Requirements for the connection of micro-generators in parallel with public low-voltage distribution networks

This European Standard specifies technical requirements for connection and operation of fixed installed micro-generators and their protection devices, irrespective of the micro-generators primary source of energy, in parallel with public low-voltage distribution networks, where micro-generation refers to equipment rated up to and including 16 A per phase, single or multi phase 230/400 V or multi phase 230 V (phase-to-phase voltage). This European Standard is intended for installation mainly in the domestic market.

Anforderungen für den Anschluss von Kleinst-Generatoren an das öffentliche Niederspannungsnetz

Diese Norm spezifiziert die technischen Anforderungen für den Anschluss und den Betrieb von fest installierten und parallel mit öffentlichen Niederspannungs-Verteilungsnetzen betriebenen Kleinerzeugern und ihrer Schutzeinrichtungen, unabhängig von der verwendeten Primärenergiequelle. Kleinerzeugung umfasst Geräte mit Bemessungsströmen bis maximal 16 A pro Phase und Bemessungsspannungen ein- oder mehrphasig 230/400 V oder mehrphasig 230 V (Außenleiterspannung). Die Norm bezieht sich insbesondere auf Installationen im Hausbereich.

Prescriptions pour le raccordement de micro-générateurs en parallèle avec les réseaux publics de distribution à basse tension

Cette Norme Européenne spécifie les exigences techniques pour le raccordement et le fonctionnement des micro-générateurs installés à poste fixe et leurs dispositifs de protection, indépendamment de la source d’énergie primaire des micro-générateurs, en parallèle avec les réseaux publics de distribution à basse tension, où micro-génération fait référence à des équipements dimensionnés jusqu’à et incluant 16 A par phase, monophasés ou polyphasés 230/400 V ou polyphasés 230 V (tension entre phases). Cette Norme Européenne est destinée aux installations principalement du marché domestique.

Zahteve za vzporedno vezavo mikro generatorjev z javnim nizkonapetostnim razdelilnim omrežjem

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
18-Mar-2008
Withdrawal Date
24-Sep-2017
Current Stage
9900 - Withdrawal (Adopted Project)
Start Date
12-Sep-2017
Due Date
05-Oct-2017
Completion Date
25-Sep-2017

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 50438:2008
01-maj-2008
Zahteve za vzporedno vezavo mikro generatorjev z javnim nizkonapetostnim
razdelilnim omrežjem

Requirements for the connection of micro-generators in parallel with public low-voltage

distribution networks
Anforderungen für den Anschluss von Kleinst-Generatoren an das öffentliche
Niederspannungsnetz

Prescriptions pour le raccordement de micro-générateurs en parallèle avec les réseaux

publics de distribution à basse tension
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 50438:2007
ICS:
29.160.20 Generatorji Generators
29.240.01 2PUHåMD]DSUHQRVLQ Power transmission and
GLVWULEXFLMRHOHNWULþQHHQHUJLMH distribution networks in
QDVSORãQR general
SIST EN 50438:2008 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 50438:2008
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SIST EN 50438:2008
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 50438
NORME EUROPÉENNE
December 2007
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 29.160.20
English version
Requirements for the connection of micro-generators
in parallel with public low-voltage distribution networks
Prescriptions pour le raccordement Anforderungen für den Anschluss von
de micro-générateurs en parallèle Kleinst-Generatoren an das öffentliche
avec les réseaux publics de distribution Niederspannungsnetz
à basse tension

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2007-09-11. CENELEC members are bound to comply

with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard

the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on

application to the Central Secretariat or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified

to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, the

Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,

Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
CENELEC
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 35, B - 1050 Brussels

© 2007 CENELEC - All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC members.

Ref. No. EN 50438:2007 E
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SIST EN 50438:2008
EN 50438:2007 - 2 -
Foreword

This European Standard was prepared by WG 2 of the Technical Committee CENELEC TC 8X, System

aspects for electrical energy supply.

The text of the draft was submitted to the formal vote and was approved by CENELEC as EN 50438

on 2007-09-11.
This European Standard supersedes CWA 14642:2003.
The following dates were fixed:
– latest date by which the EN has to be implemented
at national level by publication of an identical
national standard or by endorsement (dop) 2008-10-01
– latest date by which the national standards conflicting
with the EN have to be withdrawn (dow) 2010-10-01
__________
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SIST EN 50438:2008
- 3 - EN 50438:2007
Contents

1 Scope......................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references.................................................................................................................. 6

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................. 7

4 Connection requirements............................................................................................................ 9

4.1 The electrical installation................................................................................................... 9

4.1.1 Installation instructions.......................................................................................... 9

4.1.2 Over-current protection......................................................................................... 9

4.1.3 Earthing................................................................................................................ 9

4.2 Interface protection ..........................................................................................................10

4.2.1 General ...............................................................................................................10

4.2.2 Interface protection settings.................................................................................11

4.2.3 Loss of Mains (LoM) protection............................................................................11

4.2.4 Automatic reconnection after a network outage....................................................12

4.2.5 Synchronisation...................................................................................................12

5 Power quality.............................................................................................................................12

5.1 Electromagnetic emission / immunity................................................................................12

5.2 DC injection .....................................................................................................................12

5.3 Power factor ....................................................................................................................12

6 Operation and safety of the micro-generator ..............................................................................13

6.1 General............................................................................................................................13

6.2 Safety ..............................................................................................................................13

6.3 Information plate..............................................................................................................13

6.4 Labelling..........................................................................................................................13

6.5 Maintenance and routine testing.......................................................................................14

7 Commissioning..........................................................................................................................14

7.1 General............................................................................................................................14

7.2 Installation .......................................................................................................................15

7.3 Notification procedure ......................................................................................................15

7.3.1 Inform and Fit for a single installation...................................................................15

7.3.2 Multiple / planned installation...............................................................................15

7.4 Decommission arrangements...........................................................................................15

7.5 Replacement arrangements .............................................................................................16

Annex A (normative) Interface protection settings, national deviations ..............................................17

AT – Austria...............................................................................................................................17

BE – Belgium.............................................................................................................................18

CH – Switzerland.......................................................................................................................20

CY – Cyprus ..............................................................................................................................21

CZ – Czech Republic.................................................................................................................22

DE – Germany...........................................................................................................................23

DK – Denmark...........................................................................................................................24

ES – Spain ................................................................................................................................25

FI – Finland ...............................................................................................................................27

FR – France ..............................................................................................................................28

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SIST EN 50438:2008
EN 50438:2007 - 4 -

GB – United Kingdom ................................................................................................................29

IE – Ireland................................................................................................................................30

IT – Italy ....................................................................................................................................31

NL – The Netherlands................................................................................................................32

NO – Norway.............................................................................................................................33

PL – Poland...............................................................................................................................34

SE – Sweden.............................................................................................................................35

SI – Slovenia .............................................................................................................................36

Annex B (informative) Notification sheets..........................................................................................37

B.1 Notification of a micro-generation installation....................................................................37

B.2 Application for connection of multiple micro-generators ....................................................39

B.3 Notification of micro-generator decommissioning..............................................................41

Annex C (informative) Interface protection – Compliance type testing general arrangements ............42

C.1 Compliance testing ..........................................................................................................42

C.2 Type testing of the interface protection.............................................................................42

C.3 Type testing.....................................................................................................................45

Annex D (informative) Type certification test results sheet ................................................................46

Annex E (normative) Countries allowing extension of the scope > 16 A ............................................50

CY – Cyprus ..............................................................................................................................50

FI – Finland ...............................................................................................................................50

IE – Ireland................................................................................................................................50

Annex F (informative) Abbreviations.................................................................................................51

Annex G (informative) A-deviations ..................................................................................................52

Bibliography ......................................................................................................................................53

Figure 1 – Example of a warning label both for size and content........................................................14

Figure C.1 – LoM test arrangement ...................................................................................................44

Figure C.2 – Power factor test arrangement ......................................................................................45

Table 1 – Countries allowing or not allowing Inform and Fit................................................................. 5

Table 2 – Default interface protection settings ...................................................................................11

Table 3 – Product family emission standards.....................................................................................12

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SIST EN 50438:2008
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1 Scope

This European Standard specifies technical requirements for connection and operation of fixed

installed micro-generators and their protection devices, irrespective of the micro-generators primary

source of energy, in parallel with public low-voltage distribution networks, where micro-generation

refers to equipment rated up to and including 16 A per phase, single or multi phase 230/400 V or multi

phase 230 V (phase-to-phase voltage).

This European Standard is intended for installation mainly in the domestic market.

In some countries this document may be applied to generators with higher ratings used mostly in

domestic and small commercial installations. These countries are listed in Annex E.

Whenever the scope is extended to equipment rated greater than 16 A per phase additional standards

could be applicable.

Inform and Fit is the recommended procedure for installation of micro-generation except in those

countries where legislation precludes this approach e.g. where it is mandatory for the DNO to give

prior permission for the connection.
Table 1 – Countries allowing or not allowing Inform and Fit
Inform and Fit Inform and Fit
Code Country Allowed Not Code Country Allowed Not
allowed allowed
AT Austria x IS Iceland x
BE Belgium x IT Italy x
CH Switzerland x LT Lithuania x
CY Cyprus x LU Luxembourg x
CZ Czech Republic x LV Latvia x
DE Germany x MT Malta x
DK Denmark x NL Netherlands x
EE Estonia x NO Norway x
ES Spain x PL Poland x
FI Finland x PT Portugal x
FR France x RO Romania x
GB United Kingdom x SI Slovenia x
GR Greece x SE Sweden x
HU Hungary x SK Slovakia x
IE Ireland x

The electrical interface is the principal focus and this includes the method of connection, the settings

and protection requirements for connection, the operation of the electrical interface under normal

conditions, emergency shutdown, distribution network-independent operation, start-up and distribution

network synchronisation.

The provisions of this European Standard are not intended to ensure by themselves the safety of DNO

personnel or their contracted parties.
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SIST EN 50438:2008
EN 50438:2007 - 6 -

The intention of this European Standard is to ensure that the micro-generator satisfies appropriate

provisions for
• the requirements of the DNO e.g. the distribution network protection,
• information to electricians working inside the house,
• quality of supply.
The following aspects are included in the scope:
• all micro-generation technologies are applicable.
The following aspects are excluded from the scope:
• multiple units that for one installation, in aggregate, exceed 16 A;
• issues of revenue rebalancing, metering or other commercial matters;
• generators never to be connected to the supply networks;

• requirements related to the primary energy source e.g. matters related to gas fired generator units;

• intended network independent operation.

NOTE If independent operation is intended, generally preliminary agreement of the DNO shall be obtained, however this is out

of the scope of this document. Specific additional requirements most likely could be applicable.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.
EN 50110 series Operation of electrical installations
EN 50160 Voltage characteristics of electricity supplied by public distribution
systems
EN 60255-6 Electrical relays – Part 6 : Measuring relays and protection
equipment (IEC 60255-6)
EN 60664-1 Insulation coordination for equipment within low-voltage systems –
Part 1: Principles, requirements and tests (IEC 60664-1)

EN 61000-3-2 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 3-2: Limits - Limits for

harmonic current emissions (equipment input current ≤ 16 A per
phase) (IEC 61000-3-2)

EN 61000-3-3 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 3-3: Limits – Limitation of

voltage changes, voltage fluctuations and flicker in public low-voltage
supply systems, for equipment with rated current ≤ 16 A per phase
and not subject to conditional connection (IEC 61000-3-3)

EN 61000-6-1 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 6-1: Generic standards –

Immunity for residential, commercial and light-industrial
environments (IEC 61000-6-1, mod.)

EN 61000-6-3 2001 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 6-3: Generic standards –

+ A11 2004
Emission standard for residential, commercial and light-industrial
environments (IEC 61000-6-3:1996, mod.)
HD 384 / Electrical installations of buildings (IEC 60364 series, mod.)
HD 60364 series

IEC 60364-5-55 Electrical installations of buildings – Part 5-55: Selection and erection

of electrical equipment - Other equipment
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SIST EN 50438:2008
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3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
clearance time

total duration between the instant when the protection system is initiated and the instant when the

cessation of supply to the network or disconnection of the micro-generator takes place

3.2
cease to energize the distribution network

termination of the operational state where the micro-generator supplies power to the distribution

network
3.3
cogeneration
combined heat and power (CHP)

combined generation of electricity and heat by an energy conversion system and the concurrent use of

the electric and thermal energy from the conversion system

NOTE In the context of small-scale generation this concept is sometimes referred to as “domestic CHP”.

3.4
commissioning

process of putting into operation a micro-generator, apparatus, equipment, building, or facility in

accordance with the manufacturers instruction
3.5
user

person with responsibility for the premises in which the micro-generator is installed, normally referred

to in other documentation as the customer / consumer / network user
3.6
decommissioning

process of removing a micro-generator, apparatus, equipment, building, or facility from operation

3.7
disconnection

separation of the active parts of the micro-generator from the network with mechanical contacts

providing at least basic insulation

NOTE Passive components like filters, auxiliary power supply to the micro-generator and sense lines can remain connected.

3.8
LV distribution network

low voltage part of the electric power system used for the transfer of electricity within an area of

consumption to consumers
———————
Where possible IEC Multilingual Dictionary (on CD) is used.
Based on national regulations other terms may apply.
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SIST EN 50438:2008
EN 50438:2007 - 8 -
3.9
distribution network operator (DNO)

natural or legal person responsible for operating, ensuring the maintenance of and, if necessary,

developing the distribution network in a given area and, when applicable, its interconnections with

other systems and for ensuring the long term ability of the system to meet reasonable demands for the

distribution of electricity (DNO equals DSO, Distribution System Operator)
3.10
electrical installation

assembly of wiring and electrical equipment that is used within the domestic premises for the

distribution and/or use of electric energy
3.11
inform & fit

process of installing and commissioning a micro-generator with prior notification of the DNO, followed

by commencement of operation without the need of prior formal approval of the DNO

3.12
fuel cell

electrochemical device that converts chemical energy directly into heat and electricity

3.13
installer

person who has received sufficient training to apply safe methods of work to install a micro-generator

in compliance with the requirements of this standard (in some countries it may be necessary to have

recognized qualification and/or accreditation)
3.14
interface protection

electric protection required to ensure that the micro-generator is disconnected and/or ceases to

energize for any event that could impair the integrity or degrade the safety of the distribution network

3.15
islanding

situation where a section of the electricity network, containing generation, becomes physically

disconnected from the rest of distribution detwork or user’s network and one or more generators

maintain a supply of electrical energy to the isolated network
3.16
isolation

cut off for reasons of safety from all or a discrete section of the electrical installation by separating the

electrical installation or section from every source of electrical energy
3.17
Loss of Mains (LoM) protection

protection system that will disconnect the micro-generator from the distribution network and/or ceases

to energize in the event of loss of that supply

NOTE LoM protection will invariably involve sampling of the voltage wave form. In the event of a LoM situation, this sampling

will introduce a time delay before a protection initiation signal can be issued.
3.18
low voltage (LV)

for the purpose of this standard a voltage, used for the supply of electricity, whose upper limit of

nominal r.m.s. value is 1 kV
———————
Based on national regulations, other terms may apply.
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SIST EN 50438:2008
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3.19
nominal voltage

single phase 230 V, multi phase 230/400 V or multi phase 230 V (phase-to-phase voltage)

3.20
micro-generator

source of electrical energy including all interface units with a rated line-conductor electric current of up

to and including 16 A low-voltage AC and designed to operate normally in parallel with a low voltage

distribution network
3.21
notification

process of informing the DNO of the commissioning of a micro-generation system, or its

decommissioning
4 Connection requirements
4.1 The electrical installation

The unit shall be connected in compliance with HD 384 series and the relevant national standards.

Low voltage electrical installations shall comply with national and local regulation whether the

installation is supplied by generation running in parallel with the distribution network, solely by the

distribution network or islanded.
4.1.1 Installation instructions

The micro-generator shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the instructions issued by

the manufacturer.
4.1.2 Over-current protection

The micro-generator installation shall be protected against over-current according to HD 384 series.

When selecting the overcurrent protection within the domestic installation it is necessary to ensure

correct discrimination with the DNO’s protection devices.
4.1.3 Earthing

Earthing shall be according to HD 384.5.54 / IEC 60364-5-55 and the relevant national standards.

When a micro-generator is operating in parallel with the distribution network, there shall be no direct

connection between the generator winding (or pole of the primary energy source in the case of a DC

sourced micro-generator) and the DNO’s earth terminal. For installations where the customer provides

his own earth terminal, e.g. when connected to a TT system, it is also advisable to avoid connecting

the generator winding to this earth terminal. The reason for this precaution is to avoid damage to the

generator during faults on the distribution network and to ensure correct operation of protective

devices.

For a micro-generator which is designed to operate in parallel with a distribution network but which is

connected via an inverter (e.g. a PV array or fuel cell) it is permissible to connect one pole of the DC

side of the inverter to the distribution network if the insulation between the AC and the DC sides of the

inverter meets the requirements of over voltage category IV as specified in EN 60664-1. In such cases

the installer / Manufacturer shall take all reasonable precautions to ensure that the micro-generator

unit will not impair the integrity of the distribution network and will not suffer unacceptable damage for

all credible operating conditions, including faults on the distribution network.
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SIST EN 50438:2008
EN 50438:2007 - 1 0 -
4.2 Interface protection
4.2.1 General

The purpose of the interface protection is to ensure that the connection of a micro-generator unit will

not impair the integrity or degrade the safety of the distribution network. The interface protection shall

be insensitive to normal voltage and frequency variations in the distribution network.

The interface protection, monitoring and control functions may be incorporated into the micro-

generator control system, or may be fitted as discrete separate mounted devices.
4.2.1.1 Default settings versus national settings

If no national settings are provided for a particular country (Annex A), the default settings in Table 2

shall be applied.
4.2.1.2 Response to protection operation

The interface protection shall ensure that the micro-generator ceases to energize the distribution

network when any parameter exceeds the applied operating setting. Disconnection is required in case

of any hardware malfunctioning.

The micro-generator shall cease to energize the network in response to an interface protection

operation, this shall be achieved either by the separation of suitably rated mechanical contacts or by

the operation of a suitably rated solid state switching device. Where a solid state switching device is

used the micro-generator shall monitor the proper functioning of the device. In the event the solid state

switching device fails to interrupt the current, the micro-generator shall disconnect or cease to

energize. The solid state switching device shall be specified in accordance with the over-voltage

category of the micro-generator as specified by the manufacturer and the leakage current in the off-

state shall not be more than 0,1 mA regardless of the terminal voltage.
4.2.1.3 Accessibility of isolation switching devices

Under HD 384 series there is a requirement that means shall be provided to enable a generator set to

be isolated from the public supply. Where this means of isolation is not accessible for the DNO at all

times it is acceptable to provide two means of automatic disconnection, with a single control. At least

one of the means of disconnection must be afforded by the separation of mechanical contacts.

4.2.1.4 Place of the interface protection

The interface protection can either be incorporated within the micro-generator or afforded by separate

devices. In either case the interface protection shall meet the relevant requirements of EN 60255-6 or

equivalent and the manufacturer of the micro-generator shall declare that the combined devices fulfil

these requirements.
4.2.1.5 Changing settings of the interface protection

The interface protection settings may only be altered, from those in place at the time of

commissioning, with the written agreement of the DNO and then only in accordance with the

manufacturer instructions.

It shall not be permissible for the user to alter the interface protection settings.

NOTE Alteration of the settings of the interface protection may cause a breach of the type-certificate making re-testing

necessary unless the micro-generator is type-tested on the full setting range of the interface protection.

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SIST EN 50438:2008
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4.2.1.6 Combined protection device for multiple generators

It is allowed to use a protection device that affords interface protection for 2 or more micro-generators

up to and including 16 A per phase in aggregate. However the possibility to use Inform and Fit then

depends on the conditions of the type certificate of the protection device.
If two or more micro-generators, each with the
...

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