Additive manufacturing of metals — Non-destructive testing and evaluation — Defect detection in parts

This document categorises additive manufacturing (AM) defects in DED and PBF laser and electron beam category of processes, provides a review of relevant current NDT standards, details NDT methods that are specific to AM and complex 3D geometries and outlines existing non‑destructive testing techniques that are applicable to some AM types of defects. This document is aimed at users and producers of AM processes and it applies, in particular, to the following: — safety critical AM applications; — assured confidence in AM; — reverse engineered products manufactured by AM; — test bodies wishing to compare requested and actual geometries.

Fabrication additive de métaux — Essais et évaluation non destructifs — Détection de défauts dans les pièces

Le présent document catégorise les défauts de fabrication additive (FA) de la catégorie de procédés DED et PBF par laser et faisceau d'électrons, fournit un examen des normes d'END actuelles pertinentes, détaille des méthodes d'END qui sont spécifiques à la FA et aux géométries 3D complexes et définit des techniques d'essais non destructifs existantes qui s'appliquent à certains types de défauts de FA. Le présent document est destiné aux utilisateurs et aux producteurs de procédés de FA et s'applique, en particulier, à ce qui suit: — les applications de FA critiques pour la sécurité; — la confiance assurée dans la FA; — les produits rétroconçus fabriqués par FA; — les organismes d'essai souhaitant comparer les géométries demandées et les géométries réelles.

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ISO/ASTM TR 52905:2023 - Additive manufacturing of metals — Non-destructive testing and evaluation — Defect detection in parts Released:19. 06. 2023
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REPORT 52905
First edition
Additive manufacturing of metals —
Non-destructive testing and evaluation
— Defect detection in parts
Fabrication additive de métaux — Essais et évaluation non destructifs
— Détection de défauts dans les pièces
Reference number
© ISO/ASTM International 2023
© ISO/ASTM International 2023
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© ISO/ASTM International 2023 – All rights reserved

Contents Page
Foreword .v
Introduction . vi
1 Scope . 1
2 Normative references . 1
3 Terms and definitions . 1
4 NDT potential for authentication and/or identification . 2
5 List of abbreviated terms . 3
6 Typical flaws/defects in AM .4
6.1 Flaw origins/causes . 4
6.2 Flaw/defects classification . 4
6.3 Defect classification strategies for AM .12
7 NDT standards review .13
7.1 Post-process NDT standards . 13
7.1.1 ISO review . 13
7.2 In-process NDT review .15
8 Standard selection structure for AM .18
9 NDT techniques potential for AM only defects .19
10 AM artefacts .28
10.1 Design .28
10.1.1 Star artefact .28
10.1.2 À la carte artefact .34
10.2 Manufacturing .36
10.2.1 Star artefact . 36
10.2.2 À la carte artefact . 37
11 NDT method trials and validation using star artefact .38
11.1 Experimental trials .38
11.1.1 X-ray Computed Tomography – XCT (MTC & GE & EWI) .39
11.1.2 Neutron Imaging — NI and Synchrotron radiation — SX (HZB & ESRF) . 43
11.1.3 Thermography Testing — TT (University of Bath) .50
11.1.4 Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy methods — RUS . 59
11.1.5 Ultrasonic testing — UT and Phase Array UT — PAUT (EWI and NIST and
LNE) . 75
11.1.6 Residual stress — RS (ILL) .80
12 Defect built validation star artefact (Cut-off MTC) .85
12.1 Summary of procedure by XCT .85
12.1.1 Apparatus .86
12.1.2 Significance of data/interpretation of results .87
12.2 Summary of procedure by metallography .90
12.2.1 Apparatus . 91
12.2.2 Significance of data/Interpretation of results . 91
12.3 Comments/observations .93
13 NDT trials for à la carte artefact .94
13.1 Summary of procedure .94
13.2 Apparatus .94
13.3 Significance of data/interpretation of results.94
13.4 Comments/observations .97
14 Summary of the trials findings by material .97
15 Main conclusions. 101
© ISO/ASTM International 2023 – All rights reserved

Annex A (informative) Causes and effects of defects in wire DED and PBF process . 104
Annex B (informative) Review of existing NDT standards for welding or casting for
application of post build AM flaws . 106
Annex C (informative) Star artefacts using during the trials . 111
Annex D (informative) Summary of star artefact manufacturing and NDT technologies for
trials . 115
Annex E (informative) XCT parameters and XCT set up used for inspection and validation . 118
Annex F (informative) Parameters and set up for Neutron Image (NI) and Synchrotron (Sx)
inspection . 135
Annex G (informative) Set up for PT and SHT inspection .141
Annex H (informative) Ultrasonic test . 144
Annex I (informative) Residual stress characterisation of Ti6Al4V by Neutron diffraction . 155
Bibliography . 157
© ISO/ASTM International 2023 – All rights reserved

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