Guidance for dosimetry for sterile insects release programs

1.1 This document outlines dosimetric procedures to be followed for the radiation-induced reproductive sterilization of live insects for use in pest management programs. The primary use of such insects is in the Sterile Insect Technique, where large numbers of reproductively sterile insects are released into the field to mate with and thus control pest populations of the same species. A secondary use of sterile insects is as benign hosts for rearing insect parasitoids. A third use is for testing detection traps for fruit flies and moths, and testing mating disruption products for moths. The procedures outlined in this document will help ensure that insects processed with ionizing radiation from gamma, electron, or X-ray sources receive absorbed doses within a predetermined range. Information on effective dose ranges for specific applications of insect sterilization, or on methodology for determining effective dose ranges, is not within the scope of this document. NOTE 1—Dosimetry is only one component of a total quality assurance program to ensure that irradiated insects are adequately sterilized and fully competitive or otherwise suitable for their intended purpose. 1.2 This document provides information on dosimetry for the irradiation of insects for these types of irradiators: selfcontained dry-storage 137Cs or 60Co irradiators, self-contained low-energy X-ray irradiators (maximum processing energies from 150 keV to 300 keV), large-scale gamma irradiators, and electron accelerators (electron and X-ray modes). NOTE 2—Additional, detailed information on dosimetric procedures to be followed in installation qualification, operational qualification, performance qualification, and routine product processing can be found in ISO/ASTM Practices 51608 (X-ray [bremsstrahlung] facilities processing at energies over 300 keV), 51649 (electron beam facilities), 51702 (large-scale gamma facilities), and 52116 (self-contained dry-storage gamma facilities), and in Ref (1)2 (self-contained X-ray facilities). 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard except for the non-SI units of minute (min) hour (h) and day (d). These non-SI units are accepted for use within the SI system. 1.4 This document is one of a set of standards that provides recommendations for properly implementing and utilizing radiation processing. It is intended to be read in conjunction with ISO/ASTM Practice 52628. 1.5 The absorbed dose for insect sterilization is typically within the range of 20 Gy to 600 Gy. 1.6 This document refers, throughout the text, specifically to reproductive sterilization of insects. It is equally applicable to radiation sterilization of invertebrates from other taxa (for example, Acarina, Gastropoda) and to irradiation of live insects or other invertebrates for other purposes (for example, inducing mutations), provided the absorbed dose is within the range specified in 1.5. 1.7 This document also covers the use of radiation-sensitive indicators for the visual and qualitative indication that the insects have been irradiated (see ISO/ASTM Guide 51539). 1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.9 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

Lignes directrices de la dosimétrie pour des programmes de lâchers d’insectes stériles

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
11-Aug-2022
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Due Date
27-Mar-2023
Completion Date
12-Aug-2022
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/ASTM
STANDARD 51940
Fourth edition
2022-08
Guidance for dosimetry for sterile
insects release programs
Lignes directrices de la dosimétrie pour des programmes de lâchers
d’insectes stériles
Reference number
ISO/ASTM 51940:2022(E)
© ISO/ASTM International 2022
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/ASTM 51940:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/ASTM International 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester. In the United States, such requests should be sent to ASTM International.

ISO copyright office ASTM International
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Email: copyright@iso.org Email: khooper@astm.org
Website: www.iso.org Website: www.astm.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO/ASTM International 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/ASTM 51940:2022(E)
Contents Page

1 Scope................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Referenced documents........................................................................................................................ 2

3 Terminology.......................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Significance and use............................................................................................................................ 4

5 Types of facilities and modes of operation.......................................................................................... 4

6 Radiation source characteristics.......................................................................................................... 5

7 Dosimetry systems............................................................................................................................... 6

8 Installation and operational qualification.............................................................................................. 7

9 Performance qualification..................................................................................................................... 8

10 Routine product processing............................................................................................................... 9

11 Measurement uncertainty................................................................................................................. 10

12 Keywords.......................................................................................................................................... 10

Annex...................................................................................................................................................... 11

Table 1 Examples of reference-standard dosimetry systems................................................................ 6

Table 2 Examples of routine dosimetry systems.................................................................................... 7

Table A1.1 Recommended Procedures................................................................................................ 11

© ISO/ASTM International 2022 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/ASTM 51940:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO(theInternationalOrganizationforStandardization)isaworldwidefederationofnationalstandardsbodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are described

in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the different types of

ISO documents should be noted. International Standards are drafted in accordance with the editorial rules of

ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

ASTM International is one of the world’s largest voluntary standards development organizations with global

participation from affected stakeholders. ASTM technical committees follow rigorous due process balloting

procedures.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO and ASTM International shall be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

DetailsofanypatentrightsidentifiedduringthedevelopmentofthedocumentwillbeintheIntroductionand/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

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related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the World trade

Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: www.iso.org/

iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by ASTM Committee E61 Radiation Processing and by Technical Committee

ISO/TC 85, nuclear energy, nuclear technologies and radiological protection.

Thisfourtheditioncancelsandreplacesthethirdedition(ISO/ASTM51940:2013),whichhasbeentechnically

revised.
iv © ISO/ASTM International 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------

This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the

Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

ISO/ASTM 51940:2022(E)
Standard Guidance for
Dosimetry for Sterile Insect Release Programs

This standard is issued under the fixed designation ISO/ASTM 51940; the number immediately following the designation indicates the

year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision.

INTRODUCTION

Thepurposeofthisdocumentistopresentinformationontheuseofionizingenergy(radiation)for

the radiation-induced reproductive sterilization of live insects for use in pest management programs.

This document is intended to serve as a recommendation to be followed when using irradiation

technology where approved by an appropriate regulatory authority. It is not to be construed as a

requirement for the use of irradiation nor as a required code of practice. While the use of irradiation

involves certain essential requirements to attain the objective of the treatment, some parameters can

be varied in optimizing the process.
mance qualification, and routine product processing can be found in
1. Scope
ISO/ASTM Practices 51608 (X-ray [bremsstrahlung] facilities processing
1.1 This document outlines dosimetric procedures to be
at energies over 300 keV), 51649 (electron beam facilities), 51702
followed for the radiation-induced reproductive sterilization of
(large-scale gamma facilities), and 52116 (self-contained dry-storage
gamma facilities), and in Ref (1) (self-contained X-ray facilities).
liveinsectsforuseinpestmanagementprograms.Theprimary
use of such insects is in the Sterile Insect Technique, where
1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as
largenumbersofreproductivelysterileinsectsarereleasedinto
standard. No other units of measurement are included in this
the field to mate with and thus control pest populations of the
standard except for the non-SI units of minute (min) hour (h)
same species. A secondary use of sterile insects is as benign
and day (d).These non-SI units are accepted for use within the
hosts for rearing insect parasitoids. A third use is for testing
SI system.
detection traps for fruit flies and moths, and testing mating
1.4 This document is one of a set of standards that provides
disruption products for moths. The procedures outlined in this
recommendations for properly implementing and utilizing
document will help ensure that insects processed with ionizing
radiation processing. It is intended to be read in conjunction
radiation from gamma, electron, or X-ray sources receive
with ISO/ASTM Practice 52628.
absorbed doses within a predetermined range. Information on
1.5 The absorbed dose for insect sterilization is typically
effective dose ranges for specific applications of insect
within the range of 20 Gy to 600 Gy.
sterilization, or on methodology for determining effective dose
ranges, is not within the scope of this document.
1.6 Thisdocumentrefers,throughoutthetext,specificallyto
NOTE 1—Dosimetry is only one component of a total quality assurance
reproductive sterilization of insects. It is equally applicable to
programtoensurethatirradiatedinsectsareadequatelysterilizedandfully
radiation sterilization of invertebrates from other taxa (for
competitive or otherwise suitable for their intended purpose.
example,Acarina,Gastropoda)andtoirradiationofliveinsects
1.2 This document provides information on dosimetry for
or other invertebrates for other purposes (for example, induc-
the irradiation of insects for these types of irradiators: self-
ing mutations), provided the absorbed dose is within the range
137 60
contained dry-storage Cs or Co irradiators, self-contained
specified in 1.5.
low-energy X-ray irradiators (maximum processing energies
1.7 Thisdocumentalsocoverstheuseofradiation-sensitive
from 150 keV to 300 keV), large-scale gamma irradiators, and
indicators for the visual and qualitative indication that the
electron accelerators (electron and X-ray modes).
insects have been irradiated (see ISO/ASTM Guide 51539).
NOTE 2—Additional, detailed information on dosimetric procedures to
be followed in installation qualification, operational qualification, perfor-
1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the
safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the
responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro-
This document is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee E61 on Radiation
priate safety, health, and environmental practices and deter-
Processing and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E61.04 on Specialty
mine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
Application, and is also under the jurisdiction of ISO/TC 85/WG 3.
Current edition approved May 20, 2022. Published August 2022. Originally
published as ASTM E 1940–98. The present International Standard ISO/ASTM

51940:2022(E) replaces and is a major revision of the last previous edition Theboldfacenumbersinparenthesesrefertothelistofreferencesattheendof

ISO/ASTM 51940:2013(E). this standard.
© ISO/ASTM International 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/ASTM 51940:2022(E)

1.9 This international standard was developed in accor- ISO 12749-4Nuclear energy – Vocabulary – Part 4: Dosim-

dance with internationally recognized principles on standard- etry for radiation processing

ization established in the Decision on Principles for the
2.5 Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology (JCGM)
Development of International Standards, Guides and Recom-
Reports:
mendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical
JCGM 100:2008, GUM 1995, with minor corrections,
Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
Evaluation of measurement data – Guide to the Expres-
sion of Uncertainty in Measurement
2. Referenced documents
JCGM 200:2012, VIMInternational Vocabulary of Metrol-
3 7
2.1 ASTM Standards: ogy – Basic and General Concepts andAssociatedTerms
E3083Terminology Relating to Radiation Processing: Do-
3. Terminology
simetry and Applications
2.2 ISO/ASTM Standards: 3.1 Definitions:

51261Practice for Calibration of Routine Dosimetry Sys- 3.1.1 absorbed dose (D)—quotient of dε¯ by dm, where dε¯ is

tems for Radiation Processing the mean energy imparted by ionizing radiation to matter of

51275Practice for Use of a Radiochromic Film Dosimetry mass dm thus
System
D5 dε¯/dm
51310Practice for Use of a Radiochromic Optical Wave-
3.1.1.1 Discussion—TheSIunitofabsorbeddoseisthegray
guide Dosimetry System
(Gy),where1grayisequivalenttotheabsorptionof1jouleper
51539Guide for Use of Radiation-Sensitive Indicators
kilogram of the specified material (1 Gy=1J/ kg).
51607Practice for Use of an Alanine-EPR Dosimetry Sys-
3.1.2 absorbed-dose mapping—measurement of absorbed-
tem
dose within an irradiated product to produce a one-, two- or
51608PracticeforDosimetryinanX-Ray(Bremsstrahlung)
three-dimensionaldistributionofabsorbeddose,thusrendering
Facility for Radiation Processing at Energies Between 50
a map of absorbed-dose values.
keV and 7.5 MeV
3.1.3 absorbed-dose rate, D—absorbed dose in a material
51649Practice for Dosimetry in an Electron Beam Facility
per incremental time interval, that is, the quotient of dD by dt.
for Radiation Processing at Energies Between 300 keV
Also see ASTM Terminology E3083. The SI unit is Gy·s
and 25 MeV
51702Practice for Dosimetry in a Gamma Facility for
D5 dD/dt
Radiation Processing
3.1.3.1 Discussion—The absorbed-dose rate can be speci-
51707Guide for Estimation of Measurement Uncertainty in
fied in terms of its average value over long-time intervals, for
Dosimetry for Radiation Processing −1 −1
example in units of Gy·min or Gy·h
51956PracticeforUseofaThermoluminescence-Dosimetry
3.1.4 approved laboratory—laboratory that is a recognized
System (TLD System) for Radiation Processing
nationalmetrologyinstitute,orhasbeenformallyaccreditedto
52116Practice for Dosimetry for a Self-Contained Dry-
ISO/IEC 17025, or has a quality system consistent with the
Storage Gamma-Ray Irradiator
requirements of ISO/IEC 17025.
52303Guide forAbsorbed-Dose Mapping in Radiation Pro-
3.1.4.1 Discussion—A recognized national metrology insti-
cessing Facilities
tute or other calibration laboratory accredited to ISO/IEC
52628Practice for Dosimetry in Radiation Processing
17025 should be used in order to ensure traceability to a
52701Guide for Performance Characterization of Dosim-
national or international standard. A calibration certificate
eters and Dosimetry Systems for Use in Radiation Pro-
provided by a laboratory not having formal recognition or
cessing
accreditation will not necessarily be proof of traceability to a
2.3 International Commission on Radiation Units and Mea-
national or international standard.
surements (ICRU) Reports:
3.1.5 calibration [VIM, 6.11]—set of operations that
ICRU Report 80Dosimetry Systems for Use in Radiation
establish, under specified conditions, the relationship between
Processing
values of quantities indicated by a measuring instrument or
ICRU 85aFundamental Units and Quantities for Ionizing
measuringsystem,orvaluesrepresentedbyamaterialmeasure
Radiation
5 or a reference material, and the corresponding values realized
2.4 ISO Standards:
by standards.
ISO/IEC 17025General Requirements for the Competence
3.1.5.1 Discussion—Calibrationconditionsincludeenviron-
of Testing and Calibration Laboratories
mental and irradiation conditions present during irradiation,
storageandmeasurementofthedosimetersthatareusedforthe
For referenced ASTM and ISO/ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website,
www.astm.org, or contact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For

Annual Book of ASTM Standards volume information, refer to the standard’s DocumentproducedbyWorkingGroup1oftheJointCommitteeforMetrology

Document Summary page on the ASTM website. (JCGM/WG 1). Available free of charge at the BIPM website (http://

Available from the International Commission on Radiation Units and www.bipm.org).

Measurements, 7910 Woodmont Ave., Suite 800, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA. DocumentproducedbyWorkingGroup2oftheJointCommitteeforMetrology

Available from International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 1 Rue de (JCGM/WG 2). Available free of charge at the BIPM website (http://

Varembé, Case Postale 56, CH-1211, Geneva 20, Switzerland. www.bipm.org).
© ISO/ASTM International 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/ASTM 51940:2022(E)

generation of a calibration curve. To achieve stable environ- or other durable material. When canisters are used, insects are

mental conditions, it may be necessary to condition the often held secondarily within the canister in a plastic bag or

dosimeters before performing the calibration procedure. other disposable container.

3.1.6 dose uniformity ratio—ratioofmaximumtominimum
3.1.15 irradiator turntable—device used to rotate the
absorbed dose within the irradiated product.
sample during the irradiation process so as to improve dose
3.1.6.1 Discussion—The concept is also referred to as the
uniformity.
max/min dose ratio or DUR.
3.1.15.1 Discussion—An irradiator turntable is often re-
ferred to as a turntable. Some irradiator geometries, for
3.1.7 dosimeter—device that, when irradiated, exhibits a

quantifiable change that can be related to a dosimetric quantity example, with an annular array of radiation sources surround-

ing the product, may not need a turntable.
using appropriate measurement instruments and procedures.
3.1.8 dosimeter batch—quantity of dosimeters made from a
3.1.16 operational qualification (OQ)—processofobtaining
specific mass of material with uniform composition, fabricated
and documenting evidence that installed equipment operates
in a single production run under controlled, consistent condi-
within predetermined limits when used in accordance with its
tions and having a unique identification code.
operational procedures.
3.1.9 dosimeter set—one or more dosimeters used to mea-
3.1.17 performance qualification (PQ)—process of obtain-
suretheabsorbeddoseatalocationandwhoseaveragereading
ing and documenting evidence that the equipment, as installed
is used to determine absorbed dose at that location.
and operated in accordance with operation procedures, consis-
tently performs in accordance with predetermined criteria and
3.1.10 dosimetry system—interrelated elements used for
thereby yields product meeting its specification.
measuring a dosimetric quantity, including dosimeters, instru-
ments and their associated reference standards, and procedures
3.1.18 radiation-sensitive indicator—material such as a
for their use.
coated or impregnated adhesive-backed substrate, ink, coating

3.1.11 influence quantity—quantity that, in a direct or other materials which may be affixed to or printed on the

measurement, does not affect the quantity that is actually product or irradiation container and which undergoes a visual

measured, but affects the relation between the indication and change when exposed to ionizing radiation (see ISO/ASTM

the measurement result. Guide 51539).
3.1.11.1 Discussion—(1) In dosimetry for radiation
3.1.18.1 Discussion—Radiation-sensitive indicators are of-
processing, typical examples of influence quantities include
ten referred to as “indicators.” Indicators may be used to show
radiation type and energy, irradiation temperature, dose rate
that products have been exposed to ionizing radiation. They
and the time interval between irradiation and determination of
can be used to provide a visual and qualitative indication of
the indication of the dosimeter. (2) The dosimeter’s response
radiation exposure and can be used to distinguish between
(e.g. color change) is measured and related to dose via the
irradiated and unirradiated samples. Indicators cannot be used
calibrationcurve.Thedosimeter’ssignalmaybesusceptibleto
as a substitute for proper dosimetry.
the influence quantity, and therefore the interpretation of dose,
3.1.19 reference standard dosimetry system—dosimetry
not the actual dose.
system, generally having the highest metrological quality
3.1.12 in-situ/in-plant calibration—calibration where the
available at a given location or in a given organization, from
dosimeter irradiation is performed in the place of use of the
which measurements made there are derived.
routine dosimeters.
3.1.20 routine dosimetry system—dosimetry system cali-
3.1.12.1 Discussion—In-situ/in-plant calibration of dosim-
brated against a reference standard dosimetry system and used
etry systems refers to irradiation of routine dosimeters along
for routine absorbed-dose measurements, including dose map-
with reference or transfer dosimeters, under operating condi-
ping and process monitoring.
tions that are representative of the routine processing
environment, for the purpose of developing a calibration curve
3.1.21 simulated product—mass of material with absorption

for the routine dosimetry systems. and scattering properties similar to those of the product,

material or substance to be irradiated.
3.1.13 installation qualification—process of obtaining and
3.1.21.1 Discussion—Simulatedproductisusedduringirra-
documenting evidence that equipment has been provided and

installed in accordance with its specification. diator characterization as a substitute for the actual product,

material, or substance to be irradiated. When used in routine
3.1.14 irradiation container—holder in which product is
production runs in order to compensate for the absence of
placed during the irradiation process.
product, it is sometimes referred to as compensating dummy.
3.1.14.1 Discussion—For insect irradiation, the configura-
When used for absorbed-dose mapping, simulated product is
tionofirradiationcontainersvarieswidelywithsuchfactorsas
sometimes referred to as a phantom material.
type and energy of radiation, irradiator design, insect species,

insect stage being irradiated, and other process specifications 3.1.22 traceability—propertyoftheresultofameasurement

(for example, some insects are irradiated in reduced-oxygen or the value of a standard whereby it can be related to stated

atmospheres, requiring air-tight containers). Irradiation con- references, usually national or international standards, through

tainers for insects range from single-use items such as paper an unbroken chain of comparisons all having stated uncertain-

cylinders or plastic bags to reusable canisters of stainless steel ties.
© ISO/ASTM International 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/ASTM 51940:2022(E)

3.1.22.1 Discussion—Theunbrokenchainofcomparisonsis 4.2 Another use of factory-reared insects is in the produc-

called a “traceability chain.” tion of parasitoids for release against populations of insect

pests (4). Parasitoids are insects that spend the larval stage
3.1.23 transfer standard dosimetry system—dosimetry sys-
feeding within or on the body of a “host” species, typically
tem used as an intermediary to calibrate other dosimetry
killing the host. In some parasitoid programs, factory-reared
systems.
host insects are irradiated before being offered to parasitoids.
3.1.24 transit dose—absorbed dose delivered to a product
This eliminates the need to separate unparasitized hosts from
(or a dosimeter) while it travels between the non-irradiation
parasitoids so that fertile, unparasitized host insects are not
position and the irradiation position, or in the case of a
inadvertently released into the field.
movable source while the source moves into and out of its
4.3 An additional use of factory-reared insects is for testing
irradiation position.
detection traps for fruit flies and moths, and testing mating
3.1.25 type I dosimeter—dosimeter of high metrological
disruption products for moths.
quality, the response of which is affected by individual influ-
4.4 Factory-reared insects may be treated with ionizing
ence quantities in a way that is well-defined and capable of
137 60
radiation,suchasgammaradiationfrom Csor Cosources,
expression in terms of independent correction factors.
or X-radiation or electrons from accelerators. Gamma irradia-
3.1.26 type II dosimeter—dosimeter, the response of which
tion of insects is often carried out in small, fixed-geometry,
isaffectedbyinfluencequantitiesinacomplexwaythatcannot
dry-storage irradiators (5). Dosimetry methods for gamma and
practically be expressed in terms of independent correction
X-ray irradiation of insects have been demonstrated and
factors.
include useful procedures for measuring the absorbed dose

3.2 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard: distribution throughout the volume of the irradiation contain-

er(s)inthesesmallirradiators(ASTMPractice52116andRefs
3.2.1 factory-reared insects—insects that are raised in large
(1, 6)) as well as large-scale gamma irradiators (ISO/ASTM
quantities in a laboratory or factory setting for use, following
Practice 51702 and Ref (7)).
reproductivesterilizationthroughirradiation,asliveanimalsin
pest management programs.
4.5 Specifications for irradiation of factory-reared insects
include a lower limit of absorbed dose and may include a
3.3 Definitions of other terms used in this standard that
central target dose and an upper limit. These values are based
pertain to radiation measurement and dosimetry may be found
on program requirements and on scientific data on effects of
in ISO/ASTM Practice 52628. Other terms that pertain to
absorbeddoseonthesterility,viability,andcompetitivenessof
radiation measurement and dosimetry may be found inASTM
the factory-reared insects.
Terminology E3083 and ISO Terminology ISO 12749-4.
Where appropriate, definitions used in these standards have
4.6 To demonstrate control of the radiation process, the
beenderivedfrom,andareconsistentwithdefinitionsinICRU
absorbed dose must be measured using a calibrated dosimetry
Report 85a, and general metrological definitions given in the
system. Regulations or policies under which the facility oper-
VIM.
ates may require the calibration to be traceable to appropriate
national or international standards. The radiation-induced
4. Significance and use
change in the dosimeter is evaluated and related to absorbed
dose through calibration (ISO/ASTM Practice 51261).
4.1 The major use of factory-reared insects is in sterile
insectreleaseprograms(forexample,SterileInsectTechnique,
4.7 For each irradiator, absorbed-dose rate at a reference
or SIT) for suppressing or eradicating pest populations (2, 3).
position within the irradiated volume of insects or simulated
Large numbers of reproductively sterile (irradiated) insects are
product is measured using a transfer or reference standard
released into an area where a wild “target population” of the
dosimetry system. That measurement provides a basis for
same species exists, or sterile insects are released into an area
calculatingthedurationofirradiation,conveyorspeed,orother
as a preventative measure to protect against the wild pest
parameterrequiredtodeliverthespecifiedabsorbeddosetothe
establishing. The wild population is reduced to the extent that
insects.
the sterile males are successful in mating with wild females.
4.8 Absorbed-dose mapping for establishing magnitudes
The radiation dose absorbed by the factory-reared insects
and locations of minimum dose (D ) and maximum dose
min
should be within a range that induces the desired level of
(D ) is performed using actual product or simulated product
max
sterility without substantially reducing the ability of factory-
(5).
reared males to compete with wild males for mates. In some
cases, sterile females may also be released as part of an SIT
5. Types of facilities and modes of operation
program.SpeciestargetedbySITprogramsaretypicallymajor

pestsaffectingagricultureorhumanhealth,sotheassuranceby 5.1 Self-Contained Irradiators—Self-contained irradiators

standardized dosimetry that insects have been properly irradi- expose samples to gamma irradiation produced by isotopes of

137 60

ated is of crucial importance to agriculture growers, agricul- either Cs or Co (8, 9) (ISO/ASTM Practice 52116), or to

tural regulators, public health officials, and the public (3). The lowenergyX-radiation(bremsstrahlung)producedbyanX-ray

irradiator operator must demonstrate by means of accurate tube. These irradiators house their radiation source in a

absorbed-dose measurements that all insects have received protective lead shield or other appropriate high atomic number

absorbed dose within the specified range. material in accordance with the safety requirements. Currently

© ISO/ASTM International 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/ASTM 51940:2022(E)

available units using low energy X-radiation (bremsstrahlung) 6.1.2 Cobalt-60 emits photons with energies of approxi-

require less shielding than units containing gamma-emitting mately 1.17 MeV and 1.33 MeV in nearly equal proportions.

radioactive isotopes. Such units containing radionuclides usu- Cesium-137 emits photons with energies of approximately

ally have a mechanism to move the canister from the load/ 0.662 MeV (11).
60 137
unload position to the irradiation position.
6.1.3 The radioactive decay half-lives for Co and Cs

5.1.1 Some common methods used for improving absorbed are regularly reviewed and updated. The most recent publica-

dose uniformity in the insect canister are to either r
...

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