Cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) -- Guidelines on the usage of standards

This document — describes standardization activities related to C-ITS on a global level by major standard development organizations (SDOs); — explains the various purposes of deliverables from SDOs and introduces a classification scheme of such documents; — describes methods on how C-ITS services are presented and performed; — identifies an approach for C-ITS releases and exemplifies this approach; — presents a list of standards (Bibliography) with special relevance for C-ITS.

Systèmes de transport intelligents coopératifs (C-ITS) - Lignes directrices sur l'utilisation des normes

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Published
Publication Date
04-Jan-2021
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
25-Nov-2020
Completion Date
25-Nov-2020
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TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 21186-1
First edition
2021-01
Cooperative intelligent transport
systems (C-ITS) — Guidelines on the
usage of standards —
Part 1:
Standardization landscape and
releases
Systèmes de transport intelligents coopératifs (C-ITS) - Lignes
directrices sur l'utilisation des normes —
Partie 1: Paysage de la normalisation et diffusions
Reference number
ISO/TR 21186-1:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TR 21186-1:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TR 21186-1:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Standardization at SDOs ............................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4.2 Goals of standardization ................................................................................................................................................................. 2

4.3 Releases ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.4 SDOs ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

4.5 Standardization areas ....................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.6 Categories of SDO deliverables ................................................................................................................................................. 4

5 C-ITS services ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2 Service initiation and provisioning ....................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2.1 Services for information dissemination based on broadcast messages .......................... 8

5.2.2 Services based on service announcement ................................................................................................. 9

5.2.3 Services initiated by a central station .........................................................................................................10

5.3 Use cases ...................................................................................................................................................................................................10

6 Releases ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.1 Disclaimer ................................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.2 Concept of releases ...........................................................................................................................................................................10

6.3 Management of releases ..............................................................................................................................................................11

6.4 Examples of existing C-ITS releases ...................................................................................................................................12

6.5 C-ITS release 2 from CEN and ISO .......................................................................................................................................13

6.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................13

6.5.2 Release identification ...............................................................................................................................................13

6.5.3 Supported C-ITS services ......................................................................................................................................13

6.5.4 Standards cluster ..........................................................................................................................................................14

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................16

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/TR 21186-1:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 204, Intelligent transport systems, in

collaboration with the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC

278, Intelligent transport systems, in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between

ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).
A list of all parts in the ISO 21186 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/TR 21186-1:2021(E)
Introduction

This document is part of a family of deliverables from Standard Development Organizations (SDOs)

for Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS), which is a subset of standards for Intelligent

Transport Systems (ITS).
ITS aims to improve surface transportation in terms of:
— safety
e.g. crash avoidance, obstacle detection, emergency calls, dangerous goods;
— efficiency

e.g. navigation, green wave, priority, lane access control, contextual speed limits, car sharing;

— comfort
e.g. telematics, parking, electric vehicle charging, infotainment;
— sustainability
by applying information and communication technologies (ICT).

The whole set of standards for deployment of C-ITS is difficult to understand by developers of equipment

and software, especially ITS application software, and thus guidelines explaining a beneficial choice

of standards (C-ITS Release), the purpose and interaction of standardized features, beneficial

implementation approaches and guidance in developing ITS applications are a prerequisite for a fair

and open market allowing early deployment of interoperable and future-proof solutions.

The ISO 21186 series provides necessary guidelines in multiple parts, each dedicated to a specific

purpose:
— Part 1: Standardization landscape and releases (this document);
[32]
— Part 2: Hybrid communications ;
[33]
— Part 3: Security .
This document can be complemented by further parts as required, for example:

— Usage of the service announcement protocol specified, for example, in ISO 22418;

— Dynamically extendable data and protocol parameters ("Information Object Classes" and

"Information Object Sets"; based on ASN.1 type CLASS);
— Usage of the GTDM framework specified in ISO/TS 21184.

For deployment of ITS, especially C-ITS and the emerging Urban ITS and "Mobility as a Service" (MaaS)

paradigms, consistent and complete sets of standards and profiles of standards including necessary

parameterization are necessary in support of the targeted ITS services to be provided by means of ITS

applications. Such sets are referred to as "C-ITS Release". This document presents the C-ITS standards

landscape, describes a concept of Releases and exemplifies this concept with a "C-ITS Release 2".

At the time of writing this document, no applicable Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) issues were

known related to this document. However, this document references standards, for which IPRs are

known. Information on such IPRs is expected to be provided in those respective standards, which might

be from any one of the Standards Development Organisations working on ITS or C-ITS.

Referencing other SDOs and their respective deliverables is in no way to be understood as an

endorsement, but rather as an informative piece of information.

More details on the C-ITS domain can be found in the Brochure cited in Reference [129].

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 21186-1:2021(E)
Cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) —
Guidelines on the usage of standards —
Part 1:
Standardization landscape and releases
1 Scope
This document

— describes standardization activities related to C-ITS on a global level by major standard development

organizations (SDOs);

— explains the various purposes of deliverables from SDOs and introduces a classification scheme of

such documents;
— describes methods on how C-ITS services are presented and performed;
— identifies an approach for C-ITS releases and exemplifies this approach;
— presents a list of standards (Bibliography) with special relevance for C-ITS.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
No terms and definitions are listed in this document.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/

NOTE An approach towards a common vocabulary in ITS is presented in ISO/TS 14812 .

4 Standardization at SDOs
4.1 General

Standardization in general is the process of generating specifications by a recognized authority, i.e. an

SDO, applying the principle of consensus finding prior to formal approval by voting according to the

rules of the SDOs.

Regulatory requirements complement standards and specifications and should be considered for the

deployment of equipment and the operation of services in the given regulatory domain.

1) Under preparation. Stage at time of publication: ISO/DTS 14812:2021.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/TR 21186-1:2021(E)
4.2 Goals of standardization

The purpose of standardization, in general, is to enable or facilitate services of the respective

standardization domain, i.e. C-ITS services provided by ITS applications for the ITS service domains.

Particularly, the purpose of standardization is manifold, for example, aiming at:

— technical interoperability at observable communications interfaces (covering, for example,

mechanical, electrical, and logical requirements);

— portability of applications (enabling, for example, the online download of applications from station

management centres and the execution of them on different technical platforms);
— syntactical and semantical interoperability in terms of data and messages;
— minimum functionality from the users' point of view;
— minimum performance to ensure reliable execution of use-cases;
— facilitation of implementations;
— reliable protected operations in terms of privacy and (cyber) security;
— provision of commonly agreed terms and definitions, i.e. a common language;
— commonly agreed modes of operation, i.e. work methods;
— a global market;
— prevention of vendor-lock-in; and
— evidence of compliance.
An introduction to C-ITS services is provided in Clause 5.
4.3 Releases

In order to reach the standardization goals listed in 4.2, standards are grouped in so-called "Releases",

together with information on profiles and parameters. Profiles identify selected mandatory

requirements, and parameter information identifies applicable values, such that interoperability

between equipment provided by different vendors is ensured.

Releases use dated references to standards. A release supports one or several use cases or services.

The Bibliography presents a non-exhaustive snapshot of SDO deliverables that are considered to be of

certain relevance for ITS, especially for C-ITS but also for the Urban ITS paradigm.

Clause 6 explains the approach towards C-ITS releases and provides examples of releases.

4.4 SDOs

Major standard development organizations (SDOs), e.g. ISO, CEN, ETSI, IEEE, working on an international

or regional level provide deliverables, e.g. standards, specifications, reports, for the domain of C-ITS.

Secondary SDOs in the sense of the C-ITS business domain are working on general purpose specifications

that are usually referenced in ITS standards.

For the deployment of ITS, regional legislation is to be considered, e.g. in Europe:

— Decisions of the European Commission;
— Recommendations and Decisions from CEPT's ECC / ERC;
— Delegated Acts of the European Commission.
2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 21186-1:2021(E)
[129]
More details on "who is doing what" are presented in the Brochure .
4.5 Standardization areas

Standardization activities can be grouped into standardization areas. For the purpose of this document,

this grouping follows largely the ITS station architecture specified in ISO 21217 and illustrated in

Figure 1.
Figure 1 — Simplified ITS station architecture (ISO 21217)

The "Harmonized Architecture Reference for Technical Standards" (HARTS) project applied the same

[128]
architectural approach using slightly different terms .
The following standardization areas are identified and used in this document:
— A-1: System level issues

High level system architecture and related issues, i.e. the environment in which ITS-SUs according

to Figure 1 operate.
— A-2: Station architecture
Primarily the general framework illustrated in Figure 1.
— A-3: ITS applications, messages, data

Issues related to use cases and related applications (procedural behaviour) and their respective

communications (data and messages) that are typically architecturally located in the Applications

and Facilities blocks of Figure 1.
— A-4: Station management

Management of issues related to whole ITS-SU covering e.g. local station management and remote

station management.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO/TR 21186-1:2021(E)
— A-5: Security

Issues mainly architecturally located in the Security block of Figure 1; these issues include

interactions between the Security block and basically all other blocks of Figure 1. Note that security

also includes privacy.
— A-6: Access layer technologies

Communications issues architecturally located in the Access block of Figure 1, i.e. the functionality

of the OSI layers 1 and 2.
— A-7: Network and Transport layer technologies

Communications issues architecturally located in the Networking and Transport block of Figure 1,

i.e. the functionality of the OSI layers 3 and 4.
— A-8: Facility layer technologies

Issues related to communications and applications, architecturally located in the Facilities block of

Figure 1, i.e. the functionality of the OSI layers 5, 6, and 7.
— A-9: Protocol stack
Issues related to a combination of A-6, A-7, and A-8.

Within each standardization area, possible subjects of an SDO deliverable are distinguished by means

of categories of SDO deliverables; see 4.6.
4.6 Categories of SDO deliverables

The following standards categories, applicable for the various standardization areas presented in 4.5,

are identified and used in this document:
— C-1: Preparatory investigations

The major topic is the provision of results on investigations aiming on identifying potential future

standardization activities.
— C-2: Functional requirements

The major standardization topic is the provision of functional requirements without going into the

details of specifications of e.g. protocols, data, or messages.
— C-3: Use cases

The major standardization topic is the provision of use case specifications and related illustrations.

— C-4: Data and messages

The major standardization topic is the provision of definitions of data, also referred to as "data

dictionaries", or the specification of messages, typically based on standardized data.

— C-5: Protocols

The major standardization topic is the provision of protocol specifications, e.g. communications

protocols and procedural behaviour of applications.
— C-6: Profiles

The major standardization topic is the provision of profiles based on existing standards, e.g. a

[38] [112]
communication profile based on the tool box IEEE 802.11 (WiFi).
4 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 21186-1:2021(E)
— C-7: Testing

The major standardization topic is the provision of test specifications, e.g. conformance test suites.

Conformance test suites typically consist of three parts, i.e.

1) a (Protocol) implementation conformance statement proforma (PICS) allowing a vendor to

declare conformance with selected features;

2) a test suite structure and test purposes (TSS&TP) document providing a natural-language

description of tests to be performed dependent on the PICS declaration;

3) an abstract test suite (ATS) providing test software (typically written in TTCN-3) to be

executed dependent on the PICS declaration.
— C-8: Regulations

The major topic is the provision of information on applicable regulations. Note that such information

is not usually provided in standards, whilst standards (e.g. Harmonized European Norms) are

referenced by regulation.
— C-9: Registries

The major topic is the provision of registration information, e.g. a registry of OSI layer port numbers

for a specific transport protocol, or a registry for globally unique ITS application identifiers (ITS-AID).

— C-10: Tutorials and guidelines

The major topic is the provision of tutorials on technical topics and guidelines on how to apply

standards; an example is this document.
— C-11: Reports

The major topic is the provision of non-normative information, and are largely different to tutorials

and guides, e.g. validation reports on conformance testing and security analysis (TVRA).

— C-12: Research

The major topic is the provision of results on scientific research related to potential future

standardization.
— C-13: Process

The major standardization topic is the provision of process specifications, e.g. business processes.

NOTE SDO deliverables can provide specifications related to various categories.
5 C-ITS services
5.1 General

C-ITS services are services from ITS service domains that are based on the concept of cooperation. The

[129]
concept of cooperation, i.e. C-ITS, is explained in the Brochure .
There exist approaches to identify ITS services and ITS use cases. However:
a) there is no consensus on a harmonized academic approach,
b) there are different regional needs and approaches, and

c) finally, it is proving difficult or even impossible to have any hierarchically structured

presentation at all.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO/TR 21186-1:2021(E)

Three examples of approaches are presented below. This document does not use any one of these

approaches, but instead considers a "flat space" of C-ITS services.

The first example of such an approach is given by ISO 14813-1, presenting the following ITS service

domains:
— Traveller Information;
— Traffic Management and Operations;
— Vehicle Services;
— Freight Transport;
— Public Transport;
— Emergency Services;
— Transport-related Payment;
— Road transport related Personal Safety;
— Weather and Environmental Conditions Monitoring;
— Disaster Response Management and Coordination;
— National Security;
— ITS Data Management; and
— Performance Management.

A second international approach to identify ITS services was performed by the Harmonization Task

Group 7 with contributions from Australia, the European Union, and the United States of America. This

approach resulted in the "Harmonized Architecture Reference for Technical Standards" (HARTS) which

is presented at http:// htg7 .org/ . HARTS identified the following ITS service packages:

— Advanced Traveller Information Systems – Broadcast and Personalized;
— Connected Vehicle System Monitoring and Management;
— Core Authorization;
— Curve Speed Warning;
— Data Distribution;
— Eco-Approach and Departure at Signalized Intersections;
— Electric Charging Stations Management;
— Electronic Regulations;
— Emergency Vehicle Pre-emption;
— Freight Signal Priority;
— Intelligent Traffic Signal System;
— Intersection Safety Warning and Collision Avoidance;
— In-Vehicle Signage;
— Location and Time;
6 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 21186-1:2021(E)
— Map Management;
— Object Registration and Discovery;
— Pedestrian in Signalized Crosswalk Warning;
— Privacy Protection;
— Queue Warning;
— Railroad Crossing Violation Warning;
— Reduced Speed Zone Warning / Lane Closure;
— Security and Credentials Management;
— Situational Awareness;
— Smart Park and Ride System;
— Special Vehicle Alert;
— Speed Harmonization;
— Spot Weather Impact Warning;
— Stop Sign – "Gap Assist" and "Violation Warning";
— Transit Signal Priority;
— Traveller Information – Smart Parking;
— V2V Basic Safety;
— Vehicle Data for Traffic Operations; and
— Warnings about Upcoming Work Zone.

A third example is an approach linked to the international HARTS work, i.e. the "Architecture Reference

for Cooperative and Intelligent Transportation" (ARC-IT) of the United States of America. This approach

is presented at http:// local .iteris .com/ arc -it/ . ARC-IT identifies C-ITS Service Packages grouped into the

following areas:
— Commercial Vehicle Operations;
— Data Management;
— Maintenance and Construction;
— Parking Management;
— Public Safety;
— Public Transportation;
— Support;
— Sustainable Travel;
— Traffic Management;
— Traveller Information;
— Vehicle Safety;
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO/TR 21186-1:2021(E)
— Weather.

It is to be noted that several even non-interoperable instantiations of the same ITS service can exist.

(C-)ITS services are provided by ITS applications, and ITS applications are implemented by means of

complementary ITS-S application objects; see ISO 21217.

ITS-S application objects, in the terminology of the OSI layered model specified in ISO/IEC 7498-1, are

software entities typically located above the OSI communications protocol stack that can interact with

one or several peer stations for exchanging Application Protocol Data Units (APDUs) - either receive, or

transmit, or receive and transmit. Further on, an ITS-S application process can exchange locally (same

ITS station unit [ITS-SU]) data with other ITS-S application processes or facilities (e.g. PVT service

specified in ISO/TS 21176, or the message and data management facilities specified in ISO/TS 17429

and ISO/TS 21184 ). The processing of these APDUs and data finally provides the ITS service to the

user of ITS. The user of ITS can be a human or a machine.

Basically, ITS applications and their related ITS-S application processes are agnostic to communications

technologies. However, ITS applications can require certain communication capabilities which,

together with regional regulations and system specification requirements (policies), allow selecting

specific communication protocol stacks per flow of an ITS-S application process. Respective

applicable management standards are ISO 17423 and ISO 24102-6. This leads to the concept of Hybrid

Communications which is explained in ISO/TS 21186-2.
Service initiation and provisioning is explained in 5.2.
5.2 Service initiation and provisioning
5.2.1 Services for information dissemination based on broadcast messages

In the context of road safety, C-ITS services are mainly based on broadcasting standardized messages,

i.e. there are:

a) ITS-S application processes for assembling such messages (e.g. CAM, DENM, SPaT, IVI, BSM, ...) on

the basis of input data, e.g. from sensor and control networks.

b) ITS-S application processes for parsing and disassembling of such messages and provisioning of

data contained in these messages to either a local dynamic map (LDM) specified in ISO 18750

or to interested other local ITS-S application processes using a publish-subscribe mechanism

(ISO/TS 17429)

c) ITS-S application processes for processing received data and performing related actions such as:

— information to the human user;

— interaction with the vehicle (currently via assistance systems, in the future directly to the

autonomous vehicle).
[129]

NOTE An incomplete overview of acronyms used in C-ITS is presented in the Brochure .

Examples for the above three cases are:

a) The CAM (Cooperative Awareness Message) Generator application consists of a single ITS-S

application process. Generation of a CAM is a service provided to CAM parsers in peer ITS-SUs, i.e.

not provided directly to humans.

b) The CAM Parser application consists of a single ITS-S application process. Parsing of CAMs and

provisioning of these messages or parts of them is a service provided to other ITS-application

processes in the same ITS-SU, i.e. not provided directly to humans.
2) Under preparation. Stage at time of publishing: ISO/PRF TS 21184:2021.
8 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 21186-1:2021(E)
c) Various ITS
...

TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 21186-1
First edition
Cooperative intelligent transport
systems (C-ITS) — Guidelines on the
usage of standards —
Part 1:
Standardization landscape and
releases
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO/TR 21186-1:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TR 21186-1:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TR 21186-1:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Standardization at SDOs ............................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4.2 Goals of standardization ................................................................................................................................................................. 2

4.3 Releases ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.4 SDOs ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

4.5 Standardization areas ....................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.6 Categories of SDO deliverables ................................................................................................................................................. 4

5 C-ITS services ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2 Service initiation and provisioning ....................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2.1 Services for information dissemination based on broadcast messages .......................... 8

5.2.2 Services based on service announcement ................................................................................................. 9

5.2.3 Services initiated by a central station .........................................................................................................10

5.3 Use cases ...................................................................................................................................................................................................10

6 Releases ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.1 Disclaimer ................................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.2 Concept of releases ...........................................................................................................................................................................10

6.3 Management of releases ..............................................................................................................................................................11

6.4 Examples of existing C-ITS releases ...................................................................................................................................12

6.5 C-ITS release 2 from CEN and ISO .......................................................................................................................................13

6.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................13

6.5.2 Release identification ...............................................................................................................................................13

6.5.3 Supported C-ITS services ......................................................................................................................................13

6.5.4 Standards cluster ..........................................................................................................................................................14

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................16

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/TR 21186-1:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 204, Intelligent transport systems, in

collaboration with the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC

278, Intelligent transport systems, in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between

ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).
A list of all parts in the ISO 21186 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
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Introduction

This document is part of a family of deliverables from Standard Development Organizations (SDOs)

for Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS), which is a subset of standards for Intelligent

Transport Systems (ITS).
ITS aims to improve surface transportation in respect to:
— safety
e.g. crash avoidance, obstacle detection, emergency call, dangerous goods;
— efficiency

e.g. navigation, green wave, priority, lane access control, contextual speed limits, car sharing;

— comfort
e.g. telematics, parking, electric vehicle charging, infotainment;
— sustainability,
by applying information and communication technologies (ICT).

The whole set of standards for deployment of C-ITS is difficult to understand by developers of equipment

and software, especially ITS application software, and thus guidelines explaining a beneficial choice

of standards (C-ITS Release), the purpose and interaction of standardized features, beneficial

implementation approaches and guidance in developing ITS applications are a prerequisite for a fair

and open market allowing early deployment of interoperable and future-proof solutions.

This document provides necessary guidelines in multiple parts, each dedicated to a specific purpose:

— Part 1: Standardization landscape and releases (this document);
[32]
— Part 2: Hybrid communications ;
[33]
— Part 3: Security .
This document can be complemented by further parts as required, for example:
— Usage of the service announcement protocol specified e.g. see Reference [41];

— Dynamically extendable data and protocol parameters ("Information Object Classes" and

"Information Object Sets"; based on ASN.1 type CLASS);
— Usage of the GDTM framework specified in Reference [30].

For deployment of ITS, especially C-ITS and the emerging Urban ITS and "Mobility as a Service" (MaaS)

paradigms, consistent and complete sets of standards and profiles of standards including necessary

parameterization are necessary in support of the targeted ITS services to be provided by means of ITS

applications. Such sets are referred to as "C-ITS Release". This document presents the C-ITS standards

landscape, describes a concept of Releases and exemplifies this concept with a "C-ITS Release 2".

At the time of writing this document, no applicable Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) issues were

known related to this document. However, this document references standards, for which IPRs are

known. Information on such IPRs is expected to be provided in those respective standards, which might

be from any one of the Standards Development Organisations working on ITS or C-ITS.

Referencing other SDOs and their respective deliverables is in no way to be understood as an

endorsement, but rather as an informative piece of information.
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[129]

More details on the C-ITS domain can be found in the Brochure produced by the CEN/TC 278

Project Team PT 1605 funded by the European Commission under Grant Agreement SA/CEN/GROW/

EFTA/453/2016-11.
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 21186-1:2020(E)
Cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) —
Guidelines on the usage of standards —
Part 1:
Standardization landscape and releases
1 Scope
This document

— describes standardization activities related to C-ITS on a global level by major standard development

organizations (SDOs);

— explains the various purposes of deliverables from SDOs and introduces a classification scheme of

such documents;
— describes methods on how C-ITS services are presented and performed;
— identifies an approach for C-ITS releases and exemplifies this approach;
— presents a list of standards (Bibliography) with special relevance for C-ITS.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
No terms and definitions are listed in this document.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/

NOTE An approach towards a common vocabulary in ITS is presented in ISO/TS 14812 .

4 Standardization at SDOs
4.1 General

Standardization in general is the process of generating specifications by a recognized authority, i.e. an

SDO, applying the principle of consensus finding prior to formal approval by voting according to the

rules of the SDOs.

Regulatory requirements complement standards and specifications and should be considered for the

deployment of equipment and the operation of services in the given regulatory domain.

1) Under preparation. Stage at time of publication: ISO/WD TS 14812:2020.
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4.2 Goals of standardization

The purpose of standardization, in general, is to enable or facilitate services of the respective

standardization domain, i.e. C-ITS services provided by ITS applications for the ITS service domains.

Particularly, the purpose of standardization is manifold, for example, aiming at:

— technical interoperability at observable communications interfaces (covering, for example,

mechanical, electrical, and logical requirements);

— portability of applications (enabling, for example, the online download of applications from station

management centres and the execution of them on different technical platforms);
— syntactical and semantical interoperability in terms of data and messages;
— minimum functionality from the users' point of view;
— minimum performance to ensure reliable execution of use-cases;
— facilitation of implementations;
— reliable protected operations in terms of privacy and (cyber) security;
— provision of commonly agreed terms and definitions, i.e. a common language;
— commonly agreed modes of operation, i.e. work methods;
— a global market;
— prevention of vendor-lock-in; and
— evidence of compliance.
An introduction to C-ITS services is provided in Clause 5.
4.3 Releases

In order to reach the standardization goals listed in 4.2, standards are grouped in so-called "Releases",

together with information on profiles and parameters. Profiles identify selected mandatory

requirements, and parameter information identifies applicable values, such that interoperability

between equipment provided by different vendors is ensured.

Releases use dated references to standards. A release supports one or several use cases or services.

The Bibliography presents a non-exhaustive snapshot of SDO deliverables that are considered to be of

certain relevance for ITS, especially for C-ITS but also for the Urban ITS paradigm.

Clause 6 explains the approach towards C-ITS releases and provides examples of releases.

4.4 SDOs

Major standard development organizations (SDOs), e.g. ISO, CEN, ETSI, IEEE, working on an international

or regional level provide deliverables, e.g. standards, specifications, reports, for the domain of C-ITS.

Secondary SDOs in the sense of the C-ITS business domain are working on general purpose specifications

that are usually referenced in ITS standards.

For the deployment of ITS, regional legislation is to be considered, e.g. in Europe:

— Decisions of the European Commission;
— Recommendations and Decisions from CEPT's ECC / ERC;
— Delegated Acts of the European Commission.
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[129]
More details on "who is doing what" are presented in the Brochure .
4.5 Standardization areas

Standardization activities can be grouped into standardization areas. For the purpose of this document,

this grouping follows largely the ITS station architecture specified in ISO 21217 and illustrated in

Figure 1.
Figure 1 — Simplified ITS station architecture (ISO 21217)

The "Harmonized Architecture Reference for Technical Standards" (HARTS) project applied the same

[128]
architectural approach using slightly different terms .
The following standardization areas are identified and used in this document:
— A-1: System level issues

High level system architecture and related issues, i.e. the environment in which ITS-SUs according

to Figure 1 operate.
— A-2: Station architecture
Primarily the general framework illustrated in Figure 1.
— A-3: ITS applications, messages, data

Issues related to use cases and related applications (procedural behaviour) and their respective

communications (data and messages) that are typically architecturally located in the Applications

and Facilities blocks of Figure 1.
— A-4: Station management

Management of issues related to whole ITS-SU covering e.g. local station management and remote

station management.
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— A-5: Security

Issues mainly architecturally located in the Security block of Figure 1; these issues include

interactions between the Security block and basically all other blocks of Figure 1. Note that security

also includes privacy.
— A-6: Access layer technologies

Communications issues architecturally located in the Access block of Figure 1, i.e. the functionality

of the OSI layers 1 and 2.
— A-7: Network and Transport layer technologies

Communications issues architecturally located in the Networking and Transport block of Figure 1,

i.e. the functionality of the OSI layers 3 and 4.
— A-8: Facility layer technologies

Issues related to communications and applications, architecturally located in the Facilities block of

Figure 1, i.e. the functionality of the OSI layers 5, 6, and 7.
— A-9: Protocol stack
Issues related to a combination of A-6, A-7, and A-8.

Within each standardization area, possible subjects of an SDO deliverable are distinguished by means

of categories of SDO deliverables; see 4.6.
4.6 Categories of SDO deliverables

The following standards categories, applicable for the various standardization areas presented in 4.5,

are identified and used in this document:
— C-1: Preparatory investigations

The major topic is the provision of results on investigations aiming on identifying potential future

standardization activities.
— C-2: Functional requirements

The major standardization topic is the provision of functional requirements without going into the

details of specifications of e.g. protocols, data, or messages.
— C-3: Use cases

The major standardization topic is the provision of use case specifications and related illustrations.

— C-4: Data and messages

The major standardization topic is the provision of definitions of data, also referred to as "data

dictionaries", or the specification of messages, typically based on standardized data.

— C-5: Protocols

The major standardization topic is the provision of protocol specifications, e.g. communications

protocols and procedural behaviour of applications.
— C-6: Profiles

The major standardization topic is the provision of profiles based on existing standards, e.g. a

[38] [112]
communication profile based on the tool box IEEE 802.11 (WiFi).
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— C-7: Testing

The major standardization topic is the provision of test specifications, e.g. conformance test suites.

Conformance test suites typically consist of three parts, i.e.

1) a (Protocol) implementation conformance statement proforma (PICS) allowing a vendor to

declare conformance with selected features;

2) a test suite structure and test purposes (TSS&TP) document providing a natural-language

description of tests to be performed dependent on the PICS declaration;

3) an abstract test suite (ATS) providing test software (typically written in TTCN-3) to be

executed dependent on the PICS declaration.
— C-8: Regulations

The major topic is the provision of information on applicable regulations. Note that such information

is not usually provided in standards, whilst standards (e.g. Harmonized European Norms) are

referenced by regulation.
— C-9: Registries

The major topic is the provision of registration information, e.g. a registry of OSI layer port numbers

for a specific transport protocol, or a registry for globally unique ITS application identifiers (ITS-AID).

— C-10: Tutorials and guidelines

The major topic is the provision of tutorials on technical topics and guidelines on how to apply

standards; an example is this document.
— C-11: Reports

The major topic is the provision of non-normative information, and are largely different to tutorials

and guides, e.g. validation reports on conformance testing and security analysis (TVRA).

— C-12: Research

The major topic is the provision of results on scientific research related to potential future

standardization.
— C-13: Process

The major standardization topic is the provision of process specifications, e.g. business processes.

NOTE SDO deliverables can provide specifications related to various categories.
5 C-ITS services
5.1 General

C-ITS services are services from ITS service domains that are based on the concept of cooperation. The

[129]
concept of cooperation, i.e. C-ITS, is explained in the Brochure .
There exist approaches to identify ITS services and ITS use cases. However:
a) there is no consensus on a harmonized academic approach,
b) there are different regional needs and approaches, and

c) finally, it is proving difficult or even impossible to have any hierarchically structured

presentation at all.
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Three examples of approaches are presented below. This document does not use any one of these

approaches, but instead considers a "flat space" of C-ITS services.

The first example of such an approach is given by ISO 14813-1, presenting the following ITS service

domains:
— Traveller Information;
— Traffic Management and Operations;
— Vehicle Services;
— Freight Transport;
— Public Transport;
— Emergency Services;
— Transport-related Payment;
— Road transport related Personal Safety;
— Weather and Environmental Conditions Monitoring;
— Disaster Response Management and Coordination;
— National Security;
— ITS Data Management; and
— Performance Management.

A second international approach to identify ITS services was performed by the Harmonization Task

Group 7 with contributions from Australia, the European Union, and the United States of America. This

approach resulted in the "Harmonized Architecture Reference for Technical Standards" (HARTS) which

is presented at http:// htg7 .org/ . HARTS identified the following ITS service packages:

— Advanced Traveller Information Systems – Broadcast and Personalized;
— Connected Vehicle System Monitoring and Management;
— Core Authorization;
— Curve Speed Warning;
— Data Distribution;
— Eco-Approach and Departure at Signalized Intersections;
— Electric Charging Stations Management;
— Electronic Regulations;
— Emergency Vehicle Pre-emption;
— Freight Signal Priority;
— Intelligent Traffic Signal System;
— Intersection Safety Warning and Collision Avoidance;
— In-Vehicle Signage;
— Location and Time;
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— Map Management;
— Object Registration and Discovery;
— Pedestrian in Signalized Crosswalk Warning;
— Privacy Protection;
— Queue Warning;
— Railroad Crossing Violation Warning;
— Reduced Speed Zone Warning / Lane Closure;
— Security and Credentials Management;
— Situational Awareness;
— Smart Park and Ride System;
— Special Vehicle Alert;
— Speed Harmonization;
— Spot Weather Impact Warning;
— Stop Sign – "Gap Assist" and "Violation Warning";
— Transit Signal Priority;
— Traveller Information – Smart Parking;
— V2V Basic Safety;
— Vehicle Data for Traffic Operations; and
— Warnings about Upcoming Work Zone.

A third example is an approach linked to the international HARTS work, i.e. the "Architecture Reference

for Cooperative and Intelligent Transportation" (ARC-IT) of the United States of America. This approach

is presented at http:// local .iteris .com/ arc -it/ . ARC-IT identifies C-ITS Service Packages grouped into the

following areas:
— Commercial Vehicle Operations;
— Data Management;
— Maintenance and Construction;
— Parking Management;
— Public Safety;
— Public Transportation;
— Support;
— Sustainable Travel;
— Traffic Management;
— Traveller Information;
— Vehicle Safety;
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— Weather.

It is to be noted that several even non-interoperable instantiations of the same ITS service can exist.

(C-)ITS services are provided by ITS applications, and ITS applications are implemented by means of

complementary ITS-S application objects; see ISO 21217.

ITS-S application objects, in the terminology of the OSI layered model specified in ISO/IEC 7498-1, are

software entities typically located above the OSI communications protocol stack that can interact with

one or several peer stations for exchanging Application Protocol Data Units (APDUs) - either receive, or

transmit, or receive and transmit. Further on, an ITS-S application process can exchange locally (same

ITS station unit [ITS-SU]) data with other ITS-S application processes or facilities (e.g. PVT service

specified in ISO/TS 21176, or the message and data management facilities specified in ISO/TS 17429

and ISO/TS 21184 ). The processing of these APDUs and data finally provides the ITS service to the

user of ITS. The user of ITS can be a human or a machine.

Basically, ITS applications and their related ITS-S application processes are agnostic to communications

technologies. However, ITS applications can require certain communication capabilities which,

together with regional regulations and system specification requirements (policies), allow selecting

specific communication protocol stacks per flow of an ITS-S application process. Respective

applicable management standards are ISO 17423 and ISO 24102-6. This leads to the concept of Hybrid

Communications which is explained in ISO/TS 21186-2.
Service initiation and provisioning is explained in 5.2.
5.2 Service initiation and provisioning
5.2.1 Services for information dissemination based on broadcast messages

In the context of road safety, C-ITS services are mainly based on broadcasting standardized messages,

i.e. there are:

a) ITS-S application processes for assembling such messages (e.g. CAM, DENM, SPaT, IVI, BSM, ...) on

the basis of input data, e.g. from sensor and control networks.

b) ITS-S application processes for parsing and disassembling of such messages and provisioning of

data contained in these messages to either a local dynamic map (LDM) specified in ISO 18750

or to interested other local ITS-S application processes using a publish-subscribe mechanism

(ISO/TS 17429)

c) ITS-S application processes for processing received data and performing related actions such as:

— information to the human user;

— interaction with the vehicle (currently via assistance systems, in the future directly to the

autonomous vehicle).
[129]

NOTE An incomplete overview of acronyms used in C-ITS is presented in the Brochure .

Examples for the above three cases are:

a) The CAM (Cooperative Awareness Message) Generator application consists of a single ITS-S

application process. Generation of a CAM is a service provided to CAM parsers in peer ITS-SUs, i.e.

not provided directly to humans.

b) The CAM Parser application consists of a single ITS-S application process. Parsing of CAMs and

provisioning of these messages or parts of them is a service provided to other ITS-application

processes in the same ITS-SU, i.e. not prov
...

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