Ceramic tiles — Grouts and adhesives — Part 2: Test methods for adhesives

ISO 13007:2013 describes the methods for determining the characteristics for adhesives used in the installation of ceramic tiles. The following test methods are described: determination of open time; determination of slip; determination of shear adhesion strength; determination of tensile adhesion strength; determination of transverse deformation.

Carreaux céramiques — Mortiers de joints et colles — Partie 2: Méthodes d'essai pour les colles

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Status
Published
Publication Date
24-Oct-2013
Current Stage
9093 - International Standard confirmed
Start Date
02-Aug-2019
Completion Date
02-Aug-2019
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 13007-2
Third edition
2013-11-01
Ceramic tiles — Grouts and adhesives —
Part 2:
Test methods for adhesives
Carreaux céramiques — Mortiers de joints et colles —
Partie 2: Méthodes d’essai pour les colles
Reference number
ISO 13007-2:2013(E)
ISO 2013
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ISO 13007-2:2013(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2013

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
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Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO 13007-2:2013(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 General test conditions and procedures ...................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Sampling ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Test conditions ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 1

3.3 Test materials ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.4 Mixing procedures ............................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.5 Test substrate ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

3.6 Failure patterns ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

3.7 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4 Test methods ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.1 Determination of open time ........................................................................................................................................................ 4

4.2 Determination of slip ......................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.3 Determination of shear adhesion strength (D, R) ..................................................................................................... 7

4.4 Determination of tensile adhesion strength (C) ......................................................................................................... 9

4.5 Determination of transverse deformation ...................................................................................................................11

Annex A (informative) Concrete test slab .....................................................................................................................................................23

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 13007-2:2013(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information.
The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 189, Ceramic tile.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 13007-2:2010), of which it constitutes a

minor revision.

ISO 13007 consists of the following parts, under the general title Ceramic tiles — Grouts and adhesives:

— Part 1: Terms, definitions and specifications for adhesives
— Part 2: Test methods for adhesives
— Part 3: Terms, definitions and specifications for grouts
— Part 4: Test methods for grouts
iv © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 13007-2:2013(E)
Ceramic tiles — Grouts and adhesives —
Part 2:
Test methods for adhesives
1 Scope

This part of ISO 13007 describes the methods for determining the characteristics for adhesives used in

the installation of ceramic tiles. The following test methods are described:
— determination of open time (4.1);
— determination of slip (4.2);
— determination of shear adhesion strength (4.3);
— determination of tensile adhesion strength (4.4);
— determination of transverse deformation (4.5).
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 13006, Ceramic tiles — Definitions, classification, characteristics and marking

ISO 13007-1, Ceramic tiles — Grouts and adhesives — Part 1: Terms, definitions and specifications for adhesives

3 General test conditions and procedures
3.1 Sampling
A representative sample of at least 2 kg shall be used.
3.2 Test conditions

Standard conditions shall be (23 ± 2) °C and (50 ± 5) % relative humidity and the speed of air in the

testing area shall be less than 0,2 m/s. Other test conditions may be specified in Clause 4. The tolerance

in the time of conditioning for all test specimens shall be as shown in Table 1 below.

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ISO 13007-2:2013(E)

Table 1 — Allowed tolerance in testing time for all samples requiring conditioning

Sample conditioning time Allowed tolerance for testing
24 h ±0,5 h
7 d ±3 h
14 d ±6 h
21 d ±9 h
28 d ±12 h
NOTE Testing must be performed within the specified time window.
3.3 Test materials

Condition all test materials, including water, for at least 24 h under standard conditions. The adhesive to

be tested shall be within its shelf life, where this is specified.
3.3.1 Ceramic tiles

The tiles shall be checked prior to conditioning to ensure that they are unused, clean, and dry. The type

of tile shall be as specified under the specific test procedures found in Clause 4.

3.4 Mixing procedures
3.4.1 Cementitious adhesives (C)

The amount of water and/or liquid admix required for preparing the adhesive shall be as stated by the

manufacturer in parts by weight, i.e. liquid to dry powder (in cases where a range of values is given, the

average shall be used).

Using a minimum quantity of 2 kg of the powder and the recommended quantity of liquid, prepare the

adhesive in a planetary mixer using the following slow speed settings: (140 ± 5) rotations per minute

and (62 ± 5) rotations per minute planetary movement. See Figures 1 and 2.
Carry out the following procedure.
1) Pour the liquid into the pan.
2) Scatter the dry powder over the liquid.
3) Mix for 30 s.
4) Take out the mixing paddle.
5) Scrape down the paddle and pan within 1 min.
6) Replace the paddle and mix for 1 min.

If required by the adhesive manufacturer’s instructions, let the adhesive mature as specified and then

mix for an additional 15 s.
3.4.2 Dispersion adhesive (D) and reaction resin adhesive (R)

Where ready-to-use dispersion adhesives or reaction resin adhesives are to be used, the manufacturer’s

instructions shall be followed.
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ISO 13007-2:2013(E)
3.5 Test substrate
3.5.1 Concrete test substrate

The mandatory concrete test substrate shall be (40 ± 5) mm thick, have a moisture content of less than

3 3

3 % by mass, and have a surface water absorption in the range of 0,5 cm to 1,5 cm after 4 h of testing.

The cohesive strength as referenced in A.3.3 shall be at least 1,5 N/mm . A method for manufacturing

a suitable concrete test slab and the procedures for measuring the cohesive strength and surface water

absorption is given in informative Annex A.
3.5.2 Other substrates

Other substrates may be used upon agreement if the substrate is recommended for ceramic tile

application by the adhesive manufacturer. To demonstrate compatibility with other optional substrates,

the adhesive shall be applied to the selected substrate in accordance with the open time test method

(see 4.1). When a result of ≥ 0,5 N/mm is achieved or cohesive failure occurs in the substrate, the

requirement is considered satisfied.
3.6 Failure patterns
3.6.1 Adhesion failure (AF-S or AF-T)

Failure occurs at the interface between the adhesive and the substrate (AF-S) [see Figure 3, a)] or between

the tile and the adhesive (AF-T) [see Figure 3, b)]. The test value is equal to the adhesive strength. In some

cases, failure may occur in the adhesive layer between the tile and the pull-head plate (BF) [see Figure 3,

c)]. In this case, the adhesive strength is greater than the test value and the test should be repeated.

3.6.2 Cohesive failure within the adhesive (CF-A)
Failure occurs within the adhesive layer [see Figure 3, d)].
3.6.3 Cohesive failure in the substrate or in the tile (CF-S or CF-T)

Failure occurs within the substrate (CF-S) [see Figure 3, e)] or within the body of the tile (CF-T) [see

Figure 3, f)]. In this case, the strength of the adhesive is greater than the test value.

The modes of failure may be a combination of any of the above. An approximate percentage of each

shall be recorded.
3.7 Test report
3.7.1 General
The test report shall specify the following:
a) a reference to this part of ISO 13007 (i.e. ISO 13007-2:2013);
b) the date of test;
c) the type of adhesive, commercial designation, and manufacturer’s name;
d) the source, date obtained, and complete identification of test sample;
e) the handling and storage of samples before testing;
f) the test conditions;
g) the amount of water or liquid used for preparing the adhesive;
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ISO 13007-2:2013(E)
h) any other factor that could have affected the result;

i) the test results (individual and mean values and mode of failure where required).

3.7.2 Test results of cementitious and dispersion adhesives
The test report shall specify the following:
a) open time;
b) slip;
c) shear adhesion strength;
d) adhesion strength;
e) deformation.
3.7.3 Test results of chemical resistance
The test report shall specify the following:
a) test conditions;
b) change in colour and surface appearance during the test;
c) total duration of the test and exposure periods.
4 Test methods
4.1 Determination of open time
4.1.1 General

Open time shall be tested following the general test conditions and procedures given in Clause 3 and the

specific instructions which follow.
4.1.2 Test materials

4.1.2.1 Ceramic tiles, Group BIII porous body tile complying with ISO 13006, with a water absorption of

(15 ± 3) % by mass, facial dimensions of (50 ± 1) mm × (50 ± 1) mm, thickness in the range of 7 mm to

10 mm, and a profile back pattern of less than 0,25 mm deep.
4.1.2.2 Test substrate, conforming to the requirements given in 3.5.1.
4.1.3 Apparatus

4.1.3.1 Test mass, less than 50 mm × 50 mm cross-sectional area and capable of exerting a uniform force

of (20 ± 0,05) N.

4.1.3.2 Pull-head plates, square metallic plates with a dimension of (50 ± 1) mm, a minimum thickness

of 10 mm, and a suitable fitting for connection to the test machine.

4.1.3.3 Test machine, for the direct pull tensile force test, with suitable capacity and sensitivity. The

machine shall be capable of applying the load to the pull-head plate at the rate of (250 ± 50) N/s through

a suitable fitting that does not exert any bending force.
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ISO 13007-2:2013(E)
4.1.4 Procedure

Apply a thin layer of the adhesive, mixed in accordance with 3.4.1, to the concrete slab using a straight

edge trowel. Then, apply a thicker layer and comb using a notched trowel having 6 mm × 6 mm notches

at 12 mm centres. The trowel shall be held at an angle of approximately 60° to the substrate at a right

angle to one edge of the slab and shall be drawn across the slab parallel to that edge (in a straight line).

After 5 min, 10 min, 20 min, 30 min, or longer, place at least 10 test tiles 50 mm apart on the adhesive within

30 s. Tiles are placed on no more than four ribs for all adhesives. Load each tile with (20 ± 0,05) N for 30 s.

After storing for 27 d under standard conditions, bond the pull-head plates to the tiles with a suitable

high-strength adhesive (e.g. epoxy adhesive).

After a further 24 h storage under standard conditions, determine the tensile adhesion strength of the

adhesive by applying a force increasing at a constant rate of (250 ± 50) N/s.
4.1.5 Evaluation and expression of results

The individual tensile adhesion strengths are quoted to 0,1 N/mm using Formula (1):

A = (1)
where
A is the individual tensile adhesion strength, in N/mm ;
L is the total tensile load, in N;
2 2
A is the bonding area, in mm (2 500 mm ).
The tensile adhesion strength for each time interval is determined as follows.
1) Determine the mean of the 10 values.
2) Discard the values falling out of the range of ±20 % of the mean value.
3) If five or more values remain, determine the new mean.
4) If less than five values remain, repeat the test.
5) Determine the mode of failure of the test units (see 3.6).

The open time, in minutes, is the maximum time interval at which the adhesive meets the tensile

adhesion strength requirement defined in ISO 13007-1 for open time.
4.1.6 Test report

The information listed in 3.7.1, items a) to i), shall be provided as well as 3.7.2, item a) (open time in minutes).

4.2 Determination of slip
4.2.1 General

Slip shall be tested following the general test conditions and procedures given in Clause 3 and the

specific instructions which follow.
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ISO 13007-2:2013(E)
4.2.2 Test materials

4.2.2.1 Ceramic tiles, Group BI fully vitrified tile in accordance with ISO 13006, with a water

absorption of ≤ 0,5 % by mass, unglazed, with plain adhering surface, and with facial dimensions of

(100 ± 1) mm × (100 ± 1) mm, mass of (200 ± 10) g, and a thickness in the range of 8 mm to 10 mm.

4.2.2.2 Concrete test substrate, conforming to the requirements given in 3.5.
4.2.3 Apparatus
4.2.3.1 Steel straight edge
4.2.3.2 Clamps
4.2.3.3 Masking tape, 25 mm wide.

4.2.3.4 Spacers, two pieces, made from stainless steel, with a thickness of (25 ± 0,5)

mm × (25 ± 0,5) mm × (10 ± 0,5) mm.

4.2.3.5 Mass, capable of exerting a force of (50 ± 0,1) N, with a cross-sectional area of less than

(100 ± 1) mm × (100 ± 1) mm.
4.2.3.6 Vernier caliper, accurate to 0,01 mm.
4.2.4 Procedure

Secure the steel straight edge at the top of the concrete substrate so that its bottom edge is horizontal

when the slab is raised to its vertical position. Position a 25-mm-wide masking tape immediately below the

steel straight edge and apply a thin layer of the adhesive to the concrete slab using a straight edge trowel.

Then, apply a thicker layer of adhesive to the surface of the concrete substrate so that it just overlaps the

bottom edge of the masking tape. Comb the adhesive at right angles to the straight edge using a notched

trowel having 6 mm × 6 mm notches at 12 mm centres.

Hold the trowel at an angle of 60° to the substrate and parallel to the straight edge.

Immediately remove the masking tape and position 25 mm spacers (or the spacing bar) against the

straight edge. After 2 min, place a type BI tile against the spacers, as shown in Figure 4, and load with

a weight of (50 ± 0,1) N for (30 ± 5) s.

Remove the spacers and measure the gap between the straight edge and the tile using the Vernier caliper

to within ±0,1 mm. Immediately and carefully lift the slab into a vertical position. After (20 ± 2) min, re-

measure the gap, as before, at its maximum point. The maximum slip of the tile under its own weight is

the difference between the two readings.

Carry out the test for each of the three tiles for each adhesive. Report the individual results and the

mean value in mm.
4.2.5 Test report

The information listed in 3.7.1, items a) to i), shall be provided as well as 3.7.2, item b) [slip in mm

(individual and mean values)].
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ISO 13007-2:2013(E)
4.3 Determination of shear adhesion strength (D, R)
4.3.1 General

Shear adhesion strength shall be tested following the general test conditions and procedures given in

Clause 3 and the specific instructions which follow.
4.3.2 Test materials and apparatus
4.3.2.1 Ceramic tiles
The tiles for this test shall be the following:

a) dispersion adhesives (D) — Group BIII glazed porous body tiles in accordance with ISO 13006;

with water absorption of (15 ± 3) % by mass, facial dimensions of (108 ± 1) mm × (108 ± 1) mm,

thickness in the range of 7 mm to 10 mm, and a profile back pattern of less than 0,25 mm thick;

b) reaction resin adhesives (R) — Group BI fully vitrified tiles in accordance with ISO 13006;

with water absorption of ≤ 0,2 % by mass, unglazed with plane adhering surface, and with facial

dimensions of (100 ± 1) mm × (100 ± 1) mm.

4.3.2.2 Template, smooth non-absorbent frame (e.g. polytetrafluoroethylene) in accordance with

Figure 5 for D adhesives and Figure 7 for R adhesives.
4.3.2.3 Spacers, spacer rods with 0,8 mm diameter and approximately 40 mm long.

4.3.2.4 Mass, less than 100 mm × 100 mm cross-sectional area, capable of exerting a uniform force of

(70 ± 0,15) N.

4.3.2.5 Test machine, with suitable capacity and sensitivity for the test and with a variable testing

speed. The machine shall be capable of applying the load to the tile through a suitable jig.

4.3.2.6 Shear test jig, any suitable jig used to transfer the compression or tensile load exerted by the

testing machine into shear load. Examples of suitable jigs are shown in Figures 9 and 10.

4.3.2.7 Air-circulating oven, capable of controlling the temperature to within ±3 °C.

4.3.3 Procedure

Each test unit shall be prepared with two Group BIII tiles for D adhesives or Group BI tiles for R adhesives.

Draw a straight line on the adhering side of one tile, 6 mm from the tile edge (to serve as a guide for

overlapping the tile as explained below).

Place the template (see Figures 5 and 7) over the unglazed back of the first test tile. Trowel sufficient

adhesive across the template and then screed it clean so as to neatly and completely fill the holes in the

template. Carefully remove the template vertically (see Figures 6 and 8).

Place spacer rods at each corner of the first tile, approximately 20 mm over the tile. After 2 min, place a

second standard test tile over the coated tile offset with a disp
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