Photovoltaic devices - Part 10: Methods of linearity measurement

Describes procedures used to determine the degree of linearity of any photovoltaic device parameter with respect to a test parameter.

Photovoltaische Einrichtungen - Teil 10: Messverfahren für die Linearität

Dispositifs photovoltaïques - Partie 10: Méthodes de mesure de la linéarité

Décrit des procédures pour déterminer le degré de linéarité d'un quelconque paramère d'essai du dispositif photovoltaïque par rapport à un paramètre d'essai.

Fotonapetostne naprave - 10. del: Metode merjenja linearnosti

Ta del IEC 60904 opisuje postopke, uporabljene za določanje stopnje linearnosti vsakega parametra fotonapetostne naprave v zvezi s preskusnim parametrom. Predvsem je namenjen uporabi v laboratorijih za umerjanje, uporabljajo ga proizvajalci modulov in načrtovalci sistemov. Ocenjevanje fotonapetostnega modula (PV) in delovanja sistema ter prevod delovanja iz enega sklopa temperature in obsevanja v drugega, se pogosto zanaša na uporabo linearnih enačb (glej IEC 60891 in IEC 61829). Ta standard predpisuje linearne zahteve in preskusne metode za zagotavljanje, da bodo te linearne enačbe podale zadovoljive rezultate. Posredno te zahteve narekujejo temperaturni razpon in spremenljivke obsevanja, pri katerih se lahko enačbe uporabljajo. Metode merjenja, opisane v tem standardu, veljajo za vse naprave PV in so namenjene izvajanju na vzorcu ali na primerljivi napravi identične tehnologije. Izvedene morajo biti pred vsemi meritvami in postopki korekcije, ki zahtevajo linearno napravo. Metodologija, uporabljena v tem standardu, je podobna tisti, določeni v IEC 60891, pri kateri je linearna funkcija (ravna črta) priključena sklopu podatkovnih točk, ki uporabljajo rutinska izračunavanja z najmanjšimi kvadrati. Variacija podatkov iz te funkcije je prav tako izračunana, definicija linearnosti pa je izražena kot dopustni odstotek variacije.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
11-Mar-2010
Drafting Committee
Parallel Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Due Date
12-Mar-2010
Completion Date
12-Mar-2010

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 60904-10:2011
01-marec-2011
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 60904-10:2001
Fotonapetostne naprave - 10. del: Metode merjenja linearnosti
Photovoltaic devices -- Part 10: Methods of linearity measurement
Photovoltaische Einrichtungen -- Teil 10: Meßverfahren für die Linearität
Dispositifs photovoltaïques -- Partie 10: Méthodes de mesure de la linéarité
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 60904-10:2010
ICS:
27.160 6RQþQDHQHUJLMD Solar energy engineering
SIST EN 60904-10:2011 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 60904-10:2011
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 60904-10:2011
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 60904-10
NORME EUROPÉENNE
March 2010
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 27.160 Supersedes EN 60904-10:1998
English version
Photovoltaic devices -
Part 10: Methods of linearity measurement
(IEC 60904-10:2009)
Dispositifs photovoltaïques - Photovoltaische Einrichtungen -
Partie 10: Méthodes de mesure Teil 10: Messverfahren für die Linearität
de la linéarité (IEC 60904-10:2009)
(CEI 60904-10:2009)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2010-03-01. CENELEC members are bound to comply

with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard

the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on

application to the Central Secretariat or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified

to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus,

the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia,

Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
CENELEC
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
Central Secretariat: Avenue Marnix 17, B - 1000 Brussels

© 2010 CENELEC - All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC members.

Ref. No. EN 60904-10:2010 E
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SIST EN 60904-10:2011
EN 60904-10:2010 - 2 -
Foreword

The text of document 82/582/FDIS, future edition 2 of IEC 60904-10, prepared by IEC TC 82, Solar

photovoltaic energy systems, was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and was approved by

CENELEC as EN 60904-10 on 2010-03-01.
This European Standard supersedes EN 60904-10:1998.
The main technical changes with regard to the EN 60904-10:1998 are as follows:
– Added clause for two-lamp method for Isc linearity.

– Changed standard deviation as a metric for linearity to percent deviation from linearity. This was done

because a non-linear device can have a low standard deviation and percent deviation is the

quantitative number that matters for the parameter of interest.

– Removed clause on spectral responsivity nonlinearity because it is not used by any PV

testing / calibration group. For testing real PV devices it is difficult to make this error significant in the

spectral mismatch correction factor while still passing Isc linearity. Measuring the responsivity over the

entire response range means that the device will probably fail the temperature linearity near the band

edge.

– Added a clause to allow short circuit linearity with temperature or total irradiance to be determined

from absolute spectral responsivity measurements. This data is routinely reported in PTB primary

reference cell calibration certificates.
– Added report clause in compliance with ISO/IEC 17025 requirements.

– Often the temperature coefficient of short circuit current is very small so measurement errors can

result in percent deviations outside the accepted range. Therefore, the following text was added to

7.3c): “If the temperature coefficient of short circuit current is less than 0,1 %/K, then the device can

be considered linear with respect to this parameter.”

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN and CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.
The following dates were fixed:
– latest date by which the EN has to be implemented
at national level by publication of an identical
national standard or by endorsement (dop) 2010-12-01
– latest date by which the national standards conflicting
with the EN have to be withdrawn (dow) 2013-03-01
Annex ZA has been added by CENELEC.
__________
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 60904-10:2009 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards indicated:

IEC 60904-7 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60904-7.
IEC 61829 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61829.
__________
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN 60904-10:2011
- 3 - EN 60904-10:2010
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE When an international publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant EN/HD

applies.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60891 - Photovoltaic devices - Procedures for EN 60891 -
temperature and irradiance corrections to
measured I-V characteristics
IEC 60904-1 - Photovoltaic devices - EN 60904-1 -
Part 1: Measurement of photovoltaic current-
voltage characteristics
IEC 60904-3 - Photovoltaic devices - EN 60904-3 -
Part 3: Measurement principles for terrestrial
photovoltaic (PV) solar devices with reference
spectral irradiance data
IEC 60904-8 - Photovoltaic devices - EN 60904-8 -
Part 8: Measurement of spectral response
of a photovoltaic (PV) device
IEC 60904-9 - Photovoltaic devices - EN 60904-9 -
Part 9: Solar simulator performance
requirements
IEC 61215 - Crystalline silicon terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) EN 61215 -
modules - Design qualification and type
approval
IEC 61646 - Thin-film terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) EN 61646 -
modules - Design qualification and type
approval
ISO/IEC 17025 - General requirements for the competence of EN ISO/IEC 17025 -
testing and calibration laboratories
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SIST EN 60904-10:2011
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SIST EN 60904-10:2011
IEC 60904-10
Edition 2.0 2009-12
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Photovoltaic devices –
Part 10: Methods of linearity measurement
Dispositifs photovoltaïques –
Partie 10: Méthodes de mesure de la linéarité
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
PRICE CODE
INTERNATIONALE
CODE PRIX
ICS 27.160 ISBN 978-2-88910-325-6
® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 60904-10:2011
– 2 – 60904-10 © IEC:2009
CONTENTS

FOREWORD...........................................................................................................................3

1 Scope and object ..............................................................................................................5

2 Normative references........................................................................................................5

3 Apparatus.........................................................................................................................6

4 Sample selection ..............................................................................................................6

5 Procedure for current and voltage linearity test..................................................................6

5.1 Procedure in natural sunlight ...................................................................................6

5.2 Procedure with a solar simulator ..............................................................................8

5.3 Procedure for short-circuit linearity from absolute spectral responsivity ....................9

6 Procedure for short-circuit current linearity from two-lamp method.....................................9

6.1 Background .............................................................................................................9

6.2 Apparatus - Light sources A and B ...........................................................................9

6.3 General procedure...................................................................................................9

7 Linearity calculation ........................................................................................................10

7.1 Slope linearity determination..................................................................................10

7.2 Determination of the short circuit current linearity using the two lamp method.........11

7.3 Linearity requirements ...........................................................................................11

8 Report ............................................................................................................................11

Bibliography ..........................................................................................................................13

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN 60904-10:2011
60904-10 © IEC:2009 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
___________
PHOTOVOLTAIC DEVICES –
Part 10: Methods of linearity measurement
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

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governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60904-10 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 82: Solar

photovoltaic energy systems.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 1998 and constitutes a

technical revision.
The main technical changes with regard to the previous edition are as follows:
a) Added clause for two-lamp method for I linearity.

b) Changed standard deviation as a metric for linearity to percent deviation from linearity. This

was done because a non-linear device can have a low standard deviation and percent

deviation is the quantitative number that matters for the parameter of interest.

c) Removed clause on spectral responsivity nonlinearity because it is not used by any PV

testing / calibration group. For testing real PV devices it is difficult to make this error

significant in the spectral mismatch correction factor while still passing I linearity.

Measuring the responsivity over the entire response range means that the device will

probably fail the temperature linearity near the band edge.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN 60904-10:2011
– 4 – 60904-10 © IEC:2009

d) Added a clause to allow short circuit linearity with temperature or total irradiance to be

determined from absolute spectral responsivity measurements. This data is routinely

reported in PTB primary reference cell calibration certificates.
e) Added report clause in compliance with ISO/IEC 17025 requirements.

f) Often the temperature coefficient of short circuit current is very small so measurement

errors can result in percent deviations outside the accepted range. Therefore, the following

text was added to 7.3c): “If the temperature coefficient of short circuit current is less than

0,1 %/K, then the device can be considered linear with respect to this parameter.”

The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on Voting
82/582/FDIS 82/589/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard report can be found in the report

on voting indicated in the above table.

A list of all parts of IEC 60904 series, under the general title Photovoltaic devices, can be

found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until the

maintenance result date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
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SIST EN 60904-10:2011
60904-10 © IEC:2009 – 5 –
PHOTOVOLTAIC DEVICES –
Part 10: Methods of linearity measurement
1 Scope and object

This part of IEC 60904 describes procedures used to determine the degree of linearity of any

photovoltaic device parameter with respect to a test parameter. It is primarily intended for use

by calibration laboratories, module manufacturers and system designers.

Photovoltaic (PV) module and system performance evaluations, and performance translations

from one set of temperature and irradiance conditions to another frequently rely on the use of

linear equations (see IEC 60891 and IEC 61829). This standard lays down the linearity

requirements and test methods to ensure that these linear equations will give satisfactory

results. Indirectly, these requirements dictate the range of the temperature and irradiance

variables over which the equations can be used.

The methods of measurement described in this standard apply to all PV devices and are

intended to be carried out on a sample or on a comparable device of identical technology. They

should be performed prior to all measurement and correction procedures that require a linear

device. The methodology used in this standard is similar to that specified in IEC 60891 in which

a linear (straight-line) function is fitted to a set of data points using a least-squares fit

calculation routine. The variation of the data from this function is also calculated, and the

definition of linearity is expressed as an allowable variation percentage.
A device is considered linear when it meets the requirements of 7.3.

General procedures for determining the degree of linearity for these and any other performance

parameter are described in Clauses 5 and 6.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For

dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of

the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

IEC 60891, Photovoltaic devices – Procedures for temperature and irradiance corrections to

measured I-V characteristics

IEC 60904-1, Photovoltaic devices – Part 1: Measurement of photovoltaic current-voltage

characteristics

IEC 60904-3, Photovoltaic devices – Part 3: Measurement principles for terrestrial photovoltaic

(PV) solar devices with reference spectral irradiance data

IEC 60904-8, Photovoltaic devices – Part 8: Measurement of spectral response of a

photovoltaic (PV) device

IEC 60904-9, Photovoltaic devices – Part 9: Solar simulator performance requirements

IEC 61215, Crystalline silicon terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules – Design qualification and

type approval
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SIST EN 60904-10:2011
– 6 – 60904-10 © IEC:2009

IEC 61646, Thin-film terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules – Design qualification and t

...

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