is very sensitive to changes of the voltage, but it does not provide an absolute value for the X-ray tube voltage. Therefore, a reference value is needed and, it is recommended to find this reference, for example, within the acceptance test of the system.
The thick filter method is a rather simple technique and may be applied by the operator of an X-ray system to perform regularly a constancy check of the system.
The method can also be applied for consistency checks after changing components which may affect the X-ray tube voltage.
This method can be applied for all types of X-ray systems, i. e. for constant potential, half wave and impulse wave generators with a tube current larger than 1 mA.

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ISO 14096-1:2005 specifies procedures for the evaluation of basic performance parameters of the radiographic film digitisation process such as spatial resolution and spatial linearity, density range, density contrast sensitivity and characteristic transfer curve. They can be integrated into the system software and together with a standard reference film used for quality control of the digitisation process. This reference film provides a series of test targets for performance evaluation. The test targets are suitable for evaluating a digitisation system with a spatial resolution down to 25 micrometres, a density contrast sensitivity down to 0,02 optical density, a density range of 0,5 to 4,5 and a film size capacity of (350 x 430) mm2. This standard does not address signal processing and display of the digitised data.

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ISO 14096-2:2005 specifies three film-digitisation quality classes for the requirements of non-destructive testing. The selected class depends on the radiation energy, penetrated material thickness and the quality level of the original radiographic film. ISO 14096-2:2005 does not address signal processing, display and storage of the digitised data.

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This document is applicable to testing of rails installed in track for detecting rail surface cracks. This part of this European Standard applies to testing equipment in inspection-trains or reprofiling machines and manual systems. This document specifies the requirement for testing principles and systems in order to produce comparable results in respect to the location and the characteristic of surface cracks. This document is not aiming to give any guidelines for managing the result of eddy current rail testing. This document does not define the requirements for vehicle acceptance. This document is not concerned with production testing of rails in a production plant. This document applies only to rail profiles meeting the requirements of EN 13674-1.

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ISO 16526-3:2011 specifies the test method for a non-invasive measurement of X-ray tube voltages using the energy spectrum of X-rays (spectrometric method). It covers the voltage range from 10 kV to 500 kV.
The intention is to check the correspondence of the actual voltage with the indicated value on the control panel of the X-ray unit. It is intended to measure the maximum energy only and not the complete X-ray spectrum.
The procedure is applicable for tank type and constant potential X-ray units.

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ISO 16526-2:2011 specifies a constancy check of a X-ray system where mainly the X-ray voltage is checked and also the tube current and the constitution of the target which can be changing due to ageing of the tube.
The thick filter method is based on a measurement of the dose rate behind a defined thick filter using defined distances between the X-ray tube, the filter and the measuring device.
This method is very sensitive to changes of the voltage, but it does not provide an absolute value for the X-ray tube voltage. Therefore, a reference value is needed and, it is recommended to find this reference, for example, within the acceptance test of the system.
The thick filter method is a rather simple technique and may be applied by the operator of an X-ray system to perform regularly a constancy check of the system.
The method can also be applied for consistency checks after changing components which may affect the X-ray tube voltage.
This method can be applied for all types of X-ray systems, i. e. for constant potential, half wave and impulse wave generators with a tube current larger than 1 mA.

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ISO 16526-1:2011 specifies a method for the direct and absolute measurement of the average high voltage of constant potential (DC) X-ray systems on the secondary side of the high voltage generator. The intention is to check the correspondence with the indicated high voltage value on the control unit of the X-ray system.
This method is applied to assure a reproducible operation of X-ray systems because the voltage influences particularly the penetration of materials and the contrast of X-ray images and also the requirements concerning the radiation protection.

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This document specifies the requirements for penetrant testing of metallic materials for aerospace applications. It is limited to the direction of surface breaking defects, e.g. cracks, laps, seams and inclusions.
It shall be applied when referred to in the EN technical specification or material standard unless otherwise specified on the drawing, order or inspection schedule.

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This document describes the test method for determining residual stresses in polycrystalline materials by neutron diffraction. It is applicable to both homogeneous and inhomogeneous materials including those containing distinct phases. The principles of the neutron diffraction technique are outlined. Suggestions are provided on: — the selection of appropriate diffracting lattice planes on which measurements should be made for different categories of materials, — the specimen directions in which the measurements should be performed, and — the volume of material examined in relation to the material grain size and the envisaged stress state. Procedures are described for accurately positioning and aligning test pieces in a neutron beam and for precisely defining the volume of material sampled for the individual measurements. The precautions needed for calibrating neutron diffraction instruments are described. Techniques for obtaining a stress-free reference are presented. The methods of making individual measurements by neutron diffraction are described in detail. Procedures for analysing the results and for determining their statistical relevance are presented. Advice is provided on how to determine reliable estimates of residual stresses from the strain data and on how to estimate the uncertainty in the results.

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This document gives requirements and recommendations for non-destructive testing (NDT) training syllabuses, with the intention of harmonizing and maintaining the general standard of training of NDT personnel for industrial needs. It also establishes the minimum requirements for effective structured training of NDT personnel to ensure eligibility for qualification examinations leading to third-party certification according to recognized standards. In addition to non-destructive testing in general, its guidelines for syllabuses cover acoustic emission testing, eddy current testing, leak testing, magnetic testing, penetrant testing, radiographic testing, ultrasonic testing, visual testing, thermographic testing, and strain gauge testing. ISO/TS 25108 gives requirements and recommendations for NDT training organizations.

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This document gives requirements and recommendations for non-destructive testing (NDT) training syllabuses, with the intention of harmonizing and maintaining the general standard of training of NDT personnel for industrial needs.
It also establishes the minimum requirements for effective structured training of NDT personnel to ensure eligibility for qualification examinations leading to third-party certification according to recognized standards. In addition to non-destructive testing in general, its guidelines for syllabuses cover acoustic emission testing, eddy current testing, leak testing, magnetic testing, penetrant testing, radiographic testing, ultrasonic testing, visual testing, thermographic testing, and strain gauge testing.
ISO/TS 25108 gives requirements and recommendations for NDT training organizations.

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This document defines the general principles to be applied to non-destructive eddy current examination of products and materials in order to ensure defined and repeatable performance.

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This document defines terms used in eddy current testing.

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ISO 16809:2017 specifies the principles for ultrasonic thickness measurement of metallic and non-metallic materials by direct contact, based on measurement of time of flight of ultrasonic pulses only.

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This document gives requirements and recommendations for non-destructive testing (NDT) training syllabuses, with the intention of harmonizing and maintaining the general standard of training of NDT personnel for industrial needs. It also establishes the minimum requirements for effective structured training of NDT personnel to ensure eligibility for qualification examinations leading to third-party certification according to recognized standards. In addition to non-destructive testing in general, its guidelines for syllabuses cover acoustic emission testing, eddy current testing, leak testing, magnetic testing, penetrant testing, radiographic testing, ultrasonic testing, visual testing, thermographic testing, and strain gauge testing. ISO/TS 25108 gives requirements and recommendations for NDT training organizations.

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This document defines terms used in eddy current testing.

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This document gives the rules of naming, technical requirements, test methods, inspection, marking, packaging, transportation, storage and accompanying documents for electron linear accelerator equipment for Non-Destructive Testing (NDT).
This document applies to NDT electron linear accelerator equipment in the X-ray energy range of 1 MeV to 15 MeV, including the accelerator equipment for radiographic film,computed radiography with imaging plates, real-time imaging, digital detector array and industrial computerized tomography.

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ISO 15708-4:2017 specifies guidelines for the qualification of the performance of a CT system with respect to various inspection tasks.
It is applicable to industrial imaging (i.e. non-medical applications) and gives a consistent set of CT performance parameter definitions, including how those performance parameters relate to CT system specifications.
ISO 15708-4:2017 deals with computed axial tomography and excludes other types of tomography such as translational tomography and tomosynthesis.

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ISO 15708-2:2017 specifies the general principles of X-ray computed tomography (CT), the equipment used and basic considerations of sample, materials and geometry.
It is applicable to industrial imaging (i.e. non-medical applications) and gives a consistent set of CT performance parameter definitions, including how those performance parameters relate to CT system specifications.
ISO 15708-2:2017 deals with computed axial tomography and excludes other types of tomography such as translational tomography and tomosynthesis.

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ISO 15708-3:2017 presents an outline of the operation of a computed tomography (CT) system and the interpretation of results with the aim of providing the operator with technical information to enable the selection of suitable parameters.
It is applicable to industrial imaging (i.e. non-medical applications) and gives a consistent set of CT performance parameter definitions, including how those performance parameters relate to CT system specifications.
ISO 15708-3:2017 deals with computed axial tomography and excludes other types of tomography such as translational tomography and tomosynthesis.

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ISO 16809:2017 specifies the principles for ultrasonic thickness measurement of metallic and non-metallic materials by direct contact, based on measurement of time of flight of ultrasonic pulses only.

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This document defines the general principles to be applied to non-destructive eddy current examination of products and materials in order to ensure defined and repeatable performance.
It includes guidelines for the preparation of application documents which describe the specific requirements for the application of the eddy current method to a particular type of product.

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ISO 15708-1:2017 gives the definitions of terms used in the field of computed tomography (CT). It presents a terminology that is not only CT-specific but which also includes other more generic terms and definitions spanning imaging and radiography. Some of the definitions represent discussion points aimed at refocusing their terms in the specific context of computed tomography.

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This document defines the general principles to be applied to non-destructive eddy current examination of products and materials in order to ensure defined and repeatable performance. It includes guidelines for the preparation of application documents which describe the specific requirements for the application of the eddy current method to a particular type of product.

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  • Standard
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ISO 15708-2:2017 specifies the general principles of X-ray computed tomography (CT), the equipment used and basic considerations of sample, materials and geometry.
It is applicable to industrial imaging (i.e. non-medical applications) and gives a consistent set of CT performance parameter definitions, including how those performance parameters relate to CT system specifications.
ISO 15708-2:2017 deals with computed axial tomography and excludes other types of tomography such as translational tomography and tomosynthesis.

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ISO 15708-1:2017 gives the definitions of terms used in the field of computed tomography (CT). It presents a terminology that is not only CT-specific but which also includes other more generic terms and definitions spanning imaging and radiography. Some of the definitions represent discussion points aimed at refocusing their terms in the specific context of computed tomography.

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ISO 15708-3:2017 presents an outline of the operation of a computed tomography (CT) system and the interpretation of results with the aim of providing the operator with technical information to enable the selection of suitable parameters.
It is applicable to industrial imaging (i.e. non-medical applications) and gives a consistent set of CT performance parameter definitions, including how those performance parameters relate to CT system specifications.
ISO 15708-3:2017 deals with computed axial tomography and excludes other types of tomography such as translational tomography and tomosynthesis.

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ISO 15708-4:2017 specifies guidelines for the qualification of the performance of a CT system with respect to various inspection tasks.
It is applicable to industrial imaging (i.e. non-medical applications) and gives a consistent set of CT performance parameter definitions, including how those performance parameters relate to CT system specifications.
ISO 15708-4:2017 deals with computed axial tomography and excludes other types of tomography such as translational tomography and tomosynthesis.

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This document specifies a method of determining the total image unsharpness and basic spatial
resolution of radiographs and radioscopic images. The IQI with up to 13 wire pairs can be used
effectively with tube voltages up to 600 kV. The IQI with more than 13 wire pairs can be used effectively
at tube voltages lower than 225 kV. When using source voltages in the megavolt range, it is possible that
the results are not be completely satisfactory.

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This European Standard specifies fundamental techniques of film and digital radiography with the object of enabling satisfactory and repeatable results to be obtained economically. The techniques are based on generally recognized practice and fundamental theory of the subject.
This European Standard applies to the radiographic examination of pipes in metallic materials for service induced flaws such as corrosion pitting, generalized corrosion and erosion. Besides its conventional meaning, “pipe” as used in this standard should be understood to cover other cylindrical bodies such as tubes, penstocks, boiler drums and pressure vessels.
Weld inspection for typical welding process induced flaws is not covered, but weld inspection is included for corrosion/erosion type flaws.
The pipes may be insulated or not, and can be assessed where loss of material due, for example, to corrosion or erosion is suspected either internally or externally.
This part of EN 16407 covers the tangential inspection technique for detection and through-wall sizing of wall loss, including:
a)   with the source on the pipe centre line, and
b)   with the source offset from it by the pipe radius.
Part 2 of EN 16407 covers double wall radiography, and note that the double wall double image technique is often combined with tangential radiography with the source on the pipe centre line.
This European Standard applies to tangential radiographic inspection using industrial radiographic film techniques, computed digital radiography (CR) and digital detector arrays (DDA).

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This document gives requirements and recommendations for non-destructive testing (NDT) training
organizations, with the intention of harmonizing and maintaining the general standard of training of
NDT personnel for industrial needs.
It also establishes the minimum requirements for effective structured training of NDT personnel to
ensure eligibility for qualification examinations leading to third-party certification according to
recognized standards.
NOTE ISO/TS 25107 gives requirements and recommendations for NDT training syllabuses intended for
training.

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This document specifies the determination of the size of gamma radiographic sources of 0,5 mm or greater, made from the radionuclides Iridium 192, Ytterbium 169, Selenium 75 or Cobalt 60, by a method of radiography with X-rays. The source size of a gamma radiography source is an important factor which affects the image quality of gamma ray images.
The source size is determined with an accuracy of ± 10 % but typically not better than ± 0,1 mm.
The source size is provided by the manufacturer as the mechanical dimension of the source insert. A measurement may be required if the manufacturing process is validated or monitored after implementation of the source into the holder.
This document can be used for other radionuclides after validation.
The standard test method ASTM E 1114 provides further information on the measurement of the Ir-192 source size, the characterization of the source shape, and its correct assembly and packaging.

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