Terminology policies -- Development and implementation

This document provides policy makers in governments, administration, non-profit and profit organizations with guidelines and a methodology for the development and implementation of a comprehensive policy concerning the planning and management of terminology. This document defines key concepts and describes scenarios and environments that can require different kinds of terminology policies. It also places terminology policies in the broader context of institutional strategic frameworks.

Politiques terminologiques -- Élaboration et mise en œuvre

Le présent document fournit aux décideurs politiques des gouvernements, de l'administration, des organisations ŕ but non lucratif et des organisations ŕ but lucratif des lignes directrices et une méthodologie d'élaboration et de mise en œuvre d'une stratégie politique exhaustive concernant l'aménagement et la gestion terminologique. Le présent document définit des concepts clés et décrit des scénarios et des environnements susceptibles de nécessiter différents types de politiques terminologiques. Il place également les politiques terminologiques dans le contexte élargi de cadres institutionnels stratégiques.

Politike terminologije - Razvoj in izvajanje

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
19-Apr-2020
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
20-Apr-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 29383:2021
01-marec-2021
Politike terminologije - Razvoj in izvajanje
Terminology policies -- Development and implementation
Politiques terminologiques -- Élaboration et mise en oeuvre
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 29383:2020
ICS:
01.020 Terminologija (načela in Terminology (principles and
koordinacija) coordination)
SIST ISO 29383:2021 en,fr

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST ISO 29383:2021
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SIST ISO 29383:2021
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 29383
Second edition
2020-04
Terminology policies — Development
and implementation
Politiques terminologiques — Élaboration et mise en œuvre
Reference number
ISO 29383:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 29383:2021
ISO 29383:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 29383:2021
ISO 29383:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Language planning and terminology planning ..................................................................................................................... 4

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Language planning............................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.3 Terminology planning ....................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5 Formulating and implementing a terminology policy .................................................................................................. 6

6 Terminology policy development process ................................................................................................................................. 7

6.1 Terminology policy development process model ..................................................................................................... 7

6.2 PHASE I – Needs assessment ...................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2.1 Assessment of language and terminology environment ............................................................... 7

6.2.2 Assessment documents .............................................................................................................................................. 8

6.2.3 Stakeholder consultation .......................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2.4 Organization of a community/organization-wide consultation procedure ................. 9

6.3 PHASE II – Policy formulation and approval ................................................................................................................. 9

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.3.2 Finalizing the terminology policy proposal ...........................................................................................10

6.3.3 Coordination of terminology planning with other strategic planning policies ......10

6.3.4 Implementation plan .................................................................................................................................................10

6.3.5 Presentation of the final policy and implementation plan .......................................................11

6.3.6 Decision on final terminology policy documents and implementation plan ............11

6.4 PHASE III – Implementation ....................................................................................................................................................12

6.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................12

6.4.2 Management of the implementation ...........................................................................................................12

6.4.3 Operational and organizational planning of the implementation ......................................12

6.4.4 Publicity and promotion strategy ..................................................................................................................12

6.5 PHASE IV – Policy maintenance ............................................................................................................................................13

Annex A (informative) Tools for stakeholder analysis ....................................................................................................................14

Annex B (informative) Examples of terminology policy user categories and scenarios .............................15

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................19

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST ISO 29383:2021
ISO 29383:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 37, Language and terminology,

Subcommittee SC 1, Principles and methods.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 29383:2010), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— updated terms and definitions based upon new editions of referenced standards;
— revised terminology policy development process;
— updated examples and scenarios of terminology policy.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 29383:2021
ISO 29383:2020(E)
Introduction

This document is designed for policy makers working in different environments, from language

planning institutions to profit organizations.

The requirements concerning the development and implementation of a terminology policy can differ

in these environments as well as from case to case. No two situations are exactly alike and, even in a

seemingly homogenous context, each terminology policy is necessarily individual and custom-made.

This document therefore aims to provide guidance on general principles for the design of an individual

policy to be tailored to a specific set of circumstances and demands. It does so by recommending a

variety of actions that have proven to be helpful in different situations. Some of these recommendations

will be essential in any policy environment, while others may not be relevant.

Terminology policies can take very different forms, depending on the context. In a national context, a

terminology policy can take the form of a legal document or information policy. Similarly, the terminology

policy within a large non-governmental or intergovernmental organization can be complex since it has

to address a very complex situation and various levels of interoperability (cultural, political, semantic,

etc.). In private corporations and smaller organizations, a terminology policy usually takes the form of

guidelines for terminology management, workflow and the use of technology to support it; it is usually

presented in a short document, often not even referring to terminology as such. Distinctions between

these vary and what is imperative in one company, community or organization, can be irrelevant in

another. Due to the ever-increasing interlinking of public and private endeavours, the high degree of

diversity of organizational or institutional organizations, and rapidly changing environments, it is

helpful to have all aspects included in one standard.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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SIST ISO 29383:2021
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SIST ISO 29383:2021
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 29383:2020(E)
Terminology policies — Development and implementation
1 Scope

This document provides policy makers in governments, administration, non-profit and profit

organizations with guidelines and a methodology for the development and implementation of a

comprehensive policy concerning the planning and management of terminology.

This document defines key concepts and describes scenarios and environments that can require

different kinds of terminology policies. It also places terminology policies in the broader context of

institutional strategic frameworks.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 1087:2019, Terminology work amd terminology science — Vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 1087 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
terminology planning

terminology work (3.14) aimed at developing, improving, implementing and disseminating the

terminology of a domain or a subject

Note 1 to entry: Terminology planning involves all aspects of terminology work and has among other objectives

the objective of achieving vocabulary control through such normative documents as thesauri and terminology

standards.
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.5.3]
3.2
terminology policy

set of principles and strategies used as a basis for developing and regulating terminology for a specific

language(s) or domain(s)
3.3
terminology policy implementation
set of activities aimed at executing a terminology policy (3.2)
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST ISO 29383:2021
ISO 29383:2020(E)
3.4
terminology resource
terminological data collection
TDC
collection of terminological entries

Note 1 to entry: Terminology resources can be in paper or electronic format, e.g. paper dictionaries or glossaries,

CDs, DVDs, databases or termbanks.
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.7.1]
3.5
linguistic norm

set of language conventions that is considered to be the shared standard of a language community (3.10)

Note 1 to entry: There can be many kinds of variations (such as dialects) whose conventions deviate from the

linguistic norm.

Note 2 to entry: Different linguistic norms can also be applicable to the same language (e.g. when the same

language is used in different countries, namely BrE vs. AmE, etc.).
3.6
language planning

set of activities involving measures to influence the function, structure or acquisition of a language or

language variety within a language community (3.10)
3.7
status planning

part of language planning (3.6) that concerns the official designation of a language and the regulation of

its status in a society at large or in particular domains or contexts
3.8
corpus planning

part of language planning (3.6) that concerns the development and standardization of a language

Note 1 to entry: Corpus planning includes the standardization and recording of orthography, development of a

standard variety, grammar, pronunciation rules, development of a writing system, and lexicon (including special

lexicon).
3.9
acquisition planning

part of language planning (3.6) that concerns the goals, strategies and methodologies for the

institutionalized teaching and learning of languages in a society

Note 1 to entry: Acquisition planning can include the use of official, minority, majority or neighbouring languages

or international lingua francas.
3.10
language community

community of people defined through common use of shared linguistic norms (3.5) and cultural

specifications

Note 1 to entry: Language communities are not necessarily confined within geopolitical boundaries and can be

distributed in several, sometimes distant locales (3.17) within a region, country, continent or globally.

[SOURCE: ISO 16354:2013, 3.1.11, modified - Definition and Note 1 to entry substantially modified;

example deleted.]
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 29383:2021
ISO 29383:2020(E)
3.11
complementary information

information supplementary to that described in terminological entries and shared across the

terminological data collection (3.13)

Note 1 to entry: Domain hierarchies, institution descriptions and bibliographical references.

[SOURCE: ISO 16642:2017, 3.2, modified - Note 1 to entry transformed into "examples"; "references to

text corpora" removed from the examples.]
3.12
special language
language for special purposes
LSP

natural language used in communication between experts in a domain and characterized by the use of

specific linguistic means of expression

Note 1 to entry: The specific linguistic means of expression always include subject-specific terminology and

phraseology and also can cover stylistic or syntactic features.
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.1.9]
3.13
terminological data collection
TDC

resource consisting of concepts and their designations with associated metadata and documentary

information

[SOURCE: ISO 16642:2017, 3.21, modified - "terminological entries" replaced with "concepts and their

designations".]
3.14
terminology work

work concerned with the systematic collection, description, processing and presentation of concepts

and their designations

Note 1 to entry: Terminology work is preferably carried out on the basis of established principles and methods.

Terminology work includes term extraction, concept harmonization, term harmonization and terminography.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.5.1, modified - Original Notes 1 and 2 to entry replaced with new Note 1

to entry.]
3.15
terminology management
methods for collecting, maintaining, and accessing terminological data
3.16
terminology management system

software tool specifically designed for collecting, maintaining, and accessing terminological data

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.6.13, modified - "with a metadata structure" deleted after "software tool".]

3.17
locale

unique combination of parameters specifying the language, geographic area, and other cultural,

administrative or technical preferences of a given community
[SOURCE: ISO 22274:2013, 3.20]
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST ISO 29383:2021
ISO 29383:2020(E)
4 Language planning and terminology planning
4.1 General

Language planning is a broader concept than terminology planning that covers status, corpus and

acquisition planning. This process is often associated with planning at government level, but can also

be done by non-governmental organisations, private companies and individuals, as language planning

goals can vary. In particular, status planning involves the pronouncement of an official/non-official

(minority) language(s), national language or a language of communication or a medium of instruction

as well as the determination of the functions of such languages. Subsequently, corpus planning is key to

the implementation of the chosen languages determined during status planning.

Corpus planning, in this case, focuses on the development of chosen languages, which can be done

through graphization. The process of graphization involves the development, selection and modification

of orthographic conventions of a language. In addition to graphization, corpus planning also involves

standardization of spelling and modernization that focuses on lexical expansion of general language

and technical vocabulary. These processes often result in new language resources (e.g. glossary lists

and technical terms) to ensure quality and consistency in the way terminology is used in specific

domains or language communities. Corpus planning is therefore that part of language planning that

covers terminology planning. Terminology policies are developed during this planning phase.

Acquisition planning is then critical in ensuring that what has been developed during corpus planning

is introduced to the society at national or local level through education systems ranging from primary

schools to universities and the media. That is, the implementation and use of new language resources

take place during acquisition planning.
4.2 Language planning

Language planning involves deliberate efforts by a government, agency or other entity in order to

influence the function, structure or acquisition of a language or language variety in a certain domain or

within a language community. Language planning comprises a mixture of approaches, such as:

— the determination of the status of a language in a society at large, in a certain domain or context

(status planning);

— the linguistic codification of a language in order to establish a linguistic norm, the development

of language resources (including text corpora, speech corpora, lexicographical data and, to some

extent, terminological resources), the development or recording of literary traditions and sources

(corpus planning);

— the development of a language education policy and teaching of a language (acquisition planning);

— translation strategies, etc.

The major focus of language planning, therefore, is the conscious development of a language to improve

communication in a language community or society at large, or to strengthen the status of the language

of a linguistic community existing within a larger community.
4.3 Terminology planning

Terminology planning results in the development of resources to support the representation of

domain knowledge (concepts) and the use of such representation to ensure successful and unhindered

communication within and across domains, including:
— terminology development;
— terminology use, documentation, recording and processing;
— knowledge transfer;
4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 29383:2021
ISO 29383:2020(E)

— terminology transfer (e.g. during training or learning and teaching through the medium of

instruction);
— terminology implementation (e.g. through technology or via the media);
— translation, interpreting and localization.

Domain-specific conventions of concept representation can comprise not only linguistic representations

of concepts (i.e. terms and appellations), but also several kinds of non-linguistic representations of

concepts (graphic signs, formulae, alphanumeric symbols, illustrations, diagrams, icons, gestures, etc.).

These non-linguistic representations have to be taken into account as well.

Terminology planning should be based as much as possible or feasible on the existing linguistic norm.

The linguistic norm is a standard form of the language used by all groups and sectors of a language

community or groups of language communities of a country or region. Communication patterns in

certain domains may not entirely conform to the linguistic norm of the general language from which

they are derived or in which they are embedded (e.g. bioscience, chemistry).

Terminology planning shall comply with the needs and requirements of specific domains and

applications, including:
— an appropriate level of abstraction (e.g. chemical formulae);
— strict rules of term formation (e.g. biological nomenclatures);

— restricted language with high levels of standardization (e.g. risk communication, aviation industry,

military communication);

— high occurrence of synonymy (e.g. engineering, social sciences, economics, humanities, etc.);

— cultural taboos (e.g. health care, disease/epidemics prevention);
— regional variation and register variation (e.g. public notices).

Special language has a strong influence on general language and vice versa. There is a large area of

overlap between language and terminology planning. Language planning includes the development of

the lexicon (including special lexicon) of a language. At the same time, domain communication consists

largely of terms, i.e. linguistic representations of concepts are mostly constituted of special lexicon of a

particular language.

Terminology planning is also of special concern for pluricentric languages, for example English, French

or German, that are official or state languages in many different countries with very different cultures

and legal systems. In particular, in the domain of law, pluricentric languages and their treatment in

terminology work is a fundamental aspect for the correct transfer of knowledge and for legal certainty.

Terminology planning can be part of other planning activities, such as:

— information planning (e.g. knowledge management, information and documentation strategies);

— education planning (e.g. pre-schooling, secondary, primary and higher education);

— scientific-academic or innovation planning;
— information and communication technology (ICT) planning; and
— marketing planning (e.g. of a company).
Terminology planning is also crucial in the following domains:
— secondary and tertiary scientific education and vocational training;
— knowledge engineering (human language technologies);
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST ISO 29383:2021
ISO 29383:2020(E)
— environmental, tourism and travel industry;
— administration and e-government;
— corporate communication management (official forms and documents);
— health and risk management;
— legal communication (laws and treaties);
— communications and marketing (signage);
— scientific or technical publications, guide books, brochures; and
— translation industry.

Terminology planning is employed to develop and standardize terminology and terminological

phraseology in support of the above and to guarantee overall efficient domain communication and

knowledge transfer.
5 Formulating and implementing a terminology policy

Terminology planning should lead to the generation of comprehensive and integrative terminology

policies that are informed by the requirements, and address the needs of the specific environment and

domain. The degree of specific detail is determined by scale, purpose and environment of the policy.

Often, terminology policies concern the harmonization of overlapping or conflicting policies.

Successful terminology policies are:

— evidence-based (decisions on policy recommendations should be based on facts gathered during the

needs assessment phase);

— visionary (long-term view) (terminology policy should be aligned with the strategic direction and

objectives of an organization or country);

— based on standards and quality management (the policy that is being developed should take into

consideration the terminology standards and quality management systems that are in place);

— support-driven by top management (top-down: this is where senior managers give policy direction);

participatory (bottom-up: involves stakeholders and practitioners engagement in order to get

their buy-in in the policy direction to ensure successful implementation of technical resources)

(stakeholder engagement process should be empowering and transparent);

— sustainable, consistent and forceful (the policy should be developed with the aim to implement

terminology in a consistent manner; the implementation of such policy should be realistic; systems

should also be put in place in order to ensure sustainability of such a policy); and

— geared towards capacity building.

From the perspective of potential user groups, terminology policies can be classified in terms of:

1) national, regional and sub-national terminology policies;
NOTE Regional here refers to an area/level within a country.
2) domain/sector terminology policies; and
3) corporate terminology policies:
i) corporations; and
ii) non-profit organizations (NGOs), intergovernmental organizations (IGOs).
6 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 29383:2021
ISO 29383:2020(E)

Terminology policy can be implemented within the framework of a national language policy or be driven

by linguistic problems surfacing as a result of a corporate merger, by temporary endeavours (such as

individual projects), corporate language design, or by coordination of intra- and inter-organizational

efforts, etc.

A policy, unlike an individual project that is limited by time, is a continuous process of planning,

implementing and monitoring, evaluating, revising and planning again. Provisions shall therefore be

made for it to become ultimately self-sustaining (through capacity and institution building, as well as

awareness-raising efforts).
6 Terminology policy development process
6.1 Terminology policy development process model

The following model (see Figure 1) shall be considered in the terminology policy development process.

Figure 1 — Terminology policy development process model
6.2 PHASE I – Needs assessment
6.2.1 Assessment of language and terminology environment

Terminology policy development and implementation is a highly complex matter. The process should

be based on a thorough needs assessment. The needs assessment process should cover the following

aspects:

— assessment of the language and terminology environment and of existing legislation;

— activities designed t
...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 29383
Second edition
2020-04
Terminology policies — Development
and implementation
Politiques terminologiques — Élaboration et mise en œuvre
Reference number
ISO 29383:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 29383:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 29383:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Language planning and terminology planning ..................................................................................................................... 4

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Language planning............................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.3 Terminology planning ....................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5 Formulating and implementing a terminology policy .................................................................................................. 6

6 Terminology policy development process ................................................................................................................................. 7

6.1 Terminology policy development process model ..................................................................................................... 7

6.2 PHASE I – Needs assessment ...................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2.1 Assessment of language and terminology environment ............................................................... 7

6.2.2 Assessment documents .............................................................................................................................................. 8

6.2.3 Stakeholder consultation .......................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2.4 Organization of a community/organization-wide consultation procedure ................. 9

6.3 PHASE II – Policy formulation and approval ................................................................................................................. 9

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.3.2 Finalizing the terminology policy proposal ...........................................................................................10

6.3.3 Coordination of terminology planning with other strategic planning policies ......10

6.3.4 Implementation plan .................................................................................................................................................10

6.3.5 Presentation of the final policy and implementation plan .......................................................11

6.3.6 Decision on final terminology policy documents and implementation plan ............11

6.4 PHASE III – Implementation ....................................................................................................................................................12

6.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................12

6.4.2 Management of the implementation ...........................................................................................................12

6.4.3 Operational and organizational planning of the implementation ......................................12

6.4.4 Publicity and promotion strategy ..................................................................................................................12

6.5 PHASE IV – Policy maintenance ............................................................................................................................................13

Annex A (informative) Tools for stakeholder analysis ....................................................................................................................14

Annex B (informative) Examples of terminology policy user categories and scenarios .............................15

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................19

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 29383:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 37, Language and terminology,

Subcommittee SC 1, Principles and methods.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 29383:2010), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— updated terms and definitions based upon new editions of referenced standards;
— revised terminology policy development process;
— updated examples and scenarios of terminology policy.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 29383:2020(E)
Introduction

This document is designed for policy makers working in different environments, from language

planning institutions to profit organizations.

The requirements concerning the development and implementation of a terminology policy can differ

in these environments as well as from case to case. No two situations are exactly alike and, even in a

seemingly homogenous context, each terminology policy is necessarily individual and custom-made.

This document therefore aims to provide guidance on general principles for the design of an individual

policy to be tailored to a specific set of circumstances and demands. It does so by recommending a

variety of actions that have proven to be helpful in different situations. Some of these recommendations

will be essential in any policy environment, while others may not be relevant.

Terminology policies can take very different forms, depending on the context. In a national context, a

terminology policy can take the form of a legal document or information policy. Similarly, the terminology

policy within a large non-governmental or intergovernmental organization can be complex since it has

to address a very complex situation and various levels of interoperability (cultural, political, semantic,

etc.). In private corporations and smaller organizations, a terminology policy usually takes the form of

guidelines for terminology management, workflow and the use of technology to support it; it is usually

presented in a short document, often not even referring to terminology as such. Distinctions between

these vary and what is imperative in one company, community or organization, can be irrelevant in

another. Due to the ever-increasing interlinking of public and private endeavours, the high degree of

diversity of organizational or institutional organizations, and rapidly changing environments, it is

helpful to have all aspects included in one standard.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 29383:2020(E)
Terminology policies — Development and implementation
1 Scope

This document provides policy makers in governments, administration, non-profit and profit

organizations with guidelines and a methodology for the development and implementation of a

comprehensive policy concerning the planning and management of terminology.

This document defines key concepts and describes scenarios and environments that can require

different kinds of terminology policies. It also places terminology policies in the broader context of

institutional strategic frameworks.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 1087:2019, Terminology work amd terminology science — Vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 1087 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
terminology planning

terminology work (3.14) aimed at developing, improving, implementing and disseminating the

terminology of a domain or a subject

Note 1 to entry: Terminology planning involves all aspects of terminology work and has among other objectives

the objective of achieving vocabulary control through such normative documents as thesauri and terminology

standards.
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.5.3]
3.2
terminology policy

set of principles and strategies used as a basis for developing and regulating terminology for a specific

language(s) or domain(s)
3.3
terminology policy implementation
set of activities aimed at executing a terminology policy (3.2)
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ISO 29383:2020(E)
3.4
terminology resource
terminological data collection
TDC
collection of terminological entries

Note 1 to entry: Terminology resources can be in paper or electronic format, e.g. paper dictionaries or glossaries,

CDs, DVDs, databases or termbanks.
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.7.1]
3.5
linguistic norm

set of language conventions that is considered to be the shared standard of a language community (3.10)

Note 1 to entry: There can be many kinds of variations (such as dialects) whose conventions deviate from the

linguistic norm.

Note 2 to entry: Different linguistic norms can also be applicable to the same language (e.g. when the same

language is used in different countries, namely BrE vs. AmE, etc.).
3.6
language planning

set of activities involving measures to influence the function, structure or acquisition of a language or

language variety within a language community (3.10)
3.7
status planning

part of language planning (3.6) that concerns the official designation of a language and the regulation of

its status in a society at large or in particular domains or contexts
3.8
corpus planning

part of language planning (3.6) that concerns the development and standardization of a language

Note 1 to entry: Corpus planning includes the standardization and recording of orthography, development of a

standard variety, grammar, pronunciation rules, development of a writing system, and lexicon (including special

lexicon).
3.9
acquisition planning

part of language planning (3.6) that concerns the goals, strategies and methodologies for the

institutionalized teaching and learning of languages in a society

Note 1 to entry: Acquisition planning can include the use of official, minority, majority or neighbouring languages

or international lingua francas.
3.10
language community

community of people defined through common use of shared linguistic norms (3.5) and cultural

specifications

Note 1 to entry: Language communities are not necessarily confined within geopolitical boundaries and can be

distributed in several, sometimes distant locales (3.17) within a region, country, continent or globally.

[SOURCE: ISO 16354:2013, 3.1.11, modified - Definition and Note 1 to entry substantially modified;

example deleted.]
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 29383:2020(E)
3.11
complementary information

information supplementary to that described in terminological entries and shared across the

terminological data collection (3.13)

Note 1 to entry: Domain hierarchies, institution descriptions and bibliographical references.

[SOURCE: ISO 16642:2017, 3.2, modified - Note 1 to entry transformed into "examples"; "references to

text corpora" removed from the examples.]
3.12
special language
language for special purposes
LSP

natural language used in communication between experts in a domain and characterized by the use of

specific linguistic means of expression

Note 1 to entry: The specific linguistic means of expression always include subject-specific terminology and

phraseology and also can cover stylistic or syntactic features.
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.1.9]
3.13
terminological data collection
TDC

resource consisting of concepts and their designations with associated metadata and documentary

information

[SOURCE: ISO 16642:2017, 3.21, modified - "terminological entries" replaced with "concepts and their

designations".]
3.14
terminology work

work concerned with the systematic collection, description, processing and presentation of concepts

and their designations

Note 1 to entry: Terminology work is preferably carried out on the basis of established principles and methods.

Terminology work includes term extraction, concept harmonization, term harmonization and terminography.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.5.1, modified - Original Notes 1 and 2 to entry replaced with new Note 1

to entry.]
3.15
terminology management
methods for collecting, maintaining, and accessing terminological data
3.16
terminology management system

software tool specifically designed for collecting, maintaining, and accessing terminological data

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.6.13, modified - "with a metadata structure" deleted after "software tool".]

3.17
locale

unique combination of parameters specifying the language, geographic area, and other cultural,

administrative or technical preferences of a given community
[SOURCE: ISO 22274:2013, 3.20]
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ISO 29383:2020(E)
4 Language planning and terminology planning
4.1 General

Language planning is a broader concept than terminology planning that covers status, corpus and

acquisition planning. This process is often associated with planning at government level, but can also

be done by non-governmental organisations, private companies and individuals, as language planning

goals can vary. In particular, status planning involves the pronouncement of an official/non-official

(minority) language(s), national language or a language of communication or a medium of instruction

as well as the determination of the functions of such languages. Subsequently, corpus planning is key to

the implementation of the chosen languages determined during status planning.

Corpus planning, in this case, focuses on the development of chosen languages, which can be done

through graphization. The process of graphization involves the development, selection and modification

of orthographic conventions of a language. In addition to graphization, corpus planning also involves

standardization of spelling and modernization that focuses on lexical expansion of general language

and technical vocabulary. These processes often result in new language resources (e.g. glossary lists

and technical terms) to ensure quality and consistency in the way terminology is used in specific

domains or language communities. Corpus planning is therefore that part of language planning that

covers terminology planning. Terminology policies are developed during this planning phase.

Acquisition planning is then critical in ensuring that what has been developed during corpus planning

is introduced to the society at national or local level through education systems ranging from primary

schools to universities and the media. That is, the implementation and use of new language resources

take place during acquisition planning.
4.2 Language planning

Language planning involves deliberate efforts by a government, agency or other entity in order to

influence the function, structure or acquisition of a language or language variety in a certain domain or

within a language community. Language planning comprises a mixture of approaches, such as:

— the determination of the status of a language in a society at large, in a certain domain or context

(status planning);

— the linguistic codification of a language in order to establish a linguistic norm, the development

of language resources (including text corpora, speech corpora, lexicographical data and, to some

extent, terminological resources), the development or recording of literary traditions and sources

(corpus planning);

— the development of a language education policy and teaching of a language (acquisition planning);

— translation strategies, etc.

The major focus of language planning, therefore, is the conscious development of a language to improve

communication in a language community or society at large, or to strengthen the status of the language

of a linguistic community existing within a larger community.
4.3 Terminology planning

Terminology planning results in the development of resources to support the representation of

domain knowledge (concepts) and the use of such representation to ensure successful and unhindered

communication within and across domains, including:
— terminology development;
— terminology use, documentation, recording and processing;
— knowledge transfer;
4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 29383:2020(E)

— terminology transfer (e.g. during training or learning and teaching through the medium of

instruction);
— terminology implementation (e.g. through technology or via the media);
— translation, interpreting and localization.

Domain-specific conventions of concept representation can comprise not only linguistic representations

of concepts (i.e. terms and appellations), but also several kinds of non-linguistic representations of

concepts (graphic signs, formulae, alphanumeric symbols, illustrations, diagrams, icons, gestures, etc.).

These non-linguistic representations have to be taken into account as well.

Terminology planning should be based as much as possible or feasible on the existing linguistic norm.

The linguistic norm is a standard form of the language used by all groups and sectors of a language

community or groups of language communities of a country or region. Communication patterns in

certain domains may not entirely conform to the linguistic norm of the general language from which

they are derived or in which they are embedded (e.g. bioscience, chemistry).

Terminology planning shall comply with the needs and requirements of specific domains and

applications, including:
— an appropriate level of abstraction (e.g. chemical formulae);
— strict rules of term formation (e.g. biological nomenclatures);

— restricted language with high levels of standardization (e.g. risk communication, aviation industry,

military communication);

— high occurrence of synonymy (e.g. engineering, social sciences, economics, humanities, etc.);

— cultural taboos (e.g. health care, disease/epidemics prevention);
— regional variation and register variation (e.g. public notices).

Special language has a strong influence on general language and vice versa. There is a large area of

overlap between language and terminology planning. Language planning includes the development of

the lexicon (including special lexicon) of a language. At the same time, domain communication consists

largely of terms, i.e. linguistic representations of concepts are mostly constituted of special lexicon of a

particular language.

Terminology planning is also of special concern for pluricentric languages, for example English, French

or German, that are official or state languages in many different countries with very different cultures

and legal systems. In particular, in the domain of law, pluricentric languages and their treatment in

terminology work is a fundamental aspect for the correct transfer of knowledge and for legal certainty.

Terminology planning can be part of other planning activities, such as:

— information planning (e.g. knowledge management, information and documentation strategies);

— education planning (e.g. pre-schooling, secondary, primary and higher education);

— scientific-academic or innovation planning;
— information and communication technology (ICT) planning; and
— marketing planning (e.g. of a company).
Terminology planning is also crucial in the following domains:
— secondary and tertiary scientific education and vocational training;
— knowledge engineering (human language technologies);
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ISO 29383:2020(E)
— environmental, tourism and travel industry;
— administration and e-government;
— corporate communication management (official forms and documents);
— health and risk management;
— legal communication (laws and treaties);
— communications and marketing (signage);
— scientific or technical publications, guide books, brochures; and
— translation industry.

Terminology planning is employed to develop and standardize terminology and terminological

phraseology in support of the above and to guarantee overall efficient domain communication and

knowledge transfer.
5 Formulating and implementing a terminology policy

Terminology planning should lead to the generation of comprehensive and integrative terminology

policies that are informed by the requirements, and address the needs of the specific environment and

domain. The degree of specific detail is determined by scale, purpose and environment of the policy.

Often, terminology policies concern the harmonization of overlapping or conflicting policies.

Successful terminology policies are:

— evidence-based (decisions on policy recommendations should be based on facts gathered during the

needs assessment phase);

— visionary (long-term view) (terminology policy should be aligned with the strategic direction and

objectives of an organization or country);

— based on standards and quality management (the policy that is being developed should take into

consideration the terminology standards and quality management systems that are in place);

— support-driven by top management (top-down: this is where senior managers give policy direction);

participatory (bottom-up: involves stakeholders and practitioners engagement in order to get

their buy-in in the policy direction to ensure successful implementation of technical resources)

(stakeholder engagement process should be empowering and transparent);

— sustainable, consistent and forceful (the policy should be developed with the aim to implement

terminology in a consistent manner; the implementation of such policy should be realistic; systems

should also be put in place in order to ensure sustainability of such a policy); and

— geared towards capacity building.

From the perspective of potential user groups, terminology policies can be classified in terms of:

1) national, regional and sub-national terminology policies;
NOTE Regional here refers to an area/level within a country.
2) domain/sector terminology policies; and
3) corporate terminology policies:
i) corporations; and
ii) non-profit organizations (NGOs), intergovernmental organizations (IGOs).
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ISO 29383:2020(E)

Terminology policy can be implemented within the framework of a national language policy or be driven

by linguistic problems surfacing as a result of a corporate merger, by temporary endeavours (such as

individual projects), corporate language design, or by coordination of intra- and inter-organizational

efforts, etc.

A policy, unlike an individual project that is limited by time, is a continuous process of planning,

implementing and monitoring, evaluating, revising and planning again. Provisions shall therefore be

made for it to become ultimately self-sustaining (through capacity and institution building, as well as

awareness-raising efforts).
6 Terminology policy development process
6.1 Terminology policy development process model

The following model (see Figure 1) shall be considered in the terminology policy development process.

Figure 1 — Terminology policy development process model
6.2 PHASE I – Needs assessment
6.2.1 Assessment of language and terminology environment

Terminology policy development and implementation is a highly complex matter. The process should

be based on a thorough needs assessment. The needs assessment process should cover the following

aspects:

— assessment of the language and terminology environment and of existing legislation;

— activities designed to create awareness of the issues within the society, community or organization,

and efforts to obtain official recognition for these activities;
— recommendation of methodology and available or conceivable procedures;
— preparation of fundamental documents;

— stakeholders could include groups or individuals who are affected by or concerned about or

interested in the terminology policy (see Annex A, Figure A.1);
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO 29383:2020(E)
— establishment of a network of experts;

— organization of a comprehensive consultation process (e.g. national, regional or organisational); and

— draft assessment document.

An assessment of the language and terminology environments is important in determining gaps in

terms of terminology development and facilitation of effective communication processes in the specific

domain or a specific language community. The i
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 29383
Deuxième édition
2020-04
Politiques terminologiques —
Élaboration et mise en œuvre
Terminology policies — Development and implementation
Numéro de référence
ISO 29383:2020(F)
ISO 2020
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ISO 29383:2020(F)
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© ISO 2020

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ii © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 29383:2020(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Domaine d’application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Aménagement linguistique et aménagement terminologique ............................................................................ 4

4.1 Généralités .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.2 Aménagement linguistique .......................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.3 Aménagement terminologique ................................................................................................................................................. 5

5 Formulation et mise en œuvre d’une politique terminologique ........................................................................ 6

6 Processus d’élaboration d’une politique terminologique ......................................................................................... 7

6.1 Modèle de processus d’élaboration d’une politique terminologique ...................................................... 7

6.2 PHASE I ‒ Évaluation des besoins .......................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2.1 Évaluation des environnements linguistique et terminologique ........................................... 8

6.2.2 Documents d’évaluation ............................................................................................................................................ 9

6.2.3 Consultation des parties prenantes ..............................................................................................................10

6.2.4 Organisation d’une procédure de consultation à l’échelle communautaire/

organisationnelle ..........................................................................................................................................................10

6.3 PHASE II ‒ Formulation et approbation de la politique ...................................................................................10

6.3.1 Généralités .........................................................................................................................................................................10

6.3.2 Finalisation de la proposition de politique terminologique ...................................................11

6.3.3 Coordination de l’aménagement terminologique avec d’autres politiques

d’aménagement stratégiques .............................................................................................................................11

6.3.4 Plan de mise en œuvre .............................................................................................................................................11

6.3.5 Présentation de la politique finale et du plan de mise en œuvre ........................................12

6.3.6 Décision d’approbation des documents de politique terminologique et du

plan de mise en œuvre finaux ............................................................................................................................12

6.4 PHASE III ‒ Mise en œuvre ........................................................................................................................................................13

6.4.1 Généralités .........................................................................................................................................................................13

6.4.2 Gestion de la mise en œuvre ...............................................................................................................................13

6.4.3 Planification opérationnelle et organisationnelle de la mise en œuvre ........................13

6.4.4 Stratégie de publicité et de promotion ......................................................................................................13

6.5 PHASE IV ‒ Mise à jour de la politique ............................................................................................................................14

Annexe A (informative) Outils d’analyse des parties prenantes...........................................................................................16

Annexe B (informative) Exemples de catégories d’utilisateurs et de scénarios d’utilisation

de politique terminologique .................................................................................................................................................................17

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................21

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ISO 29383:2020(F)
Avant-propos

L’ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d’organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l’ISO). L’élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l’ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l’ISO participent également aux travaux.

L’ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier de prendre note des différents

critères d’approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir www

.iso .org/ directives).

L’attention est attirée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l’objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L’ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l’élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l’Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l’ISO (voir www .iso .org/ brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, la signification des termes et expressions

spécifiques de l’ISO liés à l’évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l’adhésion

de l’ISO aux principes de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les obstacles

techniques au commerce (OTC), voir le lien suivant : www .iso .org/ iso/ fr/ avant -propos.

Le présent document a été élaboré par le comité technique ISO/TC 37, Langage et terminologie,

sous-comité SC 1, Principes et méthodes.

Cette deuxième édition annule et remplace la première édition (ISO 29383:2010), qui a fait l’objet d’une

révision technique.

Par rapport à l’édition précédente, les principales modifications ont les suivantes :

— termes et définitions mis à jour en fonction de nouvelles éditions des normes de référence ;

— processus d’élaboration d’une politique terminologique révisé ;
— exemples et scénarios d’utilisation de politique terminologique mis à jour.

Il convient que l’utilisateur adresse tout retour d’information ou toute question concernant le présent

document à l’organisme national de normalisation de son pays. Une liste exhaustive desdits organismes

se trouve à l’adresse www .iso .org/ fr/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 29383:2020(F)
Introduction

Le présent document est destiné aux décideurs politiques travaillant dans différents environnements,

allant des institutions d’aménagement linguistique aux organismes à but lucratif.

Les exigences relatives à l’élaboration et à la mise en œuvre d’une politique terminologique peuvent

différer dans ces environnements ainsi que d’un cas à l’autre. Deux situations ne sont jamais exactement

identiques et de même dans un contexte apparemment homogène, chaque politique terminologique

est nécessairement unique et personnalisée. Par conséquent, le présent document est destiné à

fournir des recommandations relatives aux principes généraux applicables à la conception d’une

politique spécifique adaptée à un ensemble de circonstances et de besoins spécifiques. Il recommande

à cet effet différentes actions qui se sont révélées utiles dans diverses situations. Certaines de ces

recommandations sont essentielles dans tout environnement politique, tandis que d’autres peuvent ne

pas être toujours pertinentes.

Les politiques terminologiques peuvent prendre des formes très diverses en fonction du contexte. Dans

un contexte national, une politique terminologique peut prendre la forme d’un document juridique

ou d’une politique informationnelle. Dans le même ordre d’idées, la politique terminologique au sein

d’une grande organisation non gouvernementale ou intergouvernementale peut être compliquée,

car elle doit traiter une situation politique très complexe et différents niveaux d’interopérabilité

(culturel, politique, sémantique, etc.). Dans les entreprises privées et les organisations plus petites, une

politique terminologique prend souvent la forme de lignes directrices sur la gestion terminologique,

le déroulement du travail et l’utilisation d’une technologie pour assister cette gestion ; ces lignes

directrices sont généralement présentées dans un document succinct qui souvent ne fait même pas

référence en soi à la terminologie. Les distinctions entre ces lignes directrices varient et certains

éléments impératifs dans une entreprise, communauté ou organisation peuvent ne pas être applicables

dans d’autres. Compte tenu de l’interconnexion toujours plus importante des initiatives publiques et

privées, du degré élevé de diversité des entités organisationnelles ou institutionnelles et de l’évolution

rapide des environnements, il est utile de regrouper tous les éléments en cause dans une seule norme.

© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés v
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 29383:2020(F)
Politiques terminologiques — Élaboration et mise en œuvre
1 Domaine d’application

Le présent document fournit aux décideurs politiques des gouvernements, de l’administration,

des organisations à but non lucratif et des organisations à but lucratif des lignes directrices et une

méthodologie d’élaboration et de mise en œuvre d’une stratégie politique exhaustive concernant

l’aménagement et la gestion terminologique.

Le présent document définit des concepts clés et décrit des scénarios et des environnements

susceptibles de nécessiter différents types de politiques terminologiques. Il place également les

politiques terminologiques dans le contexte élargi de cadres institutionnels stratégiques.

2 Références normatives

Les documents suivants sont cités dans le texte de sorte qu’ils constituent, pour tout ou partie de leur

contenu, des exigences du présent document. Pour les références datées, seule l’édition citée s’applique.

Pour les références non datées, la dernière édition du document de référence s’applique (y compris les

éventuels amendements).

ISO 1087:2019, Travail terminologique et science de la terminologie — Vocabulaire

3 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions de l’ISO 1087 ainsi que les suivants,

s’appliquent.

L’ISO et l’IEC tiennent à jour des bases de données terminologiques destinées à être utilisées en

normalisation, consultables aux adresses suivantes :

— ISO Online browsing platform : disponible à l’adresse https:// www .iso .org/ obp ;

— IEC Electropedia : disponible à l’adresse http:// www .electropedia .org/ .
3.1
aménagement terminologique

travail terminologique (3.14) visant à développer, améliorer, mettre en œuvre et diffuser la terminologie

d’un domaine ou d’un sujet

Note 1 à l'article: L’aménagement terminologique implique tous les aspects du travail terminologique et a

notamment pour objectif la maîtrise du vocabulaire par le biais des documents normatifs du type thésaurus et

normes de terminologie.
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.5.3]
3.2
politique terminologique

ensemble de principes et de stratégies servant de base à l’élaboration et à la réglementation de la

terminologie pour une ou plusieurs langues ou un ou plusieurs domaines spécifiques

3.3
mise en œuvre d’une politique terminologique
ensemble d’activités destiné à l’exécution d’une politique terminologique (3.2)
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ISO 29383:2020(F)
3.4
ressource terminologique
ensemble de données terminologiques
EDT
ensemble d’articles terminologiques

Note 1 à l'article: Les ressources terminologiques peuvent être au format papier ou électronique, par exemple

dictionnaires ou glossaires papier, CD, DVD, bases de données ou banques de données terminologiques.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.7.1]
3.5
norme linguistique

ensemble de conventions linguistiques considéré comme la norme partagée par une communauté

linguistique (3.10)

Note 1 à l'article: Il peut exister plusieurs types de variations (tels que les dialectes) dont les conventions

s’écartent de la norme linguistique.

Note 2 à l'article: Différentes normes linguistiques peuvent également s’appliquer à la même langue (par exemple,

lorsque la même langue est utilisée dans différents pays, comme l’anglais britannique et l’anglais américain, etc.).

3.6
aménagement linguistique

ensemble d’activités impliquant des mesures visant à influer sur la fonction, la structure ou l’acquisition

d’une langue ou d’une variété de langue au sein d’une communauté linguistique (3.10)

3.7
aménagement du statut

partie de l’aménagement linguistique (3.6) qui concerne la désignation officielle d’une langue et la

réglementation de son statut dans une société de manière générale ou dans certains domaines ou

contextes
3.8
aménagement du corpus

partie de l’aménagement linguistique (3.6) qui concerne l’élaboration et la normalisation d’une langue

Note 1 à l'article: L’aménagement du corpus comprend la normalisation et la consignation de l’orthographe,

l’élaboration d’une variété standard, de règles de grammaire et de ponctuation ainsi que l’élaboration d’un

système d’écriture et d’un lexique (y compris un lexique spécialisé).
3.9
aménagement de l’acquisition

partie de l’aménagement linguistique (3.6) qui concerne les objectifs, les stratégies et les méthodologies

applicables à l’enseignement et à l’apprentissage institutionnalisés des langues dans une société

Note 1 à l'article: L’aménagement de l’acquisition peut inclure l’usage de langues officielles, minoritaires,

majoritaires ou apparentées, ou encore de langues véhiculaires internationales.
3.10
communauté linguistique

communauté de personnes définie par l’utilisation commune de normes linguistiques (3.5) partagées et

par des spécifications culturelles

Note 1 à l'article: Les communautés linguistiques ne sont pas nécessairement confinées dans des limites

géopolitiques et peuvent être réparties dans plusieurs localités (3.17), parfois éloignées, dans une même région,

un même pays, un même continent ou dans le monde entier.

[SOURCE: ISO 16354:2013, 3.1.11, modifiée - Définition et Note 1 à l’article substantiellement modifiées,

exemple supprimé.]
2 © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 29383:2020(F)
3.11
informations complémentaires

informations données en complément de celles décrites dans les articles terminologiques et partagées

dans l’ensemble de données terminologiques (3.13)

Note 1 à l'article: Hiérarchies de domaines, descriptions d’institutions et références bibliographiques.

[SOURCE: ISO 16642:2017, 3.2, modifiée - Entrée Note 1 à l’article transformée en « exemples » ;

« références aux corpus de textes » retirées des exemples.]
3.12
langue de spécialité
langue pour des buts spécifiques
LBP

langue utilisée dans la communication entre experts dans un domaine et caractérisée par l’utilisation

de moyens d’expression linguistiques spécifiques

Note 1 à l'article: Les moyens d’expression linguistiques spécifiques englobent toujours une terminologie et

une phraséologie propres au domaine et peuvent également présenter des traits stylistiques ou syntaxiques

spécifiques.
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.1.9]
3.13
ensemble de données terminologiques
EDT

ressource constituée de concepts et de leurs désignations, accompagnés de métadonnées et

d’informations documentaires y afférentes

[SOURCE: ISO 16642:2017, 3.21, modifiée - « entrées terminologiques » remplacées par « concepts et

désignations ».]
3.14
travail terminologique

activité portant sur la systématisation de la collecte, de la description, du traitement et de la présentation

des concepts et de leurs désignations

Note 1 à l'article: Le travail terminologique s’effectue de préférence sur la base de principes et méthodes reconnus.

Le travail terminologique comprend l’extraction de termes, l’harmonisation des concepts, l’harmonisation des

termes et la terminographie.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.5.1, modifiée - Notes 1 et 2 à l’article d’origine remplacées par une nouvelle

Note 1 à l’article.]
3.15
gestion de la terminologie

ensemble de méthodes de collecte, de tenue à jour et d’accès aux données terminologiques

3.16
système de gestion de la terminologie

outil logiciel spécialement conçu pour la collecte, la tenue à jour et l’accès aux données terminologiques

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.6.13, modifiée - Mention « avec une structure de métadonnées » supprimée

après « outil logiciel ».]
3.17
particularités locales

combinaison unique de paramètres spécifiant la langue, la zone géographique et d’autres préférences

culturelles, administratives ou techniques d’une communauté donnée
[SOURCE: ISO 22274:2013, 3.20]
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ISO 29383:2020(F)
4 Aménagement linguistique et aménagement terminologique
4.1 Généralités

L’aménagement linguistique est un concept plus large que l’aménagement terminologique et qui couvre

l’aménagement du statut, du corpus et de l’acquisition. Ce processus est souvent associé à l’aménagement

au niveau gouvernemental, mais peut également être mis en œuvre par des organisations non

gouvernementales, des entreprises privées et des particuliers, car les objectifs de l’aménagement

linguistique peuvent être divers. L’aménagement du statut implique notamment l’adoption d’une ou de

plusieurs langues (minoritaires) officielles ou non officielles, de la langue nationale, d’une langue de

communication ou d’une langue d’enseignement ainsi que la détermination des fonctions de ces langues.

L’aménagement du corpus constitue ensuite la composante essentielle de la mise en œuvre des langues

déterminées au cours de l’aménagement du statut.

Dans ce cas, l’aménagement du corpus se concentre sur l’élaboration des langues choisies, ce qui peut

être réalisé par la graphisation. Le processus de graphisation implique l’élaboration, la sélection et la

modification des conventions orthographiques d’une langue. Outre la graphisation, l’aménagement du

corpus implique également la normalisation de l’orthographe et une modernisation qui se concentre

sur l’enrichissement lexical de la langue générale et du vocabulaire technique. Ces processus donnent

souvent lieu à de nouvelles ressources linguistiques (par exemple, glossaires et termes techniques) qui

visent à assurer la qualité et la cohérence dans la manière dont la terminologie est utilisée dans des

communautés linguistiques ou des domaines particuliers. L’aménagement du corpus fait donc partie

intégrante de l’aménagement linguistique, qui englobe l’aménagement terminologique. Les politiques

terminologiques sont élaborées au cours de cette phase d’aménagement.

L’aménagement de l’acquisition est ensuite essentiel pour garantir que ce qui a été élaboré au cours de

l’aménagement du corpus est introduit dans la société au niveau national ou local par l’intermédiaire

des systèmes d’éducation, allant des écoles primaires aux universités et aux médias. Autrement dit, la

mise en œuvre et l’utilisation de nouvelles ressources linguistiques ont lieu au cours de l’aménagement

de l’acquisition.
4.2 Aménagement linguistique

L’aménagement linguistique implique des efforts intentionnels d’un gouvernement, d’une agence ou

d’une autre entité afin d’influencer sur la fonction, la structure ou l’acquisition d’une langue ou d’une

variété de langue dans un certain domaine ou au sein d’une communauté linguistique. L’aménagement

linguistique intègre une combinaison d’approches, telles que :

— la détermination du statut d’une langue dans une société de manière générale ou dans un domaine

ou contexte particulier (aménagement du statut) ;

— la codification linguistique d’une langue en vue d’établir une norme linguistique, l’élaboration

de ressources linguistiques (incluant les corpus de textes, les corpus de parole, les données

lexicographiques et, dans une certaine mesure, les ressources terminologiques), l’élaboration ou la

consignation de traditions ou de sources littéraires (aménagement du corpus) ;

— l’élaboration d’une politique d’enseignement et d’apprentissage de la langue (aménagement de

l’acquisition) ;
— des stratégies de traduction, etc.

Par conséquent, l’aménagement linguistique se concentre principalement sur l’élaboration volontaire

d’une langue afin d’améliorer la communication au sein d’une communauté linguistique ou d’une société

de manière générale, ou encore de renforcer le statut de la langue d’une communauté linguistique

existante au sein d’une communauté plus importante.
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ISO 29383:2020(F)
4.3 Aménagement terminologique

L’aménagement terminologique donne lieu au développement de ressources qui visent à soutenir la

représentation des connaissances d’un domaine (concepts) et l’utilisation de cette représentation afin

de garantir une communication fluide et efficace au sein du domaine et entre les domaines, incluant :

— l’élaboration de la terminologie ;

— l’utilisation, la documentation, la consignation et le traitement de la terminologie ;

— le transfert de connaissances ;

— le transfert de la terminologie (par exemple, au cours de la formation ou de l’enseignement et de

l’apprentissage par le biais de la langue d’enseignement) ;

— la mise en œuvre de la terminologie (par exemple, par l’intermédiaire de la technologie ou des

médias) ;
— la traduction, l’interprétation et la localisation.

Les conventions de représentation conceptuelle spécifiques au domaine peuvent comprendre non

seulement des représentations linguistiques des concepts (telles que des termes et des appellations), mais

aussi plusieurs types de représentations non linguistiques de concepts (signes graphiques, formules,

symboles alphanumériques, illustrations, schémas, icônes, gestuelles, etc.). Ces représentations non

linguistiques doivent également être prises en compte.

Il convient que l’aménagement terminologique se fonde autant que possible sur la norme linguistique

existante. La norme linguistique est une forme standard de la langue utilisée par tous les groupes

et secteurs d’une communauté linguistique ou d’un groupe de communautés linguistiques d’un pays

ou d’une région. Les modèles de communication de certains domaines peuvent ne pas se conformer

exactement à la norme linguistique de la langue générale dont ils sont issus ou dans laquelle ils

s’inscrivent (par exemple, les sciences biologiques, la chimie).

L’aménagement terminologique doit se conformer aux besoins et aux exigences de domaines et

applications spécifiques, incluant :
— un niveau approprié d’abstraction (par exemple, formules chimiques) ;

— des règles strictes de formation de termes (par exemple, nomenclatures biologiques) ;

— une langue restreinte avec un haut niveau de normalisation (par exemple, communication des

risques, industrie aéronautique, communication militaire) ;

— un fort taux de synonymie (par exemple, ingénierie, sciences sociales, économie, sciences

humaines, etc.) ;

— les tabous culturels (par exemple, soins de santé, prévention des maladies/épidémies) ;

— les variations régionales et les variations de registre (par exemple, avis publics).

La langue de spécialité a une forte influence sur la langue générale et vice-versa. Il existe de très

nombreux recoupements entre l’aménagement linguistique et l’aménagement terminologique.

L’aménagement linguistique inclut l’élaboration du lexique (y compris du lexique spécialisé) d’une

langue. Parallèlement, la communication d’un domaine comporte une majeure partie de termes,

c’est-à-dire que le lexique spécialisé d’une langue particulière se compose principalement de

représentations linguistiques de concepts.

L’aménagement terminologique représente également un enjeu particulier pour les langues

pluricentriques, telles que l’anglais, l’allemand ou le français, qui sont des langues officielles ou d’État

dans plusieurs pays de cultures et de systèmes juridiques très différents. Dans le domaine juridique en

particulier, les langues pluricentriques et leur traitement dans le travail terminologique constituent un

élément fondamental pour le transfert approprié des connaissances et la sécurité juridique.

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ISO 29383:2020(F)

L’aménagement terminologique peut faire partie d’autres activités d’aménagement, telles que :

— l’aménagement informationnel (par exemple, gestion des connaissances, stratégies d’information et

de documentation) ;

— l’aménagement de l’éducation (par exemple, maternelle, primaire, secondaire et supérieur) ;

— l’aménagement scientifique et académique ou de l’innovation ;

— l’aménagement des technologies de l’information et de la communication (TIC) ; et

— l’aménagement marketing (par exemple, d’une entreprise).
L’aménagement terminologique est également crucial dans les domaines suivants :

— éducation scientifique secondaire et supérieure, et formation professionnelle ;

— ingénierie des connaissances (technologies du langage humain) ;
— industrie environnementale, du tourisme et du voyage ;
— administration et administration en ligne ;

— gestion de la communication d’entreprise (formulaires et documents officiels) ;

— gestion de la santé et des risques ;
— communication juridique (législation et traités) ;
— communication et marketing (affichage) ;
— publications scientifiques ou techniques, guides d’utilisation, brochures ; et
— industrie de la traduction.

L’aménagement terminologique est utilisé afin d’élaborer et de normaliser la terminologie et la

phraséologie terminologique à l’appui de ce qui précède, ainsi que de garantir une communication

spécialisée et un transfert de connaissances globaux efficaces.
5 Formulation et mise en œuvre d’une politique terminologique
Il convient que
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