Steels for cold heading and cold extruding

This document specifies requirements for non-alloy and alloy steels that are intended for cold heading or cold extruding and are delivered as wire rods, wire or bars. It also contains specific requirements for: — steels not intended for heat treatment, with diameters from 2 mm to 100 mm (see Annex A); — case-hardening steels with diameters from 2 mm to 100 mm (see Annex B); — steels for quenching and tempering, including boron alloyed steels (see Table C.3), with diameters from 2 mm to 100 mm (see Annex C ); — stainless steels with diameters of 0,8 mm up to 50 mm for austenitic steels, up to 25 mm for ferritic steels and up to 100 mm for martensitic steels (see Annex D). This document (except Annex A) is applicable to the properties of cold-headed or cold-extruded parts which have been subjected to a subsequent heat treatment. As the properties of the parts in the cold-headed or cold-extruded, and subsequently not-heat-treated condition, are largely dependent on the applied cold-heading or cold-extruding conditions, these are, if necessary, subject to agreement between the purchaser and the manufacturer of the parts. In addition to this document, the general technical delivery requirements of ISO 404 are applicable.

Aciers pour transformation à froid et extrusion à froid

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Status
Published
Publication Date
16-Jul-2018
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
15-Jun-2018
Completion Date
17-Jul-2018
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 4954
Third edition
2018-07
Steels for cold heading and cold
extruding
Aciers pour transformation à froid et extrusion à froid
Reference number
ISO 4954:2018(E)
ISO 2018
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ISO 4954:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

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below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO 4954:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Classification and designation ............................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1 Classification ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.2 Designation ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5 Information to be supplied by the purchaser......................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 Mandatory information ................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Options and/or supplementary or special requirements .................................................................................. 4

5.3 Ordering example ................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

6 Manufacturing process .................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.2 Deoxidation ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.3 Heat-treatment condition and surface condition at delivery ......................................................................... 5

6.3.1 Heat-treatment condition ........................................................................................................................................ 5

6.3.2 Particular surface conditions ................................................................................................................................ 5

6.4 Traceability of the cast ..................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.5 Statistical evaluation .......................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.1 Chemical composition, mechanical properties and hardenability ............................................................. 6

7.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.1.2 Chemical composition ................................................................................................................................................. 6

7.1.3 Mechanical properties ................................................................................................................................................ 8

7.1.4 Hardenability (only applicable to steel grades of Annexes B and C) .................................. 8

7.2 Grain size ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3 Carbide spheroidization (only applicable for steels of Annexes A, B and C) ..................................... 9

7.4 Non-metallic inclusions ................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.4.1 Microscopic inclusions (only applicable for steels of Annexes B and C) ......................... 9

7.4.2 Macroscopic inclusions .............................................................................................................................................. 9

7.5 Internal soundness .............................................................................................................................................................................. 9

7.6 Aptitude to cold forming ................................................................................................................................................................ 9

7.7 Surface quality ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.7.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.7.2 Wire rod (only applicable for steels of Annexes A, B and C) ...................................................... 9

7.7.3 Bars (only applicable for steels of Annexes A, B and C) ................................................................. 9

7.7.4 Wire rod and bars for stainless steels (only applicable for steels of Annex D) .......10

7.7.5 Bright products ..............................................................................................................................................................10

7.7.6 Removal of surface defects ...................................................................................................................................10

7.7.7 Non-destructive testing of the surface .......................................................................................................10

7.8 Decarburization (only applicable for steels of Annexes B and C) ............................................................10

7.9 Corrosion resistance of stainless steels ..........................................................................................................................10

7.10 Shape, dimensions and tolerances ......................................................................................................................................11

8 Inspection .................................................................................................................................................................................................................11

8.1 Testing procedures and types of documents .............................................................................................................11

8.2 Summary of specific inspection and frequency of testing ..............................................................................11

9 Preparation of samples and test pieces .....................................................................................................................................12

9.1 Selection and preparation of samples for product analysis ..........................................................................12

9.2 Selection and preparation of samples and test pieces for the mechanical test ............................13

10 Test methods ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................14

10.1 Chemical analysis ...............................................................................................................................................................................14

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ISO 4954:2018(E)

10.2 Mechanical tests ..................................................................................................................................................................................14

10.3 Hardenability and core hardness tests............................................................................................................................14

10.3.1 Verification of hardenability ...............................................................................................................................14

10.3.2 Verification of core hardness ..............................................................................................................................14

10.4 Aptitude to cold forming .............................................................................................................................................................14

10.4.1 Upsetting test for non-alloy and alloy steels of Annexes A, B and C................................ 14

10.4.2 Upsetting test for stainless steels of Annex D ...................................................................................... 15

10.5 Non-destructive testing ................................................................................................................................................................15

10.6 Visual and dimensional test ......................................................................................................................................................15

10.7 Retests .........................................................................................................................................................................................................15

11 Surface treatment, marking and packaging ..........................................................................................................................15

11.1 Surface treatment and temporary corrosion protection .................................................................................15

11.2 Marking ......................................................................................................................................................................................................15

11.3 Packaging ..................................................................................................................................................................................................16

Annex A (normative) Specific requirements for cold heading and cold extruding steels not

intended for heat treatment after cold working ..............................................................................................................17

Annex B (normative) Specific requirements for cold heading and cold extruding case-

hardening steels .................................................................................................................................................................................................21

Annex C (normative) Specific requirements for cold heading and cold extruding steels for

quenching and tempering ........................................................................................................................................................................33

Annex D (normative) Specific requirements for cold heading and cold extruding stainless steels 51

Annex E (normative) Supplementary or special requirements ............................................................................................59

Annex F (informative) Designation of steels given in Annexes A, B, C and D and the

comparable grades covered in various designation systems ..............................................................................63

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................68

iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO 4954:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 17, Steel, Subcommittee SC 4, Heat

treatable and alloy steels.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 4954:1993) which has been technically

revised. The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— the names of the steel grades have been updated in accordance with ISO/TS 4949;

— for steels not intended for heat treatment, three grades have been removed and five have been added;

— for case hardening steels, eight grades have been added;

— for steels for quenching and tempering, seven grades have been removed and 27 grades have

been added;

— for stainless steels, six grades have been removed and ten grades have been added;

— the list of options has been completely updated.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 4954:2018(E)
Steels for cold heading and cold extruding
1 Scope

This document specifies requirements for non-alloy and alloy steels that are intended for cold heading

or cold extruding and are delivered as wire rods, wire or bars. It also contains specific requirements for:

— steels not intended for heat treatment, with diameters from 2 mm to 100 mm (see Annex A);

— case-hardening steels with diameters from 2 mm to 100 mm (see Annex B);

— steels for quenching and tempering, including boron alloyed steels (see Table C.3), with diameters

from 2 mm to 100 mm (see Annex C );

— stainless steels with diameters of 0,8 mm up to 50 mm for austenitic steels, up to 25 mm for ferritic

steels and up to 100 mm for martensitic steels (see Annex D).

This document (except Annex A) is applicable to the properties of cold-headed or cold-extruded parts

which have been subjected to a subsequent heat treatment. As the properties of the parts in the cold-

headed or cold-extruded, and subsequently not-heat-treated condition, are largely dependent on the

applied cold-heading or cold-extruding conditions, these are, if necessary, subject to agreement between

the purchaser and the manufacturer of the parts.

In addition to this document, the general technical delivery requirements of ISO 404 are applicable.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 377, Steel and steel products — Location and preparation of samples and test pieces for mechanical testing

ISO 404, Steel and steel products — General technical delivery requirements
ISO 642, Steel — Hardenability test by end quenching (Jominy test)
ISO 643, Steels — Micrographic determination of the apparent grain size

ISO 683-1, Heat-treatable steels, alloy steels and free-cutting steels — Part 1: Non-alloy steels for quenching

and tempering·

ISO 683-2, Heat-treatable steels, alloy steels and free-cutting steels — Part 2: Alloy steels for quenching and

tempering

ISO 683-3, Heat-treatable steels, alloy steels and free-cutting steels — Part 3: Case-hardening steels

ISO 683-18:2014, Heat-treatable steels, alloy steels and free-cutting steels — Part 18: Bright steel products

ISO 1035-1, Hot-rolled steel bars — Part 1: Dimensions of round bars
ISO 1035-2, Hot-rolled steel bars — Part 2: Dimensions of square bars
ISO 1035-3, Hot-rolled steel bars — Part 3: Dimensions of flat bars
ISO 1035-4, Hot-rolled steel bars — Part 4: Tolerances
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ISO 4954:2018(E)

ISO 3651-2, Determination of resistance to intergranular corrosion of stainless steels — Part 2:

Ferritic,austenitic and ferritic-austenitic (duplex) stainless steels — Corrosion test in media containing

sulfuric acid
ISO 3887, Steels — Determination of the depth of decarburization
ISO 4885, Ferrous materials — Heat treatments — Vocabulary

ISO 4948-1, Steels — Classification — Part 1: Classification of steels into unalloyed and alloy steels based

on chemical composition

ISO 4948-2, Steels — Classification — Part 2: Classification of unalloyed and alloy steels according to main

quality classes and main property or application characteristics
ISO/TS 4949, Steel names based on letter symbols

ISO 4967:2013, Steel — Determination of content of non-metallic inclusions — Micrographic method using

standard diagrams
ISO 6508-1, Metallic materials — Rockwell hardness test — Part 1: Test method

ISO 6892-1, Metallic materials — Tensile testing — Part 1: Method of test at room temperature

ISO 6929, Steel products — Vocabulary

ISO 9443, Heat-treatable and alloy steels — Surface quality classes for hot-rolled round bars and wire

rods — Technical delivery conditions

ISO 9934-1, Non-destructive testing — Magnetic particle testing — Part 1: General principles

ISO 10474, Steel and steel products — Inspection documents

ISO 14284, Steel and iron — Sampling and preparation of samples for the determination of chemical

composition

ISO 15549, Non-destructive testing — Eddy current testing — Part 1: General principles

ISO 16124, Steel wire rod — Dimensions and tolerances

ISO 16143-2, Stainless steels for general purposes — Part 2: Corrosion-resistant semi-finished products,

bars, rods and sections

ISO 22034-2, Steel wire and wire products — Part 2: Tolerances on wire dimensions

JIS G 0555:2015, Microscopic testing method for the non-metallic inclusions in steel

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 377, ISO 683-1, ISO 683-2,

ISO 683-3, ISO 683-18, ISO 4885, ISO 4948-1, ISO 4948-2, ISO 6929, ISO 14284, ISO 16143-2 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1
bright steel product

drawn or peeled/turned bar with smoother surface quality and better dimensional accuracy in

comparison with a hot-rolled bar
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ISO 4954:2018(E)
3.2
drawn product

product of various cross-sectional shapes obtained, after descaling, by cold drawing of hot-rolled bars

or wire rod, on a drawing bench (cold deformation without removing material)

Note 1 to entry: This operation gives the product special features with respect to shape, dimensional accuracy

and surface finish. Products in lengths are delivered straightened, products of small cross-section may also be

supplied in coils.
3.3
peeled/turned product

steel bar of circular cross-section having the same features of drawn products (3.2) concerning shape,

dimensional accuracy and bright surface finish but without work hardening

Note 1 to entry: They are produced by peeling on a peeling machine usually followed by straightening and by

polishing. The removal of metal by peeling is carried out in such a way that the bright product is generally free

from surface defects and decarburization coming from the hot-rolling process.
4 Classification and designation
4.1 Classification

The classification of the relevant steel grades shall be in accordance with ISO 4948-1 and ISO 4948-2.

All steel grades mentioned in this document are special steels in accordance with ISO 4948-2.

The steels not intended for heat treatment after cold forming (see Annex A) are non-alloy steels.

The case hardening steel grades (see Annex B) are alloy steels, except steel grades C10E2C to C20E2C.

The steel grades for quenching and tempering (see Annex C) are alloy steel grades, except steel grades

C35EC to C45RC.

The steel stainless steel grades (see Annex D) are classified according to their microstructures.

4.2 Designation

For the steel grades covered by this document, the steel names as given in the relevant tables shall be

allocated in accordance with ISO/TS 4949.

Annex F provides a list of steels given in Annexes A, B, C and D and the comparable grades covered in

various designation systems.
5 Information to be supplied by the purchaser
5.1 Mandatory information

The manufacturer shall obtain the following information from the purchaser at the time of enquiry

and order:
a) the quantity to be delivered (mass, length);
b) the product form (round bar, wire rod, wire);

c) the nominal diameter and the tolerances on dimensions and shape of the product with reference to

the relevant International Standard;

d) for bars the length and for wire rod and wire the dimensions, i.e. inner diameter and mass of the coils;

e) reference to this document, i.e. ISO 4954;
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ISO 4954:2018(E)

f) the designation of the steel grade given in Tables A.2, B.2, C.2, C.3 and D.2;

g) if applicable, the symbol for the required heat-treatment condition, see Tables A.3, B.3 to B.7, C.4 to

C.10 and D.3 to D.6;

h) standard designation for a test report 2.2 or, if required, any other type of inspection document in

accordance with ISO 10474.
5.2 Options and/or supplementary or special requirements

A number of options are specified in this document and listed below. If the purchaser does not indicate

a wish to implement any of these options, the products will be supplied in accordance with the basic

specifications of this document (see 5.1).

a) Any requirement for the hardenability (+H, +HH, +HL) of case hardening steels of Annex B and

of steels for quenching and tempering of Annex C and for the core hardening (+CH) of steels for

quenching and tempering of Annex C, see 7.1.4.

b) Verification of hardenability and, if agreed, information about the calculation of the hardenability

for the case hardening steels of Annex B and for the steels for quenching and tempering of Annex C,

see 10.3.1.

c) If another surface condition than hot-rolled or a special surface quality is required, for the surface

condition, see Table 1, and for the surface quality of E for bars and D for wire rod, see 7.7.2 and 7.7.3.

d) Any requirement relating to the removal of surface defects, see 7.7.6.
e) Any requirement for the verification of the surface quality, see 7.7.5.
f) Any requirement for a product analysis, see 7.1.2.2.

g) Any requirement for the verification of the fine grain structure, see E.2, of case hardening steels of

Annex B and of steels for quenching and tempering of Annex C.

h) Carbide spheroidization, see 7.3, and any requirement for the verification of the carbide

spheroidization, see E.3.

i) Any requirement for the verification of the non-metallic inclusions of case hardening steels of

Annex B and of steels for quenching and tempering of Annex C, see 7.4 and E.4.

j) Internal soundness and any requirements for non-destructive testing, see 7.5 and 10.5.

k) Verification of aptitude to cold forming, see 7.6 and 10.4.

l) Maximum depth of surface discontinuities for stainless steels, see 7.7.4 and E.5.

m) Any requirement concerning non-destructive testing of the surface, see 7.7.7 and 10.5.

n) Depth of decarburization, see 7.8, and any requirements for testing the depth of decarburization,

see E.6.

o) Corrosion resistance of stainless steel products and any requirements for resistance to

intergranular corrosion, see E.7.

p) Any requirement concerning surface treatment and temporary corrosion protection, see 11.1.

q) Any special requirements concerning special or additional marking, see 11.2.
r) Any special requirements concerning packaging, see 11.3.
s) Statistical evaluation, see 6.5.
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ISO 4954:2018(E)
5.3 Ordering example

EXAMPLE 50 t round bars with a nominal diameter of 40 mm and a nominal length of 6 000 mm with

diameter tolerance according to class S and with length tolerance according to class L2 of ISO 1035-4 made of steel

grade ISO 4954 42CrMo4 in the heat-treatment condition +AC+PE (see Table C.5), with hardenability requirement

+H (see Table C.7) and product analysis with an inspection certificate 3.1 in accordance with ISO 10474.

50 t round bars ISO 1035-4 – 40,0S × 6 000L2
ISO 4954 – 42CrMo4+AC+PE+H – product analysis
ISO 10474 – 3.1
6 Manufacturing process
6.1 General

The manufacturing process of the steel and of the products is, with the restrictions given by the

requirements in 6.2 to 6.4, left to the discretion of the manufacturer.
6.2 Deoxidation

All steels shall be deoxidized. The steels not intended for heat treatment (see Annex A) are aluminium

or silicon killed. By agreement, aluminium may be replaced by another suitable element having a

similar effect.
6.3 Heat-treatment condition and surface condition at delivery
6.3.1 Heat-treatment condition

Treatment and heat-treatment condition shall conform to one of the conditions indicated in Tables A.1,

B.1, C.1 and D.1.

Bright steel products in cold drawn or peeled/turned condition are coated with a light film of grease

from processing. For bright steel products in a finally heat treated condition, the manufacturer chooses

the rust protection after heat treatment.

The usual light application of ordinary grease or oil does not afford positive protection against rusting,

particularly in the presence of condensation water. Any surface treatment that can facilitate subsequent

cold heading and cold extrusion or partially delay any formation of rust shall, if required, be agreed at

the time of enquiry and order, see 11.1.
6.3.2 Particular surface conditions
...

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