Net zero guidelines

This document provides guiding principles and recommendations to enable a common, global approach to achieving net zero greenhouse gas emissions through alignment of voluntary initiatives and adoption of standards, policies and national and international regulation. This document provides guidance on what governance organizations and other organizations can do to effectively contribute to global efforts to limit warming to 1,5 °C by achieving net zero no later than 2050. It provides guidance on a common and equitable contribution and recognizes the capability of individual organizations in contributing to achieving global net zero. This document, when used in combination with applicable science-based pathways, provides guidance for organizations seeking to set robust climate strategies. This document provides common terms and definitions, guidance and specific recommendations on: net zero guiding principles for all organizations; incorporating net zero into strategies and policies; what net zero means at different levels and for different types of organization; setting and aligning interim and long-term targets based on equity, latest scientific knowledge, evidence, research and agreed good practice; actions to take to achieve these targets; greenhouse gas emission reductions within the value chain; nature protection and restoration; avoided emissions and other climate contributions beyond the value chain; removals; offsets; credits; claims; monitoring, measuring and use of appropriate and consistent indicators; equity, empowerment, fair share and wider impact; transparent reporting and effective communication. This document is intended to align territorial approaches to achieving net zero (e.g. by nations, regions, cities) and value chain approaches by organizations. This document is intended to enable and support all organizations, including governance organizations developing policies, frameworks, standards or other initiatives on net zero for use by others. This document is intended to complement voluntary initiatives and facilitate alignment, so that any organization looking to make or support a net zero claim takes a similar approach regardless of the initiative it is associated with. NOTE 1 A single target for organizations of net zero for all greenhouse gas emissions, as soon as possible or by 2050 at the latest, is used in this document to provide a common, understandable and ambitious target, in line with scientific consensus on the global effort needed to limit warming to 1,5 °C with no or limited temperature overshoot. This organizational target aligns with the target stated in the Race to Zero Criteria. NOTE 2 Governance organizations include: national and sub-national (e.g. regional, local, municipal) governments, as appropriate; regulators; voluntary initiatives; intergovernmental bodies; international and national non-governmental organizations. NOTE 3 This document does not provide guidance on carbon neutrality for organizations or for products and services. Information on carbon neutrality for organizations will be provided in ISO 14068 [under development].

Lignes directrices relatives à l’objectif de zéro émission nette

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
10-Nov-2022
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Due Date
17-Nov-2023
Completion Date
11-Nov-2022
Ref Project

Buy Standard

Draft
REDLINE PRF IWA 42 - Net zero guidelines Released:10. 10. 2022
English language
37 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview
Draft
PRF IWA 42 - Net zero guidelines Released:10. 10. 2022
English language
37 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

Style Definition
...
Style Definition
...
Style Definition
...
Style Definition
...
Style Definition
...
2022-10-04
Style Definition
...
Style Definition
IWA 42:2022(E) ...
Style Definition
...
ISO/TMBG
Style Definition
...
Style Definition
Secretariat: ISO ...
Style Definition
...
Style Definition
...
Style Definition
...
Style Definition
...
Net zero guidelines
Style Definition
...
Style Definition
...
Style Definition
...
Style Definition
...
Style Definition
...
Style Definition
...
Style Definition
...
Style Definition
...
Style Definition
...
Style Definition
...
Style Definition
...
Style Definition
...
Style Definition
...
Style Definition
...
Style Definition
...
Style Definition
...
Style Definition
...
Style Definition
...
Style Definition
...
Style Definition
...
Style Definition
...
Style Definition
...
Style Definition
...
Style Definition
...
Style Definition
...
Style Definition
...
Style Definition
...
Style Definition
...
Style Definition
...
Style Definition
...
Style Definition
...
Formatted
...
Deleted:
Deleted: Final draft IWA 42(en)¶
Deleted:
Formatted
...
Formatted
...
Formatted
...
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
IWA 42:2022(E)
Deleted: AWI
Deleted:
Formatted: Left
© ISO 2022
Formatted: Don't adjust space between Latin and Asian
text, Don't adjust space between Asian text and

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this

numbers

publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical,

Deleted:

including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can

be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.

Deleted:
ISO copyright office
Deleted:
Formatted: zzCopyright
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: + 41 22 749 01 11
Formatted: English (United States)
Fax: + 41 22 749 09 47
Formatted: German (Germany)
E-mail: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Field Code Changed
Formatted: German (Germany)
Published in Switzerland
Formatted: Don't adjust space between Latin and Asian
text, Don't adjust space between Asian text and
numbers
ii © ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IWA 42:2022(E)
Deleted: AWI
Formatted: Right
Deleted:
Contents Page
Formatted: Tab stops: 17.2 cm, Right + Not at 0.7 cm
+ 1.4 cm + 2.1 cm + 2.8 cm + 3.5 cm + 4.2 cm + 4.9

Foreword ..................................................................................................................................................................................... v cm + 5.6 cm + 6.3 cm + 7 cm

Deleted: Foreword 4¶

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................. vi

0 Introduction 5¶

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................................................................... 1

1 Scope 6¶
2 Normative references 7¶

2 Normative references .............................................................................................................................................. 2

3 Terms and definitions 7¶
3.1 Terms related to climate action 7¶

3 Terms and definitions .............................................................................................................................................. 2

3.2 Terms related to greenhouse gases 8¶

3.1 Terms related to climate action ........................................................................................................................... 2

3.3 Terms related to mitigation of greenhouse gas
emissions 10¶

3.2 Terms related to greenhouse gases ................................................................................................................... 3

3.4 Terms relating to organizations seeking to achieve

3.3 Terms related to mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions ....................................................................... 6 net zero 12¶

4 Abbreviated terms 13¶

3.4 Terms relating to organizations seeking to achieve net zero ................................................................. 7

5 Net zero guiding principles 14¶
5.1 General 14¶

4 Abbreviated terms .................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2 Alignment 14¶

5 Net zero guiding principles ................................................................................................................................... 9

5.3 Urgency 14¶
5.4 Ambition 14¶

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.5 Prioritization 15¶
5.6 Decision-making based on scientific evidence and

5.2 Alignment...................................................................................................................................................................... 9

indigenous knowledge 15¶

5.3 Urgency .......................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.7 Risk-based approach 15¶
5.8 Credibility 15¶

5.4 Ambition ........................................................................................................................................................................ 9

5.9 Equity and justice 16¶
5.10 Transparency, integrity and accountability 16¶

5.5 Prioritization ............................................................................................................................................................ 10

5.11 Achievement and continuation of net zero 16¶

5.6 Decision-making based on scientific evidence and indigenous knowledge ................................... 10

6 Establishing levels and boundaries for net zero 16¶
7 Leadership and commitment 17¶

5.7 Risk-based approach ............................................................................................................................................. 10

7.1 General 17¶

5.8 Credibility .................................................................................................................................................................. 10 7.2 Leadership commitment 18¶

7.3 Roles and responsibilities 19¶

5.9 Equity and justice ................................................................................................................................................... 10

8 Targets 20¶
8.1 Planning actions to be taken 20¶

5.10 Transparency, integrity and accountability ................................................................................................ 11

8.2 Target setting 21¶

5.11 Achievement and continuation of net zero .................................................................................................. 11

8.2.1 General 21¶
8.2.2 Sectoral targets 22¶

6 Establishing levels and boundaries for net zero ........................................................................................ 11

8.2.3 Targets for Scope 1 emissions 23¶
8.2.4 Targets for Scope 2 emissions 23¶

7 Leadership and commitment ............................................................................................................................. 12

8.2.5 Targets for Scope 3 emissions 24¶

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................ 12

8.2.6 Interim targets 25¶
9 Mitigation 26¶

7.2 Leadership commitment ..................................................................................................................................... 13

9.1 Planning 26¶

7.3 Roles and responsibilities ................................................................................................................................... 14 9.1.1 General 26¶

9.1.2 Content of mitigation plans 27¶

8 Targets ........................................................................................................................................................................ 15

9.2 Prioritization of mitigation actions 28¶
9.2.1 General 28¶

8.1 Planning actions to be taken .............................................................................................................................. 15

9.2.2 Actions to address Scope 1 and Scope 2

8.2 Target setting ........................................................................................................................................................... 16 emissions 28¶

9.2.3 Actions to address Scope 3 and other

8.2.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................ 16

emissions 29¶
10 Counterbalancing residual emissions 30¶

8.2.2 Sectoral targets ........................................................................................................................................................ 17

10.1 General 30¶

8.2.3 Targets for Scope 1 emissions ........................................................................................................................... 17

10.2 Credits 32¶
11 Measurement and monitoring 32¶

8.2.4 Targets for Scope 2 emissions ........................................................................................................................... 18

11.1 General 32¶
11.2 Use of indicators and tools 33¶

8.2.5 Targets for Scope 3 emissions ........................................................................................................................... 18

...

8.2.6 Interim targets ......................................................................................................................................................... 19

9 Mitigation ................................................................................................................................................................... 20

© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
IWA 42:2022(E)
Deleted: AWI
Formatted: Left
Deleted:

9.1 Planning ...................................................................................................................................................................... 20

9.1.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................ 20

9.1.2 Content of mitigation plans ................................................................................................................................ 21

9.2 Prioritization of mitigation actions ................................................................................................................. 22

9.2.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................ 22

9.2.2 Actions to address Scope 1 and Scope 2 emissions .................................................................................. 22

9.2.3 Actions to address Scope 3 and other emissions ...................................................................................... 23

10 Counterbalancing residual emissions ............................................................................................................ 24

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................ 24

10.2 Credits ......................................................................................................................................................................... 26

11 Measurement and monitoring .......................................................................................................................... 26

11.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................ 26

11.2 Use of indicators and tools ................................................................................................................................. 27

12 Wider impact, equity and empowerment..................................................................................................... 28

12.1 Wider impact ............................................................................................................................................................ 28

12.2 Fair share and just transition ............................................................................................................................ 29

12.3 Empowerment ......................................................................................................................................................... 30

13 Communication, reporting and transparency ............................................................................................ 30

13.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................ 30

13.2 Scope of reporting and information to include .......................................................................................... 31

13.2.1 Scope of reporting .................................................................................................................................................. 31

13.2.2 Reporting of net zero claims .............................................................................................................................. 32

13.2.3 Limitations of reporting....................................................................................................................................... 34

13.2.4 Credibility of reports ............................................................................................................................................. 34

14 Improvement ............................................................................................................................................................ 34

Annex A (informative) Workshop contributors ...................................................................................................... 35

iv © ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IWA 42:2022(E)
Deleted: AWI
Deleted:
Formatted: Right
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO

collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.
Formatted: English (United States)

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the Deleted:

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

Formatted: English (United States)
editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).
Deleted:

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

Formatted: English (United States)

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

Formatted: English (United States)

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).
Formatted: English (United States)

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.
Formatted: English (United States)

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the World

Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

Formatted: Font color: Auto, English (United States)
www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.
Formatted: English (United States)
Formatted: English (United States)

International Workshop Agreement IWA 42 was approved at a workshop hosted by the British Standards

Institution (BSI), in association with Our 2050 World, held virtually in September 2022.

Formatted: std_publisher, English (United Kingdom)
Deleted:

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

Formatted: std_docNumber, English (United Kingdom)
complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
Formatted: English (United Kingdom)
Deleted: in an online
Formatted: English (United Kingdom)
Formatted: English (United Kingdom)
Formatted: English (United Kingdom)
Deleted: ,
Formatted: English (United Kingdom)
Formatted: English (United Kingdom)
Deleted:
Formatted: English (United Kingdom)
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
IWA 42:2022(E)
Deleted: AWI
Formatted: Left
Deleted:
Introduction
Deleted: 0
Formatted: Don't adjust space between Latin and Asian
0.1 General
text, Don't adjust space between Asian text and
numbers

Climate change is one of the most pressing challenges that our world faces. Scientific assessments through

Deleted:

the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports have shown that many of the worst

consequences of climate change can be avoided by limiting global warming to 1,5 °C above pre-industrial

levels. The global temperature is already over 1 °C above pre-industrial levels, and scenarios assessed by

the IPCC indicate that limiting warming to 1,5 °C, with no or limited temperature overshoot, requires

achieving at least net zero global carbon dioxide (CO ) emissions in the early 2050s, along with deep and

[15][16]

sustained global reductions in other greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) . These scenarios also show Deleted: 14] [

that the earlier and faster emission reductions occur, the lower peak warming and the lower the

Formatted: Superscript

likelihood of overshooting warming limits. Peak warming depends on cumulative CO2 emissions from the

Formatted: cite_bib, Superscript

beginning of the industrial period up to the time they are reduced to net zero, combined with the change

in non-CO emissions on the climate system, by the time the temperature peaks.
2 Formatted: Superscript

This document provides guiding principles and recommendations to enable a common approach with a

high level of ambition, to drive organizations to achieve net zero GHGs as soon as possible and by 2050

at the latest. It is intended to be a common reference for governance organizations (including voluntary

initiatives, adoption of standards, policy and national and international regulation), and can help

organizations taking action to contribute to achieving global net zero.
Deleted:

This document should be interpreted and used in line with its purpose and scope to maintain and

Formatted: Superscript

promote the highest possible climate ambition. This document does not address legal and other

obligations relating to climate action.
Deleted: 16

This document builds on progress by voluntary initiatives, campaigns and governance, supporting their

Formatted: Superscript

purpose of progressing to a climate positive future, increasing their reach and enabling a more consistent

Deleted:
approach for future interventions and deliverables, including ISO standards.
Deleted:
[17]

The 2015 Paris Agreement states the importance of achieving a global balance between human-caused

Formatted: Font: 11 pt

emissions by sources and human-led removals by sinks in the second half of the 21 century, taking into

Deleted:

account varying capabilities in different parts of the world, on the basis of equity, and in the context of

sustainable development and efforts to eradicate poverty. This document therefore includes Formatted: Font: 11 pt, Not Bold

recommendations on equity and wider impact.
Formatted: Font color: Auto

The scope of this document is aligned to the objectives of the “High-Level Expert Group on the Net Zero

Formatted: Font color: Auto

Emissions Commitments of Non-State Entities”, formed at the request of the United Nations (UN)

Deleted: In Clause 3, Terms and Definitions, a “Note

Secretary General, and other UN developments, including the United Nations Framework Convention on

Formatted: Body Text, Don't adjust space between
Climate Change (UNFCCC).
Latin and Asian text, Don't adjust space between Asian

Some initiatives and policies limit actions relating to net zero GHG emissions to those emissions and

text and numbers

removals under the direct control of the reporting organization. This document promotes and gives

Formatted: Font color: Auto

guidance on taking action to address all GHG emissions, direct and indirect, in an organization’s value

chain. Formatted: Font color: Auto
Deleted: is
0.2 Use of this document
Formatted: Font color: Auto
In this document, the following verbal forms are used:
Deleted: to
— “should” indicates a recommendation;
Formatted: Font color: Auto
— “may” indicates a permission;
Deleted: normative
Deleted: to be taken into account when reading the
— “can” indicates a possibility or a capability.
associated definition of a term. Notes in all other clauses
provide additional information

Information marked as “NOTE” is intended to assist the understanding or use of the document. “Notes to

Deleted: principles, guidance or recommendations in that

entry” used in Clause 3 provide additional information that supplements the terminological data and can

clause…
contain provisions relating to the use of a term.
Formatted: Font color: Red
vi © ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
International Workshop Agreement IWA 42:2022(E)
Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Bold
Formatted: Normal, Space After: 30 pt, Line spacing:
Exactly 12 pt
Formatted: Left: 1.5 cm, Right: 1.3 cm, Top: 1.4 cm,
Net zero guidelines Bottom: 1 cm, Gutter: 1 cm, Section start: Odd page,
Width: 21 cm, Height: 29.7 cm, Footer distance from
edge: 0.5 cm, Different first page header
1 Scope
Formatted: Heading 1, Don't adjust space between
Latin and Asian text, Don't adjust space between Asian

This document provides guiding principles and recommendations to enable a common, global approach

text and numbers

to achieving net zero greenhouse gas emissions through alignment of voluntary initiatives and adoption

Deleted: GHG
of standards, policies and national and international regulation.
Deleted:

This document provides guidance on what governance organizations and other organizations can do to

effectively contribute to global efforts to limit warming to 1,5 °C by achieving net zero no later than 2050.

It provides guidance on a common and equitable contribution and recognizes the capability of individual Deleted: ,

organizations in contributing to achieving global net zero. This document, when used in combination with

Deleted: individual organizations’

applicable science-based pathways, provides guidance for organizations seeking to set robust climate

strategies.

This document provides common terms and definitions, guidance and specific recommendations on: Deleted: ,

— net zero guiding principles for all organizations;
Formatted: List Continue 1, No bullets or numbering,
Don't adjust space between Latin and Asian text, Don't

— incorporating net zero into strategies and policies; adjust space between Asian text and numbers, Tab

stops: 0.7 cm, Left + 1.4 cm, Left + 2.1 cm, Left + 2.8

— what net zero means at different levels and for different types of organization; cm, Left + 3.5 cm, Left + 4.2 cm, Left + 4.9 cm, Left +

5.6 cm, Left + 6.3 cm, Left + 7 cm, Left

— setting and aligning interim and long-term targets based on equity, latest scientific knowledge,

evidence, research and agreed good practice;
— actions to take to achieve these targets;
— greenhouse gas emission reductions within the value chain; Deleted:
— nature protection and restoration;
— avoided emissions and other climate contributions beyond the value chain;
— removals;
— offsets; Deleted:
— credits;
— claims;
— monitoring, measuring and use of appropriate and consistent indicators;
— equity, empowerment, fair share and wider impact;
— transparent reporting and effective communication.

This document is intended to align territorial approaches to achieving net zero (e.g. by nations, regions,

Formatted: Don't adjust space between Latin and Asian

cities) and value chain approaches by organizations. text, Don't adjust space between Asian text and

numbers

This document is intended to enable and support all organizations, including governance organizations

Deleted:

developing policies, frameworks, standards or other initiatives on net zero for use by others.

© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
IWA 42:2022(E)
Deleted: AWI
Deleted:
Formatted: Left

This document is intended to complement voluntary initiatives and facilitate alignment, so that any

organization looking to make or support a net zero claim takes a similar approach regardless of the

initiative it is associated with.
Deleted:

NOTE 1 A single target for organizations of net zero for all greenhouse gas emissions, as soon as possible or by Formatted: Font: 11 pt

2050 at the latest, is used in this document to provide a common, understandable and ambitious target, in line with

Deleted: Note

scientific consensus on the global effort needed to limit warming to 1,5 °C with no or limited temperature overshoot.

[18]
Formatted: Note, Space After: 0 pt, Don't adjust space

This organizational target aligns with the target stated in the Race to Zero Criteria .

between Latin and Asian text, Don't adjust space
between Asian text and numbers, Tab stops: 0.7 cm,
NOTE 2 Governance organizations include:
Left + 1.4 cm, Left + 2.1 cm, Left + 2.8 cm, Left + 3.5

— national and sub-national (e.g. regional, local, municipal) governments, as appropriate; cm, Left + 4.2 cm, Left + 4.9 cm, Left + 5.6 cm, Left +

6.3 cm, Left + 7 cm, Left
— regulators;
Deleted: :
Deleted: GHGs…reenhouse gas emissions, as soon as
— voluntary initiatives;
possible,…
...
Deleted: 17].
— intergovernmental bodies;
Deleted: Note …OTE 2:
...
— international and national non-governmental organizations.
Deleted:

NOTE 3 This document does not provide guidance on carbon neutrality for organizations or for products and

Deleted: Note …OTE 3:
...

services. Information on carbon neutrality for organizations will be provided in ISO 14068 .

Formatted: std_publisher
Deleted:
2 Normative references
Formatted: std_docNumber
There are no normative references in this document.
Deleted: [10] (under development).

NOTE The Normative references clause lists, for information, those documents which are cited in the text in such

Deleted: Note: Further information and guidance on

a way that some or all of their content constitutes requirements of the document.

normative references is provided in the ISO Directives –
Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).¶
3 Terms and definitions
Deleted:
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

Formatted: English (United States)
Deleted: terminological
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
Formatted
...
— IEC Electropedia: available at https://www.electropedia.org/
Formatted: English (United States)

NOTE The Terms and definitions clause provides definitions necessary for the understanding of certain terms

Deleted: https://www.iso.org/obp

used in the document. Some definitions have been drafted specifically for this document, others are based on

Formatted: Hyperlink, No underline, Font color: Auto,

existing terminological entries from International Standards and from documents published by the

English (United States)

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHGP) and United Nations

Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
Formatted
...
Deleted: : …The Terms and definitions in this …lause are
3.1 Terms related to climate action
provided to guide …rovides definitions necessary for the
...
Deleted: A number of terms
3.1.1
Deleted: definitions provided
net zero
net zero GHG
Deleted: ),

condition in which human-caused residual GHG emissions (3.2.9) are balanced by human-led removals

Deleted: ), or other ISO documents.
(3.3.3) over a speci
...

INTERNATIONAL IWA
WORKSHOP 42
AGREEMENT
First edition
2022-11
Net zero guidelines
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
IWA 42:2022(E)
© ISO 2022
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
IWA 42:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IWA 42:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.1 Terms related to climate action ............................................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Terms related to greenhouse gases ..................................................................................................................................... 3

3.3 Terms related to mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions .............................................................................. 5

3.4 Terms relating to organizations seeking to achieve net zero ....................................................................... 7

4 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5 Net zero guiding principles ....................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2 Alignment .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.3 Urgency ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.4 Ambition ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.5 Prioritization ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

5.6 Decision-making based on scientific evidence and indigenous knowledge ..................................... 9

5.7 Risk-based approach ......................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.8 Credibility ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 10

5.9 Equity and justice ............................................................................................................................................................................. 10

5.10 Transparency, integrity and accountability .............................................................................................................. 10

5.11 Achievement and continuation of net zero ................................................................................................................. 11

6 Establishing levels and boundaries for net zero .............................................................................................................11

7 Leadership and commitment ...............................................................................................................................................................12

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................12

7.2 Leadership commitment .............................................................................................................................................................13

7.3 Roles and responsibilities .......................................................................................................................................................... 13

8 Targets .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................14

8.1 Planning actions to be taken ................................................................................................................................................... 14

8.2 Target setting ........................................................................................................................................................................................15

8.2.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................15

8.2.2 Sectoral targets ................................................................................................................................................................ 16

8.2.3 Targets for Scope 1 emissions ............................................................................................................................. 17

8.2.4 Targets for Scope 2 emissions ............................................................................................................................. 17

8.2.5 Targets for Scope 3 emissions ............................................................................................................................. 18

8.2.6 Interim targets .................................................................................................................................................................. 19

9 Mitigation .................................................................................................................................................................................................................20

9.1 Planning ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 20

9.1.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................20

9.1.2 Content of mitigation plans .................................................................................................................................... 20

9.2 Prioritization of mitigation actions .................................................................................................................................. 21

9.2.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 21

9.2.2 Actions to address Scope 1 and Scope 2 emissions ..........................................................................22

9.2.3 Actions to address Scope 3 and other emissions ................................................................................23

10 Counterbalancing residual emissions ........................................................................................................................................23

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................23

10.2 Credits ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 25

11 Measurement and monitoring ............................................................................................................................................................25

11.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 25

11.2 Use of indicators and tools ........................................................................................................................................................ 26

iii
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
IWA 42:2022(E)

12 Wider impact, equity and empowerment ...............................................................................................................................27

12.1 Wider impact ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 27

12.2 Fair share and just transition .................................................................................................................................................28

12.3 Empowerment ......................................................................................................................................................................................29

13 Communication, reporting and transparency ..................................................................................................................29

13.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................29

13.2 Scope of reporting and information to include .......................................................................................................30

13.2.1 Scope of reporting .......................................................................................................................................................... 30

13.2.2 Reporting of net zero claims ................................................................................................................................. 31

13.2.3 Limitations of reporting ........................................................................................................................................... 32

13.2.4 Credibility of reports ...................................................................................................................................................33

14 Improvement .........................................................................................................................................................................................................33

Annex A (informative) Workshop contributors ....................................................................................................................................34

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................35

PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IWA 42:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

International Workshop Agreement IWA 42 was approved at a workshop hosted by the British

Standards Institution (BSI), in association with Our 2050 World, held virtually in September 2022.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
IWA 42:2022(E)
Introduction
0.1 General

Climate change is one of the most pressing challenges that our world faces. Scientific assessments

through the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports have shown that many of the

worst consequences of climate change can be avoided by limiting global warming to 1,5 °C above pre-

industrial levels. The global temperature is already over 1 °C above pre-industrial levels, and scenarios

assessed by the IPCC indicate that limiting warming to 1,5 °C, with no or limited temperature overshoot,

requires achieving at least net zero global carbon dioxide (CO ) emissions in the early 2050s, along with

[15][16]

deep and sustained global reductions in other greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) . These scenarios

also show that the earlier and faster emission reductions occur, the lower peak warming and the lower

the likelihood of overshooting warming limits. Peak warming depends on cumulative CO emissions

from the beginning of the industrial period up to the time they are reduced to net zero, combined with

the change in non-CO emissions on the climate system, by the time the temperature peaks.

This document provides guiding principles and recommendations to enable a common approach with

a high level of ambition, to drive organizations to achieve net zero GHGs as soon as possible and by

2050 at the latest. It is intended to be a common reference for governance organizations (including

voluntary initiatives, adoption of standards, policy and national and international regulation), and can

help organizations taking action to contribute to achieving global net zero.

This document should be interpreted and used in line with its purpose and scope to maintain and

promote the highest possible climate ambition. This document does not address legal and other

obligations relating to climate action.

This document builds on progress by voluntary initiatives, campaigns and governance, supporting

their purpose of progressing to a climate positive future, increasing their reach and enabling a more

consistent approach for future interventions and deliverables, including ISO standards.

[17]

The 2015 Paris Agreement states the importance of achieving a global balance between human-

caused emissions by sources and human-led removals by sinks in the second half of the 21 century,

taking into account varying capabilities in different parts of the world, on the basis of equity, and in the

context of sustainable development and efforts to eradicate poverty. This document therefore includes

recommendations on equity and wider impact.

The scope of this document is aligned to the objectives of the “High-Level Expert Group on the Net

Zero Emissions Commitments of Non-State Entities”, formed at the request of the United Nations (UN)

Secretary General, and other UN developments, including the United Nations Framework Convention on

Climate Change (UNFCCC).

Some initiatives and policies limit actions relating to net zero GHG emissions to those emissions and

removals under the direct control of the reporting organization. This document promotes and gives

guidance on taking action to address all GHG emissions, direct and indirect, in an organization’s value

chain.
0.2 Use of this document
In this document, the following verbal forms are used:
— “should” indicates a recommendation;
— “may” indicates a permission;
— “can” indicates a possibility or a capability.

Information marked as “NOTE” is intended to assist the understanding or use of the document. “Notes

to entry” used in Clause 3 provide additional information that supplements the terminological data and

can contain provisions relating to the use of a term.
PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
International Workshop Agreement IWA 42:2022(E)
Net zero guidelines
1 Scope

This document provides guiding principles and recommendations to enable a common, global approach

to achieving net zero greenhouse gas emissions through alignment of voluntary initiatives and adoption

of standards, policies and national and international regulation.

This document provides guidance on what governance organizations and other organizations can do

to effectively contribute to global efforts to limit warming to 1,5 °C by achieving net zero no later than

2050. It provides guidance on a common and equitable contribution and recognizes the capability of

individual organizations in contributing to achieving global net zero. This document, when used in

combination with applicable science-based pathways, provides guidance for organizations seeking to

set robust climate strategies.

This document provides common terms and definitions, guidance and specific recommendations on:

— net zero guiding principles for all organizations;
— incorporating net zero into strategies and policies;

— what net zero means at different levels and for different types of organization;

— setting and aligning interim and long-term targets based on equity, latest scientific knowledge,

evidence, research and agreed good practice;
— actions to take to achieve these targets;
— greenhouse gas emission reductions within the value chain;
— nature protection and restoration;
— avoided emissions and other climate contributions beyond the value chain;
— removals;
— offsets;
— credits;
— claims;
— monitoring, measuring and use of appropriate and consistent indicators;
— equity, empowerment, fair share and wider impact;
— transparent reporting and effective communication.

This document is intended to align territorial approaches to achieving net zero (e.g. by nations, regions,

cities) and value chain approaches by organizations.

This document is intended to enable and support all organizations, including governance organizations

developing policies, frameworks, standards or other initiatives on net zero for use by others.

© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
IWA 42:2022(E)

This document is intended to complement voluntary initiatives and facilitate alignment, so that any

organization looking to make or support a net zero claim takes a similar approach regardless of the

initiative it is associated with.

NOTE 1 A single target for organizations of net zero for all greenhouse gas emissions, as soon as possible or

by 2050 at the latest, is used in this document to provide a common, understandable and ambitious target, in line

with scientific consensus on the global effort needed to limit warming to 1,5 °C with no or limited temperature

[18]

overshoot. This organizational target aligns with the target stated in the Race to Zero Criteria .

NOTE 2 Governance organizations include:

— national and sub-national (e.g. regional, local, municipal) governments, as appropriate;

— regulators;
— voluntary initiatives;
— intergovernmental bodies;
— international and national non-governmental organizations.

NOTE 3 This document does not provide guidance on carbon neutrality for organizations or for products and

services. Information on carbon neutrality for organizations will be provided in ISO 14068 .

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.

NOTE The Normative references clause lists, for information, those documents which are cited in the text in

such a way that some or all of their content constitutes requirements of the document.

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/

NOTE The Terms and definitions clause provides definitions necessary for the understanding of certain

terms used in the document. Some definitions have been drafted specifically for this document, others are

based on existing terminological entries from International Standards and from documents published by the

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHGP) and United Nations

Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
3.1 Terms related to climate action
3.1.1
net zero
net zero GHG

condition in which human-caused residual GHG emissions (3.2.9) are balanced by human-led removals

(3.3.3) over a specified period and within specified boundaries

Note 1 to entry: Human-led removals include ecosystem restoration, direct air carbon capture and storage,

reforestation and afforestation, enhanced weathering, biochar and other effective methods.

Note 2 to entry: The words “human-caused” and “human-led” are intended to be understood as synonymous

with the word “anthropogenic” in IPCC definitions.
1) Under development.
PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IWA 42:2022(E)

[SOURCE: IPCC AR6 Working Group III Annex 1, definition of “net zero greenhouse gas emissions”,

modified]
3.1.2
science-based pathway

trajectory to achieve global net zero (3.1.1) greenhouse gas emissions (3.2.2) based on scientific evidence

Note 1 to entry: Scientific evidence refers to evidence that has been confirmed through peer review.

Note 2 to entry: In this document, applicable science-based pathways are independent 1,5 °C aligned pathways.

3.1.3
biodiversity
biological diversity

variability among living organisms on the earth, including the variability within and between species,

and within and between ecosystems

Note 1 to entry: Further information on biodiversity is provided by the Convention on Biological Diversity.

[SOURCE: ISO 14050:2020, 3.8.22, modified — Note 1 to entry has been added.]
3.1.4
renewable energy

energy collected from resources that are naturally replenished at a rate equal or faster than extracted

or used

Note 1 to entry: Renewable energy includes sources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, biomass, and

geothermal heat.
[SOURCE: IPCC AR6, Working Group III, Annex 1, modified]
3.1.5
adaptation

adjustments in ecological, social or economic systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli

and their effects or impacts

Note 1 to entry: Adaptation refers to changes in processes, practices and structures to moderate potential

damages or to benefit from opportunities associated with climate change.
[SOURCE: UNFCCC Glossary of climate change acronyms and terms, modified]
3.2 Terms related to greenhouse gases
3.2.1
greenhouse gas
GHG

gaseous constituent of the atmosphere, natural or anthropogenic, that absorbs and emits radiation

at specific wavelengths within the spectrum of infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface, the

atmosphere and clouds

Note 1 to entry: Greenhouse gases caused by human activities and relevant for this document include carbon

dioxide (CO ), methane (CH ), nitrous oxide (N O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulfur

2 4 2
hexafluoride (SF ) and nitrogen trifluoride (NF ).
6 3

[SOURCE: ISO 14050:2020, 3.9.1, modified — The words “both natural and anthropogenic” have been

replaced with “natural or anthropogenic” in the definition and Note 1 to entry has been added.]

© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
IWA 42:2022(E)
3.2.2
greenhouse gas emission
GHG emission
emission
release of a greenhouse gas (3.2.1) into the atmosphere
Note 1 to entry: greenhouse gas emissions include those released from:
— natural sources (e.g. decomposition of plants);
— combustion of fossil fuels;

— other processes, including unintentional release (e.g. caused by imperfections in processing equipment or

conditions).

Note 2 to entry: For GHG emissions that occur not directly into the atmosphere but into a body of water or into

soil, the relevant emission is the amount by which the concentration of the gas increases in the atmosphere as a

result of this emission, according to scientific evidence for chemical and biological processes that can occur in

water or soil.

[SOURCE: ISO 14050:2020, 3.9.8, modified — The admitted term “emission” has been added and Notes 1

and 2 to entry have been added.]
3.2.3
Scope 1 emission
direct GHG emission

greenhouse gas emission (3.2.2) from sources (3.2.7) owned or directly controlled by the organization

(3.4.1)

Note 1 to entry: This document uses the concepts of equity share or control (territorial, financial and operational)

to establish Scope 1 emission responsibility.

Note 2 to entry: Scope 1 emissions do not include those occurring from natural ecosystems owned or controlled

by the organization that are not under management, or remain in a natural state and have not been modified.

Note 3 to entry: Scope 1 emissions for governance organizations (3.4.2) operating at a territorial level refer to GHG

emissions from sources located inside the boundary of that territory. More information on Scope 1 emissions is

provided in the GHG Global Protocol for Community-Scale Greenhouse Gas Inventories, An Accounting and Reporting

Standard for Cities Version 1.1.
[SOURCE: GHG Protocol Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard]
3.2.4
Scope 2 emission
indirect GHG emission from purchased energy

greenhouse gas emission (3.2.2) from the generation of purchased electricity, heat, cooling or steam

consumed by the organization (3.4.1)

Note 1 to entry: Scope 2 emissions for organizations operating at a territorial level refers to GHG emissions other

than Scope 1 emissions (3.2.3), occurring as a consequence of the use of grid-supplied electricity, heat, steam and

cooling within the territorial boundary.
[SOURCE: GHG Protocol Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard]
3.2.5
Scope 3 emission
indirect GHG emission

greenhouse gas emission (3.2.2) that is a consequence of the organization's (3.4.1) activities but arises

from sources (3.2.7) that are not owned or directly controlled by the organization

Note 1 to entry: Scope 3 emissions include all attributable value chain (3.4.3) GHG emissions not i

...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.