Dock levellers - Safety requirements

1.1   This European Standard specifies the safety requirements for design, construction, installation, maintenance and testing of dock levellers and for safety components on dock levellers.
With the exception of:
a)   dock levellers for marine and aircraft applications;
b)   lifting tables;
c)   vehicle mounted tail lifts.
NOTE 1   Requirements for lifting tables are laid down in EN 1570.
NOTE 2   Requirements for vehicle mounted tail lifts are laid down in EN 1756-1.
1.2   This European Standard is applicable to dock levellers which are used by persons and/or manual or power driven transport equipment (e. g. forklift trucks) as traffic paths between goods vehicles, both road vehicles and rail wagons, and parts of buildings such as loading docks. This standard does not deal with other bridging devices not shown in Figure 1.

Ladebrücken - Sicherheitsanforderungen

1.1 Diese Europäische Norm beschreibt Sicherheitsanforderungen für Auslegung, Bau, Installation,
Wartung und Prüfung von Ladebrücken und für Sicherheitsbauteile an Ladebrücken.
Mit Ausnahme von:
a) Ladebrücken für Wasser- und Luftfahrzeuge;
b) Hubtische;
c) Hubladebühnen (Ladebordwände).
ANMERKUNG 1 Anforderungen für Hubtische sind in EN 1570 festgelegt.
ANMERKUNG 2 Anforderungen für Hubladebühnen sind in EN 1756-1 festgelegt.
1.2 Diese Europäische Norm gilt für Ladebrücken, die durch Personen und/oder handbetätigte oder
kraftbetätigte Transportmittel (z. B. Gabelstapler) genutzt werden als Verkehrswege zwischen
Warentransportfahrzeugen, sowohl als Straßen- wie auch als Eisenbahnfahrzeuge und Teilen von Gebäuden,
wie Laderampen. Andere überbrückende Einrichtungen als in Bild 1 dargestellt, sind in dieser Norm nicht
behandelt.
a) Ladeblech
handbetätigte, ortsbewegliche Ladebrücke
b) handbetätigte oder kraftbetriebene
Ladebrücke, an der Rampenkante befestigt
c) handbetätigte Ladebrücke, in eine
Laderampe eingebaut, Klapplippe
d) kraftbetriebene Ladebrücke in eine Laderampe
eingebaut, Vorschub- oder Klapplippe
Bild 1 — Typen von Ladebrücken
ANMERKUNG Nur Ladebrücken, die mit einem Antriebssystem ausgerüstet sind und nicht direkt manuell betrieben
werden, sind Maschinen im Sinne der Maschinenrichtlinie.
1.3 Diese Europäische Norm beschreibt Anforderungen zum Schutz von Personen und Gegenständen
gegen Unfälle und Gesundheitsprobleme und Beschädigung bei der Nutzung und im Betrieb von Ladebrücken.
Zu schützende Personen sind:
a) Bedienungspersonen und Nutzer;
b) Wartungs- und Überwachungspersonen;
c) Personen in der Nähe der Ladebrücken.
d) Zu schützende Gegenstände sind:
e) Waren auf Ladebrücken;
f) Transportmittel auf Ladebrücken.

Rampes ajustables - Prescriptions de sécurité

1.1 La présente Norme européenne spécifie les prescriptions de sécurité pour la conception, la
construction, l'installation, l'entretien et les essais des rampes ajustables, ainsi que pour les composants de
sécurité des rampes ajustables.
A l’exception :
a) des rampes ajustables pour les applications navales et aéronautiques ;
b) des tables élévatrices ;
c) des hayons élévateurs montés sur véhicules.
NOTE 1 Les prescriptions relatives aux tables élévatrices sont traitées dans l’EN 1570.
NOTE 2 Les prescriptions relatives aux hayons élévateurs montés sur véhicules sont traitées dans l’EN 1756-1.
1.2 La présente Norme européenne s’applique aux rampes ajustables qui sont utilisées par des personnes
et/ou du matériel de transport mû manuellement ou motorisé (par exemple, un chariot élévateur à fourche),
comme voie de passage entre des véhicules transportant des marchandises, des véhicules sur route et des
wagons sur rails, et des parties de bâtiments, telles que des quais de chargement. La présente norme ne
traite pas des autres dispositifs de montage en pont qui ne sont pas représentés à la Figure 1.

Nagibne premostitvene ploščadi - Varnostne zahteve

Ta evropski standard opredeljuje varnostne zahteve za načrtovanje, konstrukcijo, namestitev, vzdrževanje in preskušanje nagibnih premostitvenih ploščadi ter za varnostne sestavne dele na nagibnih premostitvenih ploščadih, z izjemo: a) nagibnih premostitvenih ploščadi za gradnjo ladij in čolnov ter letal, b) dvižnih miz, c) dvižnih ploščadi, nameščenih na vozila. Ta evropski standard se uporablja za nagibne premostitvene ploščadi, ki jih uporabljajo osebe, in/ali ročno ali motorno transportno opremo (npr. viličarji) kot transportne poti med težkimi tovornimi vozili, tako cestnimi vozili kot železniškimi vagoni in deli zgradb, kot so doki za nakladanje. Ta standard ne obravnava drugih premostitvenih naprav, ki niso prikazane na Sliki 1. Ta evropski standard opredeljuje zahteve z namenom zaščite oseb in stvari pred nesrečami in zdravstvenimi težavami ter škodo med uporabo in delovanjem nagibnih premostitvenih ploščadi. Osebe, ki jih je treba zaščititi, so: a) upravljavci in uporabniki, b) vzdrževalno in nadzorno osebje, c) osebe v bližini nagibne premostitvene ploščadi. Stvari, ki jih je treba zaščititi, so: d) blago na nagibnih premostitvenih ploščadih; e) transportna oprema na nagibnih premostitvenih ploščadih. Velike nevarnosti nagibnih premostitvenih ploščadi so navedene v Klavzuli 4. Te nevarnosti so bile ugotovljene z oceno tveganja v skladu z EN ISO 12100-2 ter zahtevajo delovanje za preprečitev nevarnosti ali zmanjšanje tveganja, ki ga zajema Klavzula 5. Varnostne zahteve so osnovane na predpostavki, da nagibne premostitvene ploščadi redno vzdržuje usposobljeno osebje v skladu z navodili proizvajalca ter da je bila oseba, ki jo upravlja, poučena o uporabi nagibne premostitvene ploščadi. Ta evropski standard se ne uporablja za nagibne premostitvene ploščadi, ki so bile proizvedene pred datumom, ko je bil objavljen kot EN. Ta evropski standard obravnava vse velike nevarnosti, nevarne situacije in primere v zvezi z nagibnimi premostitvenimi ploščadmi, kadar se uporabljajo v skladu z namembnostjo in pod pogoji, kot jih je predvidel proizvajalec (glej Klavzulo 4).

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
17-Mar-2009
Current Stage
9060 - Closure of 2 Year Review Enquiry - Review Enquiry
Due Date
04-Jun-2019
Completion Date
04-Jun-2019

RELATIONS

Effective Date
23-Mar-2009
Effective Date
23-Mar-2009

Buy Standard

Standard
EN 1398:2010
English language
33 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview
e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (sample)

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Ladebrücken - SicherheitsanforderungenRampes ajustables - Prescriptions de sécuritéDock levellers - Safety requirements53.080Storage equipmentICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 1398:2009SIST EN 1398:2010en,fr,de01-marec-2010SIST EN 1398:2010SLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST EN 1398:1999/AC:2001SIST EN 1398:19991DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 1398:2010

EUROPEAN STANDARDNORME EUROPÉENNEEUROPÄISCHE NORMEN 1398March 2009ICS 53.080Supersedes EN 1398:1997

English VersionDock levellers - Safety requirementsRampes ajustables - Prescriptions de sécuritéLadebrücken - SicherheitsanforderungenThis European Standard was approved by CEN on 14 February 2009.CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this EuropeanStandard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such nationalstandards may be obtained on application to the CEN Management Centre or to any CEN member.This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translationunder the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN Management Centre has the same status as theofficial versions.CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATIONCOMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATIONEUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNGManagement Centre:

Avenue Marnix 17,

B-1000 Brussels© 2009 CENAll rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reservedworldwide for CEN national Members.Ref. No. EN 1398:2009: ESIST EN 1398:2010

EN 1398:2009 (E) 2 Contents Page Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................4 Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................5 1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................6 2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................7 3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................8 4 List of significant hazards ................................................................................................................. 10 5 Safety requirements and/or protective measures ........................................................................... 12 5.1 Calculations and dimensions ............................................................................................................ 12 5.2 General safety requirements and protective measures.................................................................. 16 5.3 Additional requirements for manually operated dock levellers ..................................................... 19 5.4 Additional requirements for power-operated dock levellers ......................................................... 20 6 Verification of the safety requirements and/or the protective measures ..................................... 24 7 Information for use ............................................................................................................................. 25 7.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 25 7.2 Marking ................................................................................................................................................ 25 7.3 Instructions for use ............................................................................................................................ 25 7.4 Instructions for maintenance and inspection .................................................................................. 26 Annex A (informative)

Examples of suitable tests ........................................................................................ 28 A.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 28 A.2 Stability test ......................................................................................................................................... 28 A.3 Function test of the automatic safety device ................................................................................... 30 Annex ZA (informative)

Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential Requirements of EU Directive 98/37/EC ........................................................................................... 31 Annex ZB (informative)

Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential Requirements of EU Directive 2006/42/EC ....................................................................................... 32 Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 33

Figures Figure 1 — Types of dock levellers .................................................................................................................. 6 Figure 2 — Main parts of a dock leveller ......................................................................................................... 9 Figure 3 — Position of contact areas ............................................................................................................ 14 Figure 4

Max. permanent deformation of bridge deck sheets ................................................................ 15 Figure 5 — Safeguarding of crushing and shearing hazards ..................................................................... 18 Figure A.1 — Stability test for load case 1 .................................................................................................... 29 Figure A.2 — Stability test for load case 2 .................................................................................................... 29 Figure A.3

Max. deformation of bridge deck sheets ................................................................................ 29 SIST EN 1398:2010

EN 1398:2009 (E) 3 Tables Table 1 — Significant hazards and safety requirements .............................................................................. 11 Table 2 — Applicable factors and loads at different load combinations .................................................... 13 Table 3 — Means of verification of the safety requirements and measures .............................................. 24

SIST EN 1398:2010

EN 1398:2009 (E) 4 Foreword This document (EN 1398:2009) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 98 “Lifting platforms”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by September 2009, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by September 2009. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This document supersedes EN 1398:1997. This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EC Directive(s). For relationship with EC Directive(s), see informative Annexes ZA and ZB, which are integral parts of this document. According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 1398:2010

EN 1398:2009 (E) 5 Introduction This European Standard is a type C-standard as defined in EN ISO 12100. The machinery concerned and the extent to which hazards, hazardous situations and hazardous events are covered are indicated in the scope of this European Standard. In addition, machinery shall comply as appropriate with EN ISO 12100 for hazards which are not covered by this European Standard. Where provisions of this type C standard are different from those which are stated in type A or B standards, the provisions of this type C standard take precedence over the provisions of the other standards, for machines that have been designed and built according to the provisions of this type C standard.

SIST EN 1398:2010

EN 1398:2009 (E) 6 1 Scope 1.1 This European Standard specifies the safety requirements for design, construction, installation, maintenance and testing of dock levellers and for safety components on dock levellers. With the exception of: a) dock levellers for marine and aircraft applications; b) lifting tables; c) vehicle mounted tail lifts. NOTE 1 Requirements for lifting tables are laid down in EN 1570. NOTE 2 Requirements for vehicle mounted tail lifts are laid down in EN 1756-1. 1.2 This European Standard is applicable to dock levellers which are used by persons and/or manual or power driven transport equipment (e. g. forklift trucks) as traffic paths between goods vehicles, both road vehicles and rail wagons, and parts of buildings such as loading docks. This standard does not deal with other bridging devices not shown in Figure 1.

a) Bridge plate (dock plate) manually operated, mobile b)Manuallyor power operated dockleveller, fixed at the dock edge

c) Manually operated dock leveller, installed in a pit, hinged lip d)Power operated dock leveller, installed in a pit, telescopic or hinged lip Figure 1 — Types of dock levellers NOTE Only dock levellers fitted with a drive system other than directly applied human effort are machines in the sense of the Machinery Directive. 1.3 This European Standard specifies requirements in order to protect persons and objects against accidents and health problems and damage during use and operation of dock levellers. SIST EN 1398:2010

EN 1398:2009 (E) 7 Persons to protect are: a) operators and users; b) maintaining and inspecting personnel; c) persons near the dock leveller. Objects to be protected are: d) goods on dock levellers; e) transport equipment on dock levellers. 1.4 The significant hazards of dock levellers are listed in Clause 4. These hazards have been identified by risk assessment according to EN ISO 12100-2 and require actions to avoid the hazard, or to reduce the risk, which are covered in Clause 5. 1.5 The safety requirements are based on the assumption that the dock levellers are regularly maintained by competent persons to the instructions of the manufacturer and that the operating person has been instructed in the use of the dock leveller. 1.6 This European Standard is not applicable to dock levellers which are manufactured before the date of its publication as EN. 1.7 This European Standard deals with all significant hazards, hazardous situations and events relevant to dock Levellers, when they are used as intended and under the conditions foreseen by the manufacturer (see Clause 4). 2 Normative references The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 349, Safety of machinery — Minimum gaps to avoid crushing of parts of the human body EN 982, Safety of machinery — Safety requirements for fluid power systems and their components — Hydraulics EN 983, Safety of machinery — Safety requirements for fluid power systems and their components — Pneumatics EN 60204-1:2006, Safety of machinery — Electrical equipment of machines — Part 1: General requirements (IEC 60204-1:2005, modified) EN 60529:1991, Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP code) (IEC 60529:1989) EN 60947-4-1, Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear — Part 4-1: Contactors and motor-starters; Electromechanical contactors and motor-starters (IEC 60947-4-1:2000) EN 60947-4-2, Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear — Part 4-2: Contactors and motor-starters — AC semiconductor motor controllers and starters (IEC 60947-4-2:1999) EN ISO 12100-1:2003, Safety of machinery — Basic concepts, general principles for design — Part 1: Basic terminology, methodology (ISO 12100-1:2003) SIST EN 1398:2010

EN 1398:2009 (E) 8 EN ISO 12100-2:2003, Safety of machinery — Basic concepts, general principles for design — Part 2: Technical principles (ISO 12100-2:2003) EN ISO 13849-1:2008, Safety of machinery — Safety related parts of control systems — Part 1: General principles for design (ISO 13849-1:2006) EN ISO 13850, Safety of machinery — Emergency stop — Principles for design (ISO 13850:2006) ISO 11228-1, Ergonomics — Manual handling — Part 1: Lifting and carrying ISO 11228-2, Ergonomics — Manual handling — Part 2: Pushing and pulling CENELEC HD 60364-4-41, Low-voltage electrical installations — Part 4-41: Protection for safety — Protection against electric shock (IEC 60364-4-41:2005, modified) 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN ISO 12100-1:2003 and the following apply. 3.1 dock leveller static or mobile device to bridge the space between a loading dock or similar loading areas and the loading surface of a vehicle which may be at different levels NOTE 1 Dock levellers may be built as: a) manually operated, mobile dock leveller, called bridge plate or dock board, see Figure 1a); b) power operated dock leveller built into a loading dock or fixed at the edge of a dock, see Figure 1b) and d); c) manually operated dock leveller built in to a loading dock or fixed to the edge of a dock, see Figure 1b) and c). NOTE 2 Dock levellers are provided for loading and unloading operations and are not designed to lift or lower loads. NOTE 3 The lifting or lowering mechanism is only provided to make alterations in the position of the unloaded dock leveller. 3.2 dock board/bridge plate dock leveller, consisting of a manually operated plate, suspended or loose 3.3 latched dock leveller dock leveller which is held in a certain position by a positively engaged locking device 3.4 bridge deck part of the dock leveller in the form of a plate which is used as traffic path for persons and/or transport equipment, but excluding the lip (see Figure 2)

SIST EN 1398:2010
EN 1398:2009 (E) 9

Key 1 Bridge deck 2 Bearer 3 Hinged lip Figure 2 — Main parts of a dock leveller 3.5 bearer supporting part of a dock leveller in the form of a beam, fixed at the under side of the bridge deck (see Figure 2) 3.6 support device part of a dock leveller, e. g. in the form of a block, bar or bolt which supports the dock leveller in the horizontal stored position 3.7 hinged lip part of a dock leveller hinged to the bridge deck and resting on the vehicle in the operational position (see Figure 2) 3.8 telescopic lip part of a dock leveller which can be telescopically extended towards the vehicle and which rests on the vehicle in the operational position 3.9 loading loading or unloading a vehicle using a dock leveller 3.10 free floating condition mode in which the dock leveller supported on the vehicle may follow automatically the vertical movements of the vehicle during the loading process 3.11 stored position position to which the dock leveller is put, or to which it returns, when loading has finished SIST EN 1398:2010

EN 1398:2009 (E) 10 3.12 automatic return return cycle of the dock leveller to its stored position with or without operator initiation 3.13 installed fixed to a dock edge or built in to the loading dock or a similar area 3.14 automatic safety device device which automatically prevents an uncontrolled and dangerous lowering of the loaded dock leveller 3.15 emergency stop device manually operated device intended to stop all movements of a dock leveller in the event of danger 3.16 rated load weight of the greatest moving load (including goods, persons and transport equipment for goods) for which the dock leveller is designed 3.17 competent person person who, in accordance with his training and experience, has sufficient knowledge in the field of dock levellers and is sufficiently familiar with relevant regulations to be able to assess the safe condition of dock levellers 3.18 operational position position of the dock leveller in which it is provided for loading and unloading 4 List of significant hazards The hazards that can influence the safety of persons during operation, maintenance or inspection have been identified by the risk assessment procedure and the corresponding requirements formulated. Table 1 shows the hazards which have been identified and where the corresponding requirements have been formulated in this European Standard. SIST EN 1398:2010

EN 1398:2009 (E) 11
Table 1 — Significant hazards and safety requirements

Significant hazards Safety requirements; Relevant clauses in this standard 1.1 Crushing hazard 5.2.9, 5.2.10, 5.4.2.1, 5.4.2.2, 5.4.2.4, 5.4.2.5, 5.4.2.7, 5.4.2.8 1.2 Shearing hazard 5.2.9, 5.2.10, 5.4.2.1, 5.4.2.2, 5.4.2.4, 5.4.2.5, 5.4.2.7, 5.4.2.8 1.6 Impact hazard 5.2.11 1.9 High pressure fluid ejection hazard 5.4.4.1, 5.4.4.2, 5.4.4.3, 5.4.4.4, 5.4.4.5 2.1 Contact of persons with live part (direct contact) 5.4.2.6, 5.4.3 2.2 Contact of persons with parts which have become live under faulty conditions (indirect contact) 5.4.3, 5.4.2.6 4 Hazards generated by noise 5.2.6 8 Hazards generated by neglecting ergonomic principles in machine design 8.1 Unhealthy postures or excessive effort 5.3.3, 5.3.4 8.2 Inadequate consideration of hand-arm or foot-leg anatomy 5.3.3, 5.3.4 8.5 Mental overload and underload, stress not applicable 8.6 Human error, human behaviour 5.4.2.5, 7.4.2 8.7 Inadequate design, location or identification of manual controls 5.4.2.2, 5.4.2.3, 5.4.2.5 8.8 Inadequate design or location of visual display units 5.4.2.5 10 Unexpected start-up

10.1 Failure, malfunction of control system 5.4.2.5, 5.4.2.7, 7.3.2 10.2 Restoration of energy supply after an interruption 5.4.2.9, 7.3.2 10.4 Other external influence gravity, wind etc. 5.1.2.2, 5.2.5

11 Impossible to stop the machine in the best position 5.2.2, 5.4.1 14 Failure of the power supply 5.4.2.7, 5.4.2.8, 5.4.2.9 18 Loss of stability 5.1 19 Slip, trip and fall hazard 5.2.2, 5.2.3, 5.2.4, 5.2.5, 5.2.6, 5.2.7, 5.2.8, 5.2.11, 5.3.2, 5.4.1 SIST EN 1398:2010

EN 1398:2009 (E) 12

5 Safety requirements and/or protective measures 5.1 Calculations and dimensions 5.1.1 General Dock levellers shall be designed to withstand all loads and forces under all operating and static conditions according to the scope. Dock levellers have an adequate strength if when the loads and forces given in 5.1.2 are used in the calculation methods given in 5.1.3 the necessary design criteria/safety factors of 5.1.5 are achieved. 5.1.2 Structural design 5.1.2.1 General Dock levellers wider than 1,25 m shall, in principle, be designed to withstand the passage of forklift and similar industrial trucks. At widths up to 1,25 m, such dock levellers may be designed to withstand loads resulting from pedestrian traffic and pedestrian operated industrial trucks only. 5.1.2.2 Loads and forces 5.1.2.2.1 General When calculating dock levellers all relevant loads and forces subdivided into primary and supplementary loads and forces shall be taken into account. Primary loads and forces are as follows: a) dead loads; b) rated load plus dynamic effects. Supplementary loads and forces are considered to be: c) wind forces; d) braking and starting loads; e) inertia forces; f) impact loads. Applicable forces and loads at different load combinations are shown in Table 2. SIST EN 1398:2010

EN 1398:2009 (E) 13 Table 2 — Applicable factors and loads at different load combinations

Primary loads Safety against yield stress (factor for combined loads) * Safety against yield stress (factor for not combined loads) * Supplementary loads Applicable factors and loads at different load combinations Dead loads (factor) Rated load (dynamic factor) Inertia forces, factor Out of service wind load (kN/m2) Impact loads (at 1 m) Braking and starting loads (factor) ** Clause 5.1.2.2.2 5.1.2.2.3 5.1.5.2 5.1.5.2 5.1.2.2.6 5.1.2.2.4 5.1.2.2.7 5.1.2.2.5Normal operation, leveller in use, or not in use 1 1,4 1,33 1,5 – – – 0,3 Cross traffic operation, leveller in stored position 1 1,4 1,33 1,5 – – – 0,3 Leveller in stored position, no rated load, wind load can occur 1 – 1,33 1,5 – 1 1 0 Exceptional situation, emergency stop 1 1 1 1 1,4 – – 0 *

** Safety factor against the yield stress is 1,33 when primary and supplementary loads are combined, or 1,5 when not combined loads Braking and starting loads are acting in traffic direction

5.1.2.2.2 Dead loads The masses of all permanently fixed and movable components shall be taken as dead loads. 5.1.2.2.3 Rated load including dynamic effects In addition to the rated load dynamic effects shall be considered. SIST EN 1398:2010

EN 1398:2009 (E) 14 The dynamic effects of the rated load due to its movement shall be calculated by multiplying the rated load by the dynamic factor - = 1,4. This load shall, depending on the width b of the deck structure, generally be expressed in terms of:

a) point load for b ≤ 1,25 m; b) axle load on one axle for b > 1,25 m. Point loads shall be taken as acting over a square contact area. Axle loads shall be taken acting over two rectangular contact areas at 1 m lateral distance. These areas shall only apply if the actual conditions do not call for more severe loading. The size of the footprint [mm2] is derived from the wheel load [N] divided by 2 [N/mm2]. The ratio of the rectangular print is W:L = 3:2. The position of the contact areas is shown in Figure 3.

Key 1 Centre to centre
L Length of the contact area 2 Direction of the traffic
W Width of the contact area Figure 3 — Position of contact areas 5.1.2.2.4

Wind forces Dock levellers exposed to the environment shall be designed to withstand a wind pressure of w = 1,0 kN/m2 in both directions, directly on to the front of the deck and also directly on to the back of the deck. This is particularly valid for dock levellers which are stowed in the vertical position when not in use. 5.1.2.2.5 Braking and starting loads The braking and starting loads for transport equipment operations shall be deemed to be effective at the level of the bridge deck. They shall be calculated at 30 % of the rated load. 5.1.2.2.6 Inertia forces The effects of inertia shall be taken into account for shock-inducing speed changes of movable components, in particular when a dock leveller travels at operational speed to the final end position in either direction or when the automatic safety device (see 5.4.1) is operated. 5.1.2.2.7 Impact loads For vertically stowed and latched dock levellers, a directly applied horizontal load of 1 kN/m of width evenly distributed on a line shall be deemed to be effective at a location 1 m above the top of the hinge line of the dock leveller and at right angles to the bridge deck. For dock levellers shorter than 1 m this horizontal load shall be applied to the top edge of the raised dock leveller. Vehicle impact loads need not be considered. NOTE The defined horizontal load has to be considered, to prevent the dock leveller plate from being knocked over by persons or mechanical handling equipment.

SIST EN 1398:2010

EN 1398:2009 (E) 15 5.1.3 Calculation of dock levellers 5.1.3.1 General Calculations shall be performed in accordance with generally accepted rules. The source, if generally accessible, shall be stated in case of any unusual formulae or calculation methods. Otherwise formulae shall be developed so that they may easily be verified. 5.1.3.2 Supporting structures, general Safety in terms of stress shall be proved by calculation for all supporting structures. The principal dimensions, cross sections, materials and fastening means shall be stated. The severest individual primary and supplementary load ratings shall be given respectively for each most unfavourable position. The hinged or telescopic lips, when not supported on the vehicle, need not be calculated with the rated load for the operation of the automatic safety device or the emergency stop device. All possible load case combinations shall be taken into account. Adequate strength shall be proved by calculation for components under compression. 5.1.3.3 Bridge deck For calculation purposes, only one bearer shall be taken as supporting the point load or the axle load unless lateral distribution of the load is proven. For the calculation of the deck plate sheets only the rated load without the dynamic factor shall be used. Where a point load or axle load will be supported by several bearers, such lateral distribution shall be demonstrated for the worst load case (e. g. loading of the end bearer). Non-stiffened sheets shall be calculated according to the plate theory. The permanent deformation of the sheets shall be max. 3 % of the span a (see Figure 4).

Key a Width of deck plate supporting sections Figure 4

Maximum permanent deformation of bridge deck sheets Distortion of bridge decks occurring under operating conditions, e. g. by a fork lift truck offset to one side shall be considered. 5.1.4 Design Test As an alternative to calculations, components may be subjected to testing to demonstrate their satisfactory design. The rated load multiplied by the dynamic factor (see 5.1.2.2.3) and the valid safety factor (see 5.1.5.2) SIST EN 1398:2010

EN 1398:2009 (E) 16 shall be applied to be effective at the most unfavourable position. Components under buckling shall have the safety factor 2,0 applied. There shall be no permanent deformation. The tests shall be performed and controlled respectively by competent persons or testing organisations. 5.1.5 Design criteria (factors) 5.1.5.1 Stability The stability of dock levellers when subjected to loads specified in 5.1.2.2 shall be proved by calculation. The effect of the restoring forces shall be 1,5 times the effect of the tipping forces. 5.1.5.2 Safety in terms of stress General safety in terms of stress of the steel shall be proved by calculation by applying the uniform safety factor S = 1,5 against the yield stress. Other materials shall be dealt with similarly. In the load cases where primary and supplementary loads are combined, the safety factor S = 1,33 may be used. This load case is given e. g. for forklift trucks, where the rated load on one axle only occurs when the truck is braked. 5.1.5.3 Buckling Proof of adequate resistance to buckling for components subjected to compression shall be obtained in accordance with valid standards and guidelines. 5.1.5.4 Stresses caused by the operation of the automatic safety device For this load case the yield stress may be applied (safety factor 1,0) throughout the full cross section as long as there is equilibrium between the internal and external forces. Proof of resistance to buckling for components subjected to compression may in this case be demonstrated by applying the safety factor S = 1,33. NOTE In this load case permanent deformation is acceptable, provided failure of the structure does not occur. 5.2 General safety requirements and protective measures 5.2.1 General Dock levellers shall comply with the safety requirements and/or protective measures of this clause. In addition, dock levellers shall be designed according to the principles of EN ISO 12100 for relevant but not significant hazards, which are not dealt with by this European Standard. If removable guards are used the fixing system shall remain to the guards or to the dock leveller when the guards are removed. 5.2.2 Gradients Dock levellers shall be so designed that the maximum gradient of the platform in its highest and lowest operational position does not exceed 12,5 % (approximately 7°). 5.2.3 Anti slip properties (slip resistance) The areas of dock levellers which are used by persons or transport equipment shall have anti slip properties. The surface should be so designed that fluids can run away. SIST EN 1398:2010

EN 1398:2009 (E) 17 NOTE 1 Suitable anti slip properties are surfaces with profiles or anti slip treatment. 1) 5.2.4 Width 5.2.4.1 Standard width The dock leveller shall be a minimum of 0,70 m wider than the track width of the transport equipment as specified in the manufacturer's instruction, but at least 1,25 m wide. NOTE 1 This is to make available a minimum safety width on each side of transport equipment. NOTE 2 The width of a dock leveller should correspond to the width of the loading surface of the loading vehicle. 5.2.4.2 Reduced width As an exception the minimum width of 1,25 m may be reduced if facilities at the operator's premises make this necessary and the operator takes measures to prevent persons or transport equipment falling. This may be fulfilled if e. g. a) trans

...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.