Secondary cells and batteries for renewable energy storage - General requirements and methods of test - Part 2: On-grid applications

IEC 61427-2:2015 relates to secondary batteries used in on-grid Electrical Energy Storage (EES) applications and provides the associated methods of test for the verification of their endurance, properties and electrical performance in such applications. The test methods are essentially battery chemistry neutral, i.e. applicable to all secondary battery types. On-grid applications are characterized by the fact that batteries are connected, via power conversion devices, to a regional or nation- or continent-wide electricity grid and act as instantaneous energy sources and sinks to stabilize the grids performance when randomly major amounts of electrical energy from renewable energy sources are fed into it. Related power conversion and interface equipment is not covered by this part of IEC 61427.

Wiederaufladbare Zellen und Batterien für die Speicherung erneuerbarer Energien - Allgemeine Anforderungen und Prüfverfahren - Teil 2: Netzgekoppelte Anwendungen

Accumulateurs pour le stockage de l'énergie renouvelable - Exigences générales et méthodes d'essais - Partie 2: Applications en réseaux

L'IEC 61427-2:2015 porte sur les batteries d'accumulateurs utilisées dans les applications de stockage de l'énergie électrique (EES) en réseau et définit les méthodes d'essai associées pour la vérification de leur endurance, de leurs propriétés et des performances électriques dans une telle application. Les méthodes d'essai sont indépendants de la chimie de la batterie, c'est-à-dire applicables à tout type de batterie d'accumulateurs. Les applications en réseau sont caractérisées par le fait que les batteries sont connectées, via des dispositifs de conversion d'énergie, à un réseau d'électricité régional, national ou continental et font office de sources ou de réservoir d'énergie instantanées pour stabiliser les performances du réseau électrique lorsque de grandes quantités d'énergie électrique provenant de sources d'énergie renouvelables sont introduites aléatoirement dans celui-ci. Les équipements de conversion d'énergie et d'interface associés ne sont pas couverts par la présente partie de l'IEC 61427.

Sekundarni členi in baterije za shranjevanje obnovljive energije - Splošne zahteve in preskusne metode - 2. del: Omrežne izvedbe

Ta del standarda IEC 61427 se navezuje na sekundarne baterije, ki se uporabljajo v omrežnih izvedbah za shranjevanje električne energije (EES), ter navaja povezane preskusne metode za preverjanje njihove vzdržljivosti, lastnosti in električnih zmogljivosti v teh izvedbah. Preskusne metode so v osnovi baterijsko kemično nevtralne, tj. uporabljajo se za vse vrste sekundarnih baterij. Za omrežne izvedbe je značilno, da so baterije povezane s področnim, državnim ali kontinentalnim električnim omrežjem ter delujejo kot viri takojšnje energije in korita za stabilizacijo učinkovitosti omrežja, ko se iz virov obnovljive energije v omrežje dovajajo naključno velike količine električne energije. Ta del standarda IEC 61427 ne vključuje povezane opreme za pretvorbo energije in vmesniške opreme.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
19-Nov-2015
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Due Date
17-Apr-2017

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Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 61427-2:2016
01-marec-2016

6HNXQGDUQLþOHQLLQEDWHULMH]DVKUDQMHYDQMHREQRYOMLYHHQHUJLMH6SORãQH]DKWHYH

LQSUHVNXVQHPHWRGHGHO2PUHåQHL]YHGEH

Secondary cells and batteries for renewable energy storage - General requirements and

methods of test - Part 2: on-grid applications

Accumulateurs pour le stockage de l'énergie renouvelable - Exigences générales et

méthodes d'essais - Partie 2: Applications en réseaux
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 61427-2:2015
ICS:
27.160 6RQþQDHQHUJLMD Solar energy engineering
29.220.20 .LVOLQVNLVHNXQGDUQLþOHQLLQ Acid secondary cells and
EDWHULMH batteries
SIST EN 61427-2:2016 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 61427-2:2016
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 61427-2:2016
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 61427-2
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
November 2015
ICS 29.220.20
English Version
Secondary cells and batteries for renewable energy storage -
General requirements and methods of test - Part 2: On-grid
applications
(IEC 61427-2:2015)

Accumulateurs pour le stockage de l'énergie renouvelable - Wiederaufladbare Zellen und Batterien für die Speicherung

Exigences générales et méthodes d'essais - Partie 2: erneuerbarer Energien - Allgemeine Anforderungen und

Applications en réseaux Prüfverfahren - Teil 2: Netzgekoppelte Anwendungen
(IEC 61427-2:2015) (IEC 61427-2:2015)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2015-10-02. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2015 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN 61427-2:2015 E
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 61427-2:2016
EN 61427-2:2015
European foreword

The text of document 21/862/FDIS, future edition 1 of IEC 61427-2, prepared by IEC/TC 21

"Secondary cells and batteries" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and approved by

CENELEC as EN 61427-2:2015.
The following dates are fixed:
(dop) 2016-07-02
• latest date by which the document has to be implemented at
national level by publication of an identical national
standard or by endorsement
(dow) 2018-10-02
• latest date by which the national standards conflicting with
the document have to be withdrawn

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC [and/or CEN] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such

patent rights.
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 61427-2:2015 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards indicated:

IEC 60623 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60623.
IEC 60730-1 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60730-1.
IEC 60812 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60812.
IEC 60896-11 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60896-11.
IEC 60896-21 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60896-21.
IEC 60896-22 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60896-22.
IEC 61025 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61025.
IEC 61427-1 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61427-1.
IEC 61508 NOTE Harmonized in EN 61508 series.
IEC 61508-7 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61508-7.
IEC 62133 NOTE Harmonized as EN 62133.
IEC 62259 NOTE Harmonized as EN 62259.
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN 61427-2:2016
EN 61427-2:2015
IEC 62485-3 NOTE Harmonized as EN 62485-3.
1) 1)
IEC 62619 NOTE Harmonized as EN 62619 .
IEC 62620 NOTE Harmonized as EN 62620.
IEC 62675 NOTE Harmonized as EN 62675.
1) At draft stage..
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SIST EN 61427-2:2016
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SIST EN 61427-2:2016
IEC 61427-2
Edition 1.0 2015-08
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Secondary cells and batteries for renewable energy storage – General
requirements and methods of test –
Part 2: On-grid applications
Accumulateurs pour le stockage de l'énergie renouvelable – Exigences
générales et méthodes d'essais –
Partie 2: Applications en réseau
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 29.220.20 ISBN 978-2-8322-2881-4

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 61427-2:2016
– 2 – IEC 61427-2:2015 © IEC 2015
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 6

4 General considerations .................................................................................................. 13

5 General test conditions .................................................................................................. 14

5.1 Accuracy of measuring equipment ........................................................................ 14

5.1.1 Voltage measurements .................................................................................. 14

5.1.2 Current measurements .................................................................................. 14

5.1.3 Temperature measurements .......................................................................... 14

5.1.4 Time measurements ...................................................................................... 14

5.2 Test object considerations .................................................................................... 14

5.3 Test object battery selection and size considerations ............................................ 15

5.4 Test plan ............................................................................................................... 16

6 Battery endurance ......................................................................................................... 20

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 20

6.2 Test for endurance in frequency-regulation service ............................................... 20

6.3 Test for endurance in load-following service ......................................................... 25

6.4 Test for endurance in peak-power shaving service ................................................ 28

6.5 Test for endurance in photovoltaic energy storage, time-shift service .................... 30

7 Battery properties and electrical performance ................................................................ 33

7.1 Declaration of the system properties ..................................................................... 33

7.2 Determination of energy content at +25 °C ambient temperature ........................... 36

7.3 Determination of the energy efficiency during endurance tests at +25 °C

ambient temperature ............................................................................................. 36

7.4 Determination of the energy efficiency during endurance tests at the

minimum and maximum ambient temperature ....................................................... 38

7.5 Determination of waste heat generated during endurance tests at the

maximum ambient temperature ............................................................................. 42

7.6 Determination of energy requirements during periods of idle state at +25 °C

ambient temperature ............................................................................................. 44

Annex A (informative) Battery-related hazards ..................................................................... 47

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 47

A.2 Examples .............................................................................................................. 47

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 49

Figure 1 – Boundary of the full-sized battery (FSB) ............................................................... 15

Figure 2 – Two-step selection process of the test object battery (TOB) ................................. 16

Figure 3 – Workflow for the determination of endurance properties and electrical

performance of the TOB as governed by the sequence of test data generation within

6.2 to 6.5 .............................................................................................................................. 17

Figure 4 – Sequence of performance tests carried out with TOB 1 within an endurance

test 6.x ................................................................................................................................. 17

Figure 5 – Workflow and decision tree for endurance tests 6.2 through 6.5 ........................... 19

Figure 6 – Frequency regulation service test routine profile (6.2) – Profile a ......................... 22

Figure 7 – Frequency regulation service test routine profile (6.2) – Profile b ......................... 22

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SIST EN 61427-2:2016
IEC 61427-2:2015 © IEC 2015 – 3 –

Figure 8 – Frequency regulation service test routine profile (6.2) – Profile c ......................... 23

Figure 9 – Schematic view of the evolution of battery voltage over time during cycling

with constant power discharge and charge pulses ................................................................. 24

Figure 10 – Load-following service test routine profile (6.3) – Profile a ................................. 26

Figure 11 – Load-following service test routine profile (6.3) – Profile b ................................. 27

Figure 12 – Load-following service test routine profile (6.3) – Profile c .................................. 27

Figure 13 – Daily peak-power shaving service test routine profile (6.4) ................................. 29

Figure 14 – Daily photovoltaic energy storage time-shift service test routine (6.5) –

3 kW .................................................................................................................................... 32

Figure 15 – Daily photovoltaic energy storage time-shift service test routine (6.5) –

30 kW ................................................................................................................................... 32

Figure 16 – Schematic view of the location of the two sets of energy values (energy to

auxiliaries and energy to and from TOB) to be used for the determination of the

energy storage efficiency factor η ......................................................................................... 37

Figure 17 – Schematic view of the location of the two sets of energy values (energy to

auxiliaries and energy to and from battery) to be used for the determination of the

amount of waste heat generated ........................................................................................... 43

Figure 18 – Schematic view of the location of the two sets of energy values (energy to

auxiliaries and energy to battery) to be used for the determination of the energy

requirements during periods of idle state of the battery ......................................................... 45

Table 1 – Summary of endurance test related electrical property data of the full-sized

(FSB) and the test object (TOB) battery ................................................................................ 34

Table 2 – Summary of physical dimension data of the full-sized battery (FSB) ...................... 35

Table 3 – Summary description of the full-sized battery (FSB) .............................................. 35

Table 4 – Summary description of the test-object battery (TOB) ............................................ 35

Table 5 – Summary of the constant power discharge performance of the TOB at an

ambient temperature of +25 °C ± 3 K .................................................................................... 36

Table 6 – Summary of energy efficiencies determined in endurance tests at an

ambient temperature of +25 °C ± 3 K .................................................................................... 38

Table 7 – Summary of energy efficiencies determined in endurance cycle tests at the

minimum and maximum ambient temperature ....................................................................... 40

Table 8 – Parameters to achieve and maintain the target operational state of charge,

SoC , during tests at the minimum ambient temperature .................................................... 41

Table 9 – Parameters to achieve and maintain the target operational state of charge,

SoC , during tests at the maximum ambient temperature ................................................... 42

Table 10 – Summary of energy released as heat during endurance tests at the

maximum ambient temperature ............................................................................................. 44

Table 11 – Summary of energy required during idle state periods at +25 °C ± 3 K

ambient temperature ............................................................................................................. 46

Table A.1 – Non-exhaustive listing of potential battery-related hazards to be taken in

consideration in risk assessment activities ............................................................................ 47

Table A.2 – Non-exhaustive listing of potential installation-related hazards to be taken

in consideration in risk assessment activities ........................................................................ 48

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SIST EN 61427-2:2016
– 4 – IEC 61427-2:2015 © IEC 2015
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SECONDARY CELLS AND BATTERIES
FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY STORAGE –
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS AND METHODS OF TEST –
Part 2: On-grid applications
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 61427-2 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 21:

Secondary cells and batteries.

A list of all parts in the IEC 61427 series, published under the general title Secondary cells

and batteries for renewable energy storage – General requirements and methods of test, can

be found on the IEC website.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN 61427-2:2016
IEC 61427-2:2015 © IEC 2015 – 5 –
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
21/862/FDIS 21/863/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN 61427-2:2016
– 6 – IEC 61427-2:2015 © IEC 2015
SECONDARY CELLS AND BATTERIES
FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY STORAGE –
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS AND METHODS OF TEST
Part 2: On-grid applications
1 Scope

This part of IEC 61427 relates to secondary batteries used in on-grid Electrical Energy

Storage (EES) applications and provides the associated methods of test for the verification of

their endurance, properties and electrical performance in such applications. The test methods

are essentially battery chemistry neutral, i.e. applicable to all secondary battery types.

On-grid applications are characterized by the fact that batteries are connected, via power

conversion devices, to a regional or nation- or continent-wide electricity grid and act as

instantaneous energy sources and sinks to stabilize the grid’s performance when randomly

major amounts of electrical energy from renewable energy sources are fed into it.

Related power conversion and interface equipment is not covered by this part of IEC 61427.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and

are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any
amendments) applies.
None.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
accuracy

quality which characterizes the ability of a measuring instrument to provide an indicated value

close to a true value of the quantity to be measured
Note 1 to entry: This term is used in the “true” value approach.

Note 2 to entry: Accuracy is better when the indicated value is closer to the corresponding true value.

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-311:2001, 311-06-08]
3.2
accuracy class

category of measuring instruments, all of which are intended to comply with a set of

specifications regarding uncertainty
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-311:2001, 311-06-09]
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SIST EN 61427-2:2016
IEC 61427-2:2015 © IEC 2015 – 7 –
3.3
ambient temperature

average temperature of the air or another medium in the vicinity of the equipment

Note 1 to entry - During the measurement of the ambient temperature the measuring instrument/probe should be

shielded from draughts and radiant heating.
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-826:2004, 826-10-03]
3.4
maximum ambient temperature

highest ambient temperature at which the battery is operable and

should perform according to specified requirements

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-426:2008, 426-20-17, modified — In the definition, “trace heating” has

been replaced with “battery”.]
3.5
minimum ambient temperature

lowest ambient temperature at which the battery is operable and

should perform according to specified requirements

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-426:2008, 426-20-20, modified — In the definition, “trace heating” has

been replaced with “battery”.]
3.6
ampere hour

quantity of electrical charge obtained by integrating the current in amperes with respect to

time in hours

Note 1 to entry: The SI unit for electric charge is the coulomb (1 C = 1 As) but in practice it is usually expressed

in ampere hours (Ah).
3.7
battery

two or more cells fitted with devices necessary for use, for example case, terminals, marking

and protective devices

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-01-04, modified — In the definition, “one” has been

replaced with “two”.]
3.8
battery management system
BMS
battery management unit
BMU

electronic system associated with a battery which monitors and/or manages its state,

calculates secondary data, reports that data and/or controls its environment to influence the

battery’s performance and/or service life

Note 1 to entry: The function of the battery management system can be fully or partially assigned to the battery

pack and/or to equipment that uses this battery.

Note 2 to entry: A battery management system is also called a "battery management unit" (BMU).

Note 3 to entry: This note applies to the French language only.
Note 4 to entry: This note applies to the French language only.
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN 61427-2:2016
– 8 – IEC 61427-2:2015 © IEC 2015
3.9
idle state

state of a battery which is fully functional but not actively delivering or

absorbing energy

Note 1 to entry: Such a system can deliver and absorb energy on demand with a reaction time as required by the

application.

Note 2 to entry: The reaction time can vary from a few milliseconds to a few seconds.

3.10
battery support system
BSS

group of interconnected and interactive parts that perform an essential task as a component

of a battery system

Note 1 to entry: Such systems are for example electrolyte storage tanks and circulation pumps, cooling and

heating devices, exhaust gas abatement systems, fire extinguishers, spill catchment systems, safety barriers, racks

and similar facilities.
Note 2 to entry: This note applies to the French language only.
3.11
capacity

quantity of electric charge which a cell or battery can deliver under

specified discharge conditions

Note 1 to entry: The SI unit for electric charge, or quantity of electricity, is the coulomb (1 C = 1 As) but in

practice, capacity is usually expressed in ampere hours (Ah).

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-03-14, modified — In the definition, “quantity of” has

been added.]
3.12
charging

operation during which a secondary battery is supplied with electric energy

from an external circuit which results in chemical changes within the cell and thus the storage

of energy as chemical energy

Note 1 to entry: A charge operation is defined by its maximum voltage, current, duration and other conditions as

specified by the manufacturer.

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-05-27, modified — Note 1 to entry has been added.]

3.13
constant power charge

operation in which the charge power input, i.e. the product of charge current

and charge voltage, is held constant and where the current and voltage freely adjust

according to polarization effects of the battery
3.14
discharge

operation by which a battery delivers, to an external electric circuit and under specified

conditions, electric energy produced in the cells
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-03-23]
3.15
constant power discharge

operation in which the discharge power output, i.e. the product of discharge

current and discharge voltage, is held constant and where the current and voltage freely

adjust according to polarization effects of the battery
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST EN 61427-2:2016
IEC 61427-2:2015 © IEC 2015 – 9 –
3.16
electrolyte
substance containing mobile ions that render it ionically conductive
Note 1 to entry: The electrolyte may be a liquid, solid or a gel.
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-02-29]
3.17
endurance

numerically defined performance during a given test simulating specified

conditions of service
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-03-44]
3.18
endurance test

test carried out over a time interval to investigate how the properties are

affected by the application of stated stresses and by their time duration or repeated

application

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-151:2001, 151-16-22, modified — “” has been added

before the definition and “of an item” has been deleted from the definition.]
3.19
energy
energy which a battery delivers under specified conditions

Note 1 to entry: The SI unit for energy is the joule (1 J = 1 Ws) but in practice, energy of a battery is usually

expressed in watt hours (Wh) (1 Wh = 3 600 J).

Note 2 to entry: Such energy content is generally determined with a constant power (W) discharge.

Note 3 to entry: k or M are unit prefixes in the metric system denoting multiplication of the unit by one thousand

(k) or one million (M).

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-03-21, modified —Notes 2 and 3 to entry have been

added.]
3.20
actual energy

energy content value, determined experimentally at a defined instant of time

with a constant power discharge at a specified rate to a specified final voltage and at a

specified temperature

Note 1 to entry: This value is expressed in watt hours (Wh) and varies over the operational cycle or life of the

battery.
3.21
final voltage
end-of-discharge voltage
cut-off voltage
end-point-voltage
final

specified voltage of a battery at which the battery discharge is terminated

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-03-30]
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SIST EN 61427-2:2016
– 10 – IEC 61427-2:2015 © IEC 2015
3.22
flow cell

secondary cell characterized by the spatial separation of the electrode from the fluid volumes

which contain active materials
Note 1 to entry: The fluids, consisting of liquids, solutions, suspe
...

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