High voltage direct current (HVDC) substation audible noise

IEC/TS 61973:2012(E) applies to the specification and evaluation of outdoor audible noise from high voltage direct current (HVDC) substations. It is intended to be primarily for the use of the utilities and consultants who are responsible for issuing technical specifications for new HVDC projects with and evaluating designs proposed by prospective contractors. It is primarily intended for HVDC projects with line-commutated converters. Part of this technical specification can also be used for the same purpose for HVDC projects using voltage sourced converters, and for flexible a.c. transmission systems (FACTS) devices such as static Var compensators (SVCs) and static synchronous compensators (STATCOMs).

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
04-Apr-2012
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
05-Apr-2012
Completion Date
05-Apr-2012
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IEC TS 61973:2012 - High voltage direct current (HVDC) substation audible noise
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IEC/TS 61973
Edition 1.0 2012-04
TECHNICAL
SPECIFICATION
colour
inside
High voltage direct current (HVDC) substation audible noise
IEC/TS 61973:2012(E)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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IEC/TS 61973
Edition 1.0 2012-04
TECHNICAL
SPECIFICATION
colour
inside
High voltage direct current (HVDC) substation audible noise
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
PRICE CODE
ICS 29.240.10; 29.240.99 ISBN 978-2-8322-0077-3

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – TS 61973 © IEC:2012(E)
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................... 9

2 Normative references ....................................................................................................... 9

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................... 10

3.1 Sound and noise terms .......................................................................................... 10

3.2 Sound radiation terms ........................................................................................... 14

3.3 Acoustic fields ....................................................................................................... 16

4 Environmental influences ................................................................................................ 16

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 16

4.2 Directivity of sound radiation ................................................................................. 16

4.3 Background noise .................................................................................................. 17

4.4 Topography ........................................................................................................... 19

4.5 Meteorological conditions ...................................................................................... 20

5 Noise level limits ............................................................................................................ 21

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 21

5.2 Regulations ........................................................................................................... 22

5.2.1 Noise level limits ....................................................................................... 22

5.2.2 Noise level measurement .......................................................................... 22

5.3 Land-use classifications ........................................................................................ 22

5.4 Location of required performance limits ................................................................. 23

5.4.1 General ..................................................................................................... 23

5.4.2 At the fence surrounding the HVDC substation or at the border of the

substation owner’s property ....................................................................... 23

5.4.3 At the given contour away from the HVDC substation (e.g. on a circle

perimeter or beyond a property border line) ............................................... 23

5.4.4 At the border of a nearby property ............................................................. 23

5.5 Relationship of performance limits to time duration................................................ 24

5.6 Typical noise performance limits ........................................................................... 24

5.6.1 General ..................................................................................................... 24

5.6.2 Specific A-weighted sound pressure levels ................................................ 24

5.6.3 Maximum allowable increase over background noise levels ....................... 24

6 Sound emitting sources .................................................................................................. 25

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 25

6.2 Converter transformer ........................................................................................... 25

6.2.1 Noise sources in a converter transformer .................................................. 25

6.2.2 Comparison with a.c. power transformers .................................................. 26

6.2.3 Special features of HVDC converter transformers ...................................... 26

6.2.4 Transformer winding noise......................................................................... 27

6.3 Reactors ............................................................................................................... 28

6.3.1 Type and design of HVDC reactors ............................................................ 28

6.3.2 Mechanism of sound generation ................................................................ 28

6.3.3 AC filter reactors ....................................................................................... 33

6.3.4 HVDC smoothing reactors ......................................................................... 34

6.3.5 Self-tuned filter reactors ............................................................................ 35

6.4 Capacitors ............................................................................................................. 36

6.4.1 Type and design of capacitors ................................................................... 36

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TS 61973 © IEC:2012(E) – 3 –

6.4.2 Mechanism of sound generation ................................................................ 36

6.5 Cooling fans .......................................................................................................... 39

6.6 Other sound-emitting sources ................................................................................ 40

6.6.1 Switching devices ...................................................................................... 40

6.6.2 Synchronous compensators ....................................................................... 41

6.6.3 Diesel generators ...................................................................................... 41

6.6.4 Air conditioning plant ................................................................................. 41

6.6.5 Cooling circuit pumps ................................................................................ 41

6.6.6 Converter valves ....................................................................................... 41

6.6.7 Air compressors ........................................................................................ 42

6.6.8 Corona sources ......................................................................................... 42

6.7 Typical sound power levels of sound emitting sources ........................................... 42

7 Sound reduction measures ............................................................................................. 42

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 42

7.2 Substation layout ................................................................................................... 43

7.2.1 General ..................................................................................................... 43

7.2.2 Transformers and tanked reactors ............................................................. 43

7.2.3 Air-cored reactors ...................................................................................... 43

7.2.4 Capacitors ................................................................................................. 44

7.2.5 Cooling fans .............................................................................................. 44

7.2.6 Diesel generators ...................................................................................... 44

7.2.7 Switching devices ...................................................................................... 44

7.2.8 Air conditioning plant ................................................................................. 44

7.2.9 Corona sources ......................................................................................... 44

7.2.10 Synchronous compensators ....................................................................... 44

7.3 Component design ................................................................................................ 45

7.3.1 General ..................................................................................................... 45

7.3.2 Transformers and tanked reactors ............................................................. 45

7.3.3 Air-cored reactors ...................................................................................... 45

7.3.4 Capacitors ................................................................................................. 45

7.3.5 Cooling fans .............................................................................................. 46

7.3.6 Pumps and diesel generators .................................................................... 46

7.3.7 Switching devices ...................................................................................... 46

7.3.8 Air-conditioning plant ................................................................................. 46

7.3.9 High voltage connections ........................................................................... 46

7.4 Sound enclosures .................................................................................................. 46

7.4.1 General ..................................................................................................... 46

7.4.2 Transformers and tanked-reactors ............................................................. 46

7.4.3 Air-cored reactors ...................................................................................... 47

7.4.4 Capacitors ................................................................................................. 47

7.5 Retrofitable techniques .......................................................................................... 48

7.5.1 Enclosures ................................................................................................ 48

7.5.2 Damping .................................................................................................... 48

7.5.3 Active noise and vibration mitigation .......................................................... 48

8 Operating conditions ...................................................................................................... 48

8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 48

8.2 Normal operating conditions .................................................................................. 49

8.3 Exceptional operating conditions ........................................................................... 50

8.4 Operating conditions specified for verification........................................................ 51

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– 4 – TS 61973 © IEC:2012(E)

9 Sound level prediction .................................................................................................... 51

9.1 General ................................................................................................................. 51

9.2 Modelling of plant .................................................................................................. 52

9.2.1 General ..................................................................................................... 52

9.2.2 Layout ....................................................................................................... 52

9.2.3 Source ....................................................................................................... 52

9.2.4 Transmission path ..................................................................................... 52

9.3 Calculation procedure ........................................................................................... 53

9.3.1 Sequence of calculation............................................................................. 53

9.3.2 Calculation of attenuation terms ................................................................ 55

9.3.3 Results presentation .................................................................................. 59

10 Verification of component sound power .......................................................................... 61

10.1 General ................................................................................................................. 61

10.2 Calculation ............................................................................................................ 61

10.2.1 General ..................................................................................................... 61

10.2.2 Calculation of force spectrum .................................................................... 62

10.2.3 Transfer function calculation ...................................................................... 62

10.2.4 Sound power calculation ............................................................................ 63

10.3 Measurement ........................................................................................................ 64

10.3.1 General aspects on sound power determination......................................... 64

10.3.2 Sound pressure measurement ................................................................... 66

10.3.3 Corrections for background noise .............................................................. 67

10.3.4 Sound intensity measurement .................................................................... 67

10.4 Combination of calculation and measurement ........................................................ 69

10.4.1 General ..................................................................................................... 69

10.4.2 Verification of key components .................................................................. 69

10.4.3 Verification of key components at site ........................................................ 69

11 Verification of sound levels from the HVDC substation ................................................... 70

11.1 General ................................................................................................................. 70

11.2 Acoustic environment ............................................................................................ 71

11.3 Conditions for verification ...................................................................................... 71

11.4 Calculation ............................................................................................................ 71

11.5 Measurement ........................................................................................................ 72

11.6 Combination of calculation and measurement ........................................................ 72

12 Parameters to be specified ............................................................................................. 74

12.1 General ................................................................................................................. 74

12.2 Noise level measurement ...................................................................................... 74

12.3 Data to be presented by customers, or to be investigated by contractors ............... 74

12.3.1 Land-use classification, noise regulation and limits .................................... 74

12.3.2 Environmental condition ............................................................................ 75

12.3.3 Operation condition of HVDC substation .................................................... 77

12.4 Data to be clarified by contractors ......................................................................... 77

12.4.1 Noise of components ................................................................................. 77

12.4.2 Noise prediction of the HVDC substation ................................................... 77

12.4.3 Noise measurement on the site ................................................................. 78

Annex A (normative) Procedure to correct for background noise in HVDC and SVC

plants ................................................................................................................................... 79

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 82

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TS 61973 © IEC:2012(E) – 5 –

Figure 1 – Spherical spreading in a free-field from a point source ......................................... 17

Figure 2 – Hemispherical spreading from a point source ....................................................... 18

Figure 3 – Quarter-spherical spreading from a point source .................................................. 18

Figure 4 – Explanation of specific and background noise ...................................................... 19

Figure 5 – Example of reflecting hill and low ground. ............................................................ 19

Figure 6 – Example of sound refraction with the shown wind gradient ................................... 20

Figure 7 – Sound travels faster near the ground ................................................................... 21

Figure 8 – Sound travels slower near the ground .................................................................. 21

Figure 9 – Dry-type air-core reactor ...................................................................................... 29

Figure 10 – Magnetic field of an air-core reactor winding ...................................................... 30

Figure 11 – Simplified shape of the symmetrical breathing mode of a reactor winding .......... 31

Figure 12 – Example of flexural modes (bending modes) for a simply supported

winding layer without axial constraint .................................................................................... 32

Figure 13 – Example of spectrum of currents through a.c. filter reactor ................................. 33

Figure 14 – Example of spectrum of forces acting on the reactor winding ............................ 34

Figure 15 – Example of spectrum of currents through an HVDC smoothing reactor .............. 34

Figure 16 – Example of spectrum of forces acting on the reactor winding ............................ 35

Figure 17 – Reactor for self-tuned filter applications ............................................................. 35

Figure 18 – Capacitor element package with capacitor elements .......................................... 36

Figure 19 – Forces in a capacitor element ............................................................................ 37

Figure 20 – Example of spectrum of voltages across the capacitor ....................................... 38

Figure 21 – Example of spectrum of electrostatic forces in a capacitor.................................. 39

Figure 22 – Explanation of AC network harmonics and converter harmonics ......................... 50

Figure 23 – Examples of transmission paths from source to receiver .................................... 53

Figure 24 – Grouping of point sources to one equivalent source if the measurement

distance (r) is larger than 2a ................................................................................................. 54

Figure 25 – Definition of geometrical parameters used for calculation of screening ............... 56

Figure 26 – Reflecting obstacles are treated by mirror sources ............................................. 57

Figure 27 – Definition of parts for calculation of ground attenuation ...................................... 57

Figure 28 – Definition of parameters used in Equation 38 ..................................................... 59

Figure 29 – Example of graphical presentation of sound pressure level calculation .............. 60

Figure 30 – Three steps to determine the sound power of HVDC components ...................... 62

Figure 31 – Linear transfer function between e.g. force and vibration velocity for a

1-DOF system with the resonance frequency 500 Hz ............................................................ 63

Figure 32 – Definitions of the parameters used in Equation (42) ........................................... 67

Figure 33 – Combination of calculation and measurement in determining the sound

pressure level ....................................................................................................................... 72

Figure 34 – Example of layout of noise sources of an HVDC substation ................................ 73

Figure 35 – HVDC substation and example of microphone positions for determination

of sound power levels ........................................................................................................... 73

Figure A.1 – Example of a background correction at 1/24 octave band resolution ................. 80

Table 1 – Examples of component sound power level ........................................................... 42

Table 2 – Normal operating conditions .................................................................................. 50

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– 6 – TS 61973 © IEC:2012(E)

Table 3 – Exceptional operating conditions ........................................................................... 51

Table 4 – Examples of atmospheric attenuation coefficients ................................................. 56

Table 5 – Examples of attenuation coefficient values for octave bands ................................. 59

Table 6 – Groups of noise sources ........................................................................................ 60

Table 7 – Ranking of noise sources ...................................................................................... 61

Table 8 – Vibration force frequency spectrum resulting from the electrical fundamental

frequency 50 Hz and its 11 harmonic .................................................................................. 62

Table 9 – Summary of different methods for sound power determination ............................... 69

Table 10 – Land use classification ........................................................................................ 74

Table 11 – Existence different noise limits at different times ................................................. 75

Table 12 – Existence of noise limits due to further regulation ................................................ 75

Table 13 – Definition of noise limits at different locations ...................................................... 75

Table 14 – Existence of background noise limits at different locations and different

times .................................................................................................................................... 75

Table 15 – Compilation of relevant topographical features .................................................... 76

Table 16 – Compilation of relevant meteorological conditions ............................................... 76

Table 17 – Compilation of further noise related weather conditions ....................................... 76

Table 18 – Existence of additional locations with relevant noise limits .................................. 76

Table 19 – Possibility of future development ......................................................................... 76

Table 20 – Other sources of audible noise ............................................................................ 76

Table 21 – Definition of operating condition during audible noise measurement .................... 77

Table 22 – Further conditions relevant for audible noise measurement ................................. 77

Table 23 – List of audible noise sources to be installed ........................................................ 77

Table 24 – Contents of an audible noise prediction report ..................................................... 78

Table 25 – Contents of an audible noise measurement report ............................................... 78

Table A.1 – Total sound level for the SVC example............................................................... 81

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TS 61973 © IEC:2012(E) – 7 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
______________
HIGH VOLTAGE DIRECT CURRENT (HVDC)
SUBSTATION AUDIBLE NOISE
FOREWORD

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