Safety of machinery - Laser processing machines - Part 1: General safety requirements (ISO 11553-1:2005)

This part of ISO 11553 describes hazards generated by laser processing machines, as defined in 3.2, and specifies the safety requirements relating to radiation hazards and hazards generated by materials and substances. It also specifies the information to be supplied by the manufacturers of such equipment. Requirements dealing with noise as a hazard from laser processing machines are not included in this part of ISO 11553. They will be included in a subsequent amendment. This part of ISO 11553 is not applicable to laser products, or equipment containing such products, which are manufactured solely and expressly for the following applications: ç photolithography; ç stereolithography; ç holography; ç medical applications (per IEC 60601-2-22); ç data storage.

Sicherheit von Maschinen - Laserbearbeitungsmaschinen - Teil 1: Allgemeine Sicherheitsanforderungen (ISO 11553-1:2005)

Dieser Teil von ISO 11553 beschreibt Gefährdungen, die durch Laserbearbeitungsmaschinen nach 3.2
hervorgerufen werden, und legt nur die Sicherheitsanforderungen hinsichtlich elektro-magnetischer Strahlungsgefährdungen
und durch Materialien und Substanzen erzeugter Gefährdungen fest. Er legt auch die
Informationen fest, die von den Herstellern solcher Anlagen mitgeliefert werden müssen.
Anforderungen an die Beseitigung oder Verminderung von Risiken durch Lärm sind nicht in dieser Norm
enthalten. Diese Anforderungen sollen in einer späteren Änderung eingeführt werden.
Er ist nicht anwendbar auf Laserprodukte oder Einrichtungen, die solche Produkte beinhalten, die alleinig und
ausdrücklich für die folgenden Anwendungen hergestellt werden:
⎯ Photolithographie;
⎯ Stereolithographie;
⎯ Holographie;
⎯ Medizinische Anwendungen (nach IEC 60601-2-22);
⎯ Datenspeicherung.

Sécurité des machines - Machines à laser - Partie 1: Prescriptions générales de sécurité (ISO 11553-1:2005)

L'ISO 11553-1:2005 décrit les phénomènes dangereux engendrés par les machines à laser et spécifie les prescriptions de sécurité concernant les risques de rayonnement et les risques engendrés par les matériaux et les substances. Elle indique également les renseignements que doivent fournir les fabricants de ces matériels.
Les exigences relatives au bruit considéré comme un risque des machines à laser ne sont pas comprises dans l'ISO 11553-1:2005. Elles seront incluses dans un amendement ultérieur.
L'ISO 11553-1:2005 ne s'applique pas aux appareils à laser ni aux équipements contenant ces appareils, fabriqués exclusivement et expressément pour les applications suivantes: photolithographie, stéréolithographie, holographie, applications médicales, et mise en mémoire de données.

Varnost strojev - Laserski obdelovalni stroji - 1. del: Splošne varnostne zahteve (ISO 11553-1:2005)

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
26-Jan-2009
Withdrawal Date
17-May-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
9900 - Withdrawal (Adopted Project)
Start Date
18-May-2020
Due Date
10-Jun-2020
Completion Date
18-May-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 11553-1:2009
01-marec-2009
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN ISO 11553-1:2005

Varnost strojev - Laserski obdelovalni stroji - 1. del: Splošne varnostne zahteve

(ISO 11553-1:2005)

Safety of machinery - Laser processing machines - Part 1: General safety requirements

(ISO 11553-1:2005)
Sicherheit von Maschinen - Laserbearbeitungsmaschinen - Teil 1: Allgemeine
Sicherheitsanforderungen (ISO 11553-1:2005)

Sécurité des machines - Machines à laser - Partie 1: Prescriptions générales de sécurité

(ISO 11553-1:2005)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 11553-1:2008
ICS:
13.110 Varnost strojev Safety of machinery
31.260 Optoelektronika, laserska Optoelectronics. Laser
oprema equipment
SIST EN ISO 11553-1:2009 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 11553-1:2009
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SIST EN ISO 11553-1:2009
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN ISO 11553-1
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
November 2008
ICS 13.110; 31.260 Supersedes EN ISO 11553-1:2005
English Version
Safety of machinery - Laser processing machines - Part 1:
General safety requirements (ISO 11553-1:2005)

Sécurité des machines - Machines à laser - Partie 1: Sicherheit von Maschinen - Laserbearbeitungsmaschinen -

Prescriptions générales de sécurité (ISO 11553-1:2005) Teil 1: Allgemeine Sicherheitsanforderungen (ISO 11553-

1:2005)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 7 November 2008.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the CEN Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN Management Centre has the same status as the

official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,

Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2008 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 11553-1:2008: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11553-1:2009
EN ISO 11553-1:2008 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword..............................................................................................................................................................3

Annex ZA (informative) Clauses of this European Standard addressing essential requirements or

other provisions of EU directives 98/37/EC ........................................................................................4

Annex ZB (informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential

Requirements of EU Directive 2006/42/EC ..........................................................................................5

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SIST EN ISO 11553-1:2009
EN ISO 11553-1:2008 (E)
Foreword

The text of ISO 11553-1:2005 has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 172 “Optics and optical

instruments” of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and has been taken over as EN ISO

11553-1:2008 by Technical Committee CEN/TC 123 “Lasers and photonics” the secretariat of which is held by

DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical

text or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2009, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the

latest by December 2009.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 11553-1:2005.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EC Directives.

For relationship with EC Directives, see informative Annex ZA and Annex ZB, which are integral part of this

document.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,

Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 11553-1:2005 has been approved by CEN as a EN ISO 11553-1:2008 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 11553-1:2009
EN ISO 11553-1:2008 (E)
Annex ZA
(informative)
Clauses of this European Standard addressing essential requirements or other
provisions of EU directives 98/37/EC

This European standard has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and

the European Free Trade Association and supports essential requirement 1.5.12 of the following EU

Directives: Machinery safety Directive 98/37/EC.

Once this standard is cited in the Official Journal of the European Communities under that Directive and has

been implemented as a national standard in at least one Member State, compliance with the normative

clauses of this standard confers, within the limits of the scope of this standard, a presumption of conformity

with the corresponding Essential Requirements of that Directive and associated EFTA regulations.

WARNING: Other requirements and other EU Directives may be applicable to the products falling within the

scope of this International standard.
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SIST EN ISO 11553-1:2009
EN ISO 11553-1:2008 (E)
Annex ZB
(informative)
Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential Requirements of
EU Directive 2006/42/EC

This European Standard has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission

and the European Free Trade Association to provide a means of conforming to Essential Requirements of the

New Approach Directive 2006/42/EC on machinery.

Once this standard is cited in the Official Journal of the European Communities under that Directive and has

been implemented as a national standard in at least one Member State, compliance with the normative

clauses of this standard confers, within the limits of the scope of this standard, a presumption of conformity

with the relevant Essential Requirements of that Directive, except for 1.7.3 2nd indent and 1.4.2.1 2nd

paragraph, and associated EFTA regulations.

WARNING — Other requirements and other EU Directives may be applicable to the product(s) falling within

the scope of this standard.
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SIST EN ISO 11553-1:2009
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SIST EN ISO 11553-1:2009
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 11553-1
First edition
2005-02-01
Safety of machinery — Laser processing
machines —
Part 1:
General safety requirements
Sécurité des machines — Machines à laser —
Partie 1: Prescriptions générales de sécurité
Reference number
ISO 11553-1:2005(E)
ISO 2005
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SIST EN ISO 11553-1:2009
ISO 11553-1:2005(E)
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ii © ISO 2005 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 11553-1:2009
ISO 11553-1:2005(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 2

4 Hazards .................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 Safety requirements and measures .................................................................................................... 5

6 Verification of safety requirements and measures ........................................................................... 9

7 Information for user ............................................................................................................................ 10

8 Labelling............................................................................................................................................... 11

Annex A (informative) Potential hazards........................................................................................................ 12

Annex B (informative) Protection against other hazards ............................................................................. 15

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 16

© ISO 2005 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 11553-1:2009
ISO 11553-1:2005(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 11553-1 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 172, Optics and photonics, Subcommittee SC 9,

Electro-optical systems, in collaboration with IEC/TC 76, Optical radiation safety and laser equipment.

This first edition of ISO 11553-1 cancels and replaces ISO 11553:1996, which has been technically revised.

ISO 11553 consists of the following parts, under the general title Safety of machinery — Laser processing

machines:
 Part 1: General safety requirements
 Part 2: Safety requirements for hand-held laser processing devices
iv © ISO 2005 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 11553-1:2009
ISO 11553-1:2005(E)
Introduction

The Machinery Safety Directive issued by the Council of the EEC outlines essential and mandatory

requirements that must be met in order to ensure that machinery is safe. In response, CEN/CENELEC

initiated a programme to produce safety standards for machines and their applications. This part of ISO 11553

is one in that series.

It has been prepared as a harmonized standard to provide a means of conforming with the essential safety

requirements of the Machinery Directive and associated EFTA Regulations.

This document is a type B standard as stated in ISO 12100-1. The provisions of this document may be

supplemented or modified by a type C standard.

For machines which are covered by the scope of a type C standard and which have been designed and built

according to the provision of that standard, the provisions of that type C standard take precedence over the

provisions of this type B standard.

It is applicable to machines using laser radiation to process materials. The purpose of this part of ISO 11553 is

to prevent injuries to persons by
 listing potential hazards generated by machines containing lasers,

 specifying safety measures and verifications necessary for reducing the risk caused by specific

hazardous conditions,
 providing references to pertinent standards, and

 specifying the information which is to be supplied to the users so that they can establish proper

procedures and precautions.
© ISO 2005 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 11553-1:2009
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SIST EN ISO 11553-1:2009
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 11553-1:2005(E)
Safety of machinery — Laser processing machines —
Part 1:
General safety requirements
1 Scope

This part of ISO 11553 describes hazards generated by laser processing machines, as defined in 3.2, and

specifies the safety requirements relating to radiation hazards and hazards generated by materials and

substances. It also specifies the information to be supplied by the manufacturers of such equipment.

Requirements dealing with noise as a hazard from laser processing machines are not included in this part of

ISO 11553. They will be included in a subsequent amendment.

This part of ISO 11553 is not applicable to laser products, or equipment containing such products, which are

manufactured solely and expressly for the following applications:
 photolithography;
 stereolithography;
 holography;
 medical applications (per IEC 60601-2-22);
 data storage.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO 3864:1984, Safety colours and safety signs

ISO 11252:2004, Lasers and laser-related equipment — Laser device — Minimum requirements for

documentation

ISO 12100-1:2003, Safety of machinery — Basic concepts, general principles for design — Part 1: Basic

terminology, methodology

ISO 12100-2:2003, Safety of machinery — Basic concepts, general principles for design — Part 2: Technical

principles

ISO 13849-1:1999, Safety of machinery — Safety-related parts of control systems — Part 1: General

principles for design
ISO 14118:2000, Safety of machinery — Prevention of unexpected start-up
© ISO 2005 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 11553-1:2009
ISO 11553-1:2005(E)

ISO 14119:1998, Safety of machinery — Interlocking devices associated with guards — Principles for design

and selection

IEC 60204-1:1997, Safety of machinery — Electrical equipment of machines — Part 1: General requirements

IEC 60825-1:2001, Safety of laser products — Part 1: Equipment classification, requirements and user's guide

IEC 60825-4:1997, Safety of laser products — Part 4: Laser guards
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 12100-1 and IEC 60825-1 and the

following apply.
3.1
machine

assembly of linked parts or components, at least one of which moves, with the appropriate actuators, control

and power circuits, joined together for a specific application, in particular for the processing, treatment, moving

or packaging of a material
[ISO 12100-1]
3.2
laser processing machine

machine in which (an) embedded laser(s) provide(s) sufficient energy/power to melt, evaporate, or cause a

phase transition in at least a part of the workpiece, and which has the functional and safety completeness to

be ready-to-use
3.3
location with controlled access

location where the hazard is inaccessible except to authorized persons who have received adequate training

in laser safety and servicing of the system involved
NOTE See Table 1.
3.4
location with restricted access

location where the hazard is inaccessible to the public but may be accessible to other observers or other

untrained personnel who are kept from being exposed to the hazards of laser processing by barriers or other

methods
NOTE See Table 1.
3.5
location with unrestricted and uncontrolled access
location where access is not limited or controlled
NOTE See Table 1.
Table 1 — Description of locations
Location
Controlled Restricted Unrestricted and uncontrolled
Authorized and trained in laser Personnel untrained in laser safety
People All, including the public
safety but not the public
2 © ISO 2005 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 11553-1:2009
ISO 11553-1:2005(E)
3.6
(preventive) maintenance

performance of those adjustments or procedures specified in user information, which are intended to be

performed by the user for the purpose of assuring the intended performance of the product

EXAMPLES Replenishment of consumables and cleaning.
3.7
manufacturer
individual or organization that assembles the laser processing machine

NOTE 1 Where a laser processing machine is imported, the importer assumes the responsibilities of the manufacturer.

NOTE 2 An individual or organization that is responsible for modification of a machine is regarded as a manufacturer.

3.8
modification

change to the machine which makes it capable of processing materials in a manner which differs from the

original design, or which makes it capable of processing materials different from what was envisaged in the

original design, or which affects the safety characteristics of a machine
3.9
process zone
area where the laser beam interacts with the material of the workpiece
3.10
production

phase during which the machine is used as intended, including the following operations:

 loading and unloading of parts and/or materials to be processed;

 processing during which the laser beam works alone or in conjunction with other tools

NOTE The loading/unloading can be fully or partly automated or manual.
3.11
service
corrective maintenance

performance of those procedures or adjustments described in the manufacturer's service instructions which

may affect any aspect of a product's performance
EXAMPLES Fault diagnosis, equipment strip-down and repairing.
3.12
subassembly
constituent part needed for proper performance of the laser processing machine

NOTE A laser processing subassembly can be of any laser class in accordance with IEC 60825-1.

3.13
workpiece
material intended to be processed, i.e. the target of the laser beam
4 Hazards
4.1 General

The following subclauses outline areas of concern associated with materials processing with lasers.

© ISO 2005 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 11553-1:2009
ISO 11553-1:2005(E)
4.2 Inherent hazards

The following hazards (see ISO 12100-1 and ISO 12100-2) may be generated by a laser processing machine:

 mechanical hazards;
 electrical hazards;
 thermal hazards;
 vibration hazards;
 radiation hazards, such as
 hazards generated by direct or reflected laser beam,
 hazards generated by ionizing radiation,

 hazards generated by collateral (UV, microwave, etc.) radiation produced, for example, by flash

lamps, discharge tubes or RF-power sources, and

 hazards generated by secondary radiation due to beam effect (the wavelength of the secondary

radiation may be different from that of the beam);
 hazards generated by materials and substances, such as

 hazards due to products which are used in the machine (e.g. laser gases, laser dyes, lasing gases,

solvents),

 hazards resulting from interaction between the beam and the material (e.g. fumes, particles, vapours,

debris), fire or explosion,

 hazards from associated gases (see for example 5.3.4) used to assist laser target interactions and

from any fumes that are produced; these hazards include explosion, fire, toxic effects and oxygen

depletion;
 hazards generated by neglecting ergonomic principles in machine design.
4.3 Hazards created by external effects (interferences)

Power conditions and the environment in which the machine operates may cause the machine to malfunction,

thus giving rise to hazardous conditions and/or making it necessary for someone to intervene within hazard

zones.
Additional environmental interferences include
 temperature,
 humidity,
 external shock/vibration,
 vapours, dust or gases from the environment,
 electromagnetic/radio frequency interference,
 source voltage interruption/fluctuation, and
 insufficient hardware/software compatibility and integrity.
4 © ISO 2005 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 11553-1:2009
ISO 11553-1:2005(E)
4.4 Hazards covered by this part of ISO 11553

Only radiation hazards and hazards generated by the laser interaction with materials and substances are dealt

with in this part of ISO 11553. Other potential hazards are listed in Annex A.
5 Safety requirements and measures
5.1 General requirements

The extent to which hazards are covered is indicated in the Scope. Machinery shall comply as appropriate

with ISO 12100-1 and ISO 12100-2 for hazards which are not covered by this part of ISO 11553.

Manufacturers shall ensure the safety of laser processing machines by
 hazard identification and analysis,
 implementation of safety measures,
 certification and verification of the safety measures, and
 provision of appropriate information for the user.

Based on the hazard identification (see 5.2), appropriate safety measures shall be incorporated into the laser

processing machine by design and manufacture.
The following requirements shall be satisfied:

 each manufacturer shall comply with the safety requirements and measures stipulated in this clause;

 the manufacturer of an installed machine shall be responsible for the compliance of the whole machine,

including subassemblies.

NOTE These requirements apply even if the manufacturer and the customer/user are the same legal entity.

These measures shall take into account each hazard listed in Clause 4, and the results of the hazard analysis,

and should take into account information in Annexes A and B.
5.2 Risk assessment
A risk assessment shall be performed

 for all phases of machine “life” (as applicable); for examples see ISO 12100-1;

 after each modification of the machine by the person or organization responsible for the modification.

A risk assessment includes but is not limited to
a) hazards listed in 4.2 and 4.3;
b) danger zones, particularly those associated with
 the laser system,
 the laser beam path/beam delivery system, and
 the process zone;
c) "interferences” listed in 4.3.

The results of the risk assessment shall be duly documented. Concerning principles for risk assessment, see

also EN 1050.
© ISO 2005 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST EN ISO 11553-1:2009
ISO 11553-1:2005(E)
5.3 Implementation of corrective measures
5.3.1 General

Safety measures shall be incorporated in the machine by design and manufacture as specified in 5.3.2 to

5.3.4.
5.3.2 Protection against laser radiation hazards
5.3.2.1 General

5.3.2.1.1 For laser processing machines operating in locations with unrestricted and uncontrolled access,

the possibility that people be exposed to levels of laser radiation exceeding the accessible emission limit

(AEL) for Class 1 shall be eliminated during production. Access to radiation in excess of the AEL for which

direct viewing is not permitted shall be eliminated for maintenance.
To satisfy these requirements, the following conditions shall be met.

 Unauthorized human access to a danger zone shall be prevented by engineering measures as stipulated

in IEC 60825-1 and ISO 12100-1 and ISO 12100-2.

5.3.2.1.2 For laser processing machines operating in locations with restricted or controlled access, the

possibility that people be exposed to levels of laser radiation exceeding the maximum permissible exposure

(MPE) at the ocular exposure limits for 3 × 10 seconds exposure shall be eliminated during production

(normal or otherwise).
To satisfy this requirement, the following conditions shall be met.

 A Risk Assessment shall be performed. Unauthorized human access to a danger zone should be

prevented by engineering measures as specified in IEC 60825-1 and ISO 12100-1 and ISO 12100-2.

 If access cannot be prevented, exposure above the ocular MPE shall be eliminated by use of engineering

or administrative controls, including Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).

5.3.2.1.3 For all laser processing machines, without regard to restricted or controlled access, the following

shall apply.

 If human presence in a danger zone is unavoidable while the machine is functioning (e.g. during service),

the machine shall be equipped with means for direct control of machine motion, beam direction and beam

stop (see 5.3.3.5).

 The design of protective devices, such as shutters, guards, beam dissipation devices and

deterring/impeding devices, shall meet the requirements specified in IEC 60825-1 and ISO 12100-1 and

ISO 12100-2. A single protective device may be used to provide simultaneous protection against more

than one hazard.
 Laser guards shall comply with requirements specified in IEC 60825-4.
5.3.2.2 Protection during production

The principal danger zone is usually the process zone but the danger zone shall be defined as a result of the

risk assessment.

The hazard analysis shall indicate which type of guarding (local protection or peripheral protection) is to be

used.
6 © ISO 2005 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 11553-1:2009
ISO 11553-1:2005(E)

Local protection is a method of guarding to reduce laser radiation and associated optical radiation to a safe

level based on a risk assessment (e.g. by means of a nozzle or a small guard fitted close to the beam focus at

the workpiece) without totally enclosing the workpiece, the workpiece support and/or machine motion system.

Peripheral protection is a method of guarding to reduce laser radiation and associated optical radiation to a

safe level based on a risk assessment by means of one or more distant guards (e.g. a protective enclosure)

that enclose the workpiece, workpiece support and, usually, most of the machine motion system. The sort of

protection will depend on several factors, for instance:

 the direction (fixed or variable) of beam propagation with regard to the workpiece;

 the type of machining operation to be realized (cutting, welding, etc.);
 the material and shape of the workpiece to be processed;
 the workpiece support;
 the visibility of the process zone.
5.3.2.3 Protection during service

During service procedures, human access to laser radiation exceeding the AEL for Class 1 is sometimes

unavoidable. Machines shall therefore be designe
...

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