Terminological entries in standards -- Part 2: Adoption of standardized terminological entries

This part of ISO 10241 addresses the introduction of standardized terminological entries into other cultural and linguistic environments, and in particular the adoption of internationally standardized terminological entries by regional and national standardizing bodies. It establishes principles and guidelines for dealing with the key issues to be considered in this process. It also provides examples of, and solutions to, problems that occur when the adopting standardizing body
— adopts internationally standardized terminological entries,
— aligns the concept systems of the adopting standardizing body with internationally standardized concept systems, and
— prepares standardized terminological entries as additions or supplements to internationally standardized terminological entries.

Articles terminologiques dans les normes -- Partie 2: Adoption d'articles terminologiques normalisés

L'ISO 10241-2:2012 traite de l'introduction d'articles terminologiques normalis�s dans d'autres milieux culturels et linguistiques, et en particulier de l'adoption d'articles terminologiques normalis�s � l'�chelon international par des organismes r�gionaux et nationaux � activit�s normatives. Elle �tablit des principes et des lignes directrices permettant de traiter des questions cl�s � prendre en compte dans le cadre de ce processus.
Elle fournit �galement des exemples et des solutions aux probl�mes susceptibles d'appara�tre lorsque l'organisme � activit�s normatives proc�dant � l'adoption: adopte des articles terminologiques normalis�s � l'�chelon international; aligne des syst�mes de concepts de l'organisme � activit�s normatives proc�dant � l'adoption sur des syst�mes de concepts normalis�s � l'�chelon international; et pr�pare des articles terminologiques normalis�s en compl�ment ou en suppl�ment des articles terminologiques normalis�s � l'�chelon international.

Terminološki vnosi v standardih - 2. del: Privzem standardiziranih terminoloških vnosov

Ta del standarda ISO 10241 obravnava uvajanje standardiziranih terminoloških vnosov v druga kulturna in jezikovna okolja ter zlasti sprejem mednarodno standardiziranih terminoloških vnosov s strani regionalnih ali mednarodnih standardizacijskih organov. Določa načela in smernice za obravnavanje ključnih vprašanj, na katera je treba odgovoriti v tem postopku. Prav tako navaja primere in rešitve težav, ki se pojavijo, ko standardizacijski organ v procesu sprejema
– sprejme mednarodno standardizirane terminološke vnose,
– uskladi sisteme pojmov standardizacijskega organa v procesu sprejema z mednarodno standardiziranimi sistemi pojmov in
– pripravi standardizirane terminološke vnose, ki so dodatki ali dopolnila mednarodno standardiziranih terminoloških vnosov.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
06-Jun-2013
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
30-May-2013
Due Date
04-Aug-2013
Completion Date
07-Jun-2013

Buy Standard

Standard
ISO 10241-2:2012 - Terminological entries in standards
English language
29 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview
Standard
SIST ISO 10241-2:2013
English language
34 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview

e-Library read for
1 day
Standard
ISO 10241-2:2012 - Articles terminologiques dans les normes
French language
29 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 10241-2
First edition
2012-08-15
Terminological entries in standards —
Part 2:
Adoption of standardized terminological
entries
Articles terminologiques dans les normes —
Partie 2: Adoption d’articles terminologiques normalisés
Reference number
ISO 10241-2:2012(E)
ISO 2012
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 10241-2:2012(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2012

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s

member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 10241-2:2012(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Terms and definitions ......................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Principles for the adoption of standardized terminological entries ...................................................... 6

3.1 General principles ............................................................................................................................................... 6

3.2 Degrees of correspondence ............................................................................................................................. 6

3.3 Specific principles related to the method of adoption .............................................................................. 9

4 Adoption of internationally standardized terminological entries as a means of harmonization ... 9

4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.2 Adoption of internationally standardized concepts .................................................................................10

4.3 Adoption of internationally standardized concept systems ..................................................................15

4.4 Adoption of internationally standardized definitions ..............................................................................18

4.5 Wording of other textual constituents of terminological entries .........................................................19

4.6 Non-verbal representations ............................................................................................................................19

4.7 Selection and formation of designations ....................................................................................................19

5 Conventions of the adopting standardizing body for the presentation and layout of

terminological entries ......................................................................................................................................26

5.1 General observations .......................................................................................................................................26

5.2 Modification of the standardized terminological data model ................................................................27

5.3 Indication of normative status .......................................................................................................................27

5.4 Lexicographical ordering ................................................................................................................................27

5.5 Lexicographical symbols ................................................................................................................................27

Annex A (informative) Template for reporting specific provisions concerning the adoption of

standardized terminological entries .............................................................................................................28

Bibliography .....................................................................................................................................................................29

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 10241-2:2012(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International

Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 10241-2 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 37, Terminology and other language and content

resources, Subcommittee SC 2, Terminographical and lexicographical working methods.

ISO 10241 consists of the following parts, under the general title Terminological entries in standards:

— Part 1: General requirements and examples of presentation
— Part 2: Adoption of standardized terminological entries
iv © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 10241-2:2012(E)
Introduction

The “Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade” (TBT Agreement) of the World Trade Organization (WTO)

requires its members to ensure that they do not create unnecessary barriers to trade through regulations or

conformity assessment schemes that deviate from international standards. Under the TBT Agreement, WTO

members are bound to use international standards whenever possible. According to the TBT Agreement,

therefore, regional and national standards should be based on international standards, thus ensuring technical

equivalence and avoiding any conflicts or inconsistencies with regard to trade. The same principle applies

equally to the adoption of standardized terminological entries.

To ensure unambiguous comprehension and interpretation of the main terms and other kinds of designation

used in their subject field, committees may specify all or part of their standardized terminology in the form of a

terminology standard, or in sections defining terminology in other standards.

ISO/IEC Guide 21-1 specifies methods for the adoption of International Standards as regional or national

standards: endorsement by authority, publication with a regional or national coversheet and publication by

reprinting, translation and redrafting. When adopting international standards, specific care might be needed

with regard to the terminological entries. For example, standardizing bodies using languages or language

variants other than the official languages of the international standard being adopted often encounter difficulties

in the preparation of equivalent terminological entries.

According to ISO/IEC Guide 21-1, “The adoption of an International Standard as a regional or national standard

will be extremely difficult if the regional or national rules or traditions concerning structure and layout of regional

or national standards differ from those of the standard being adopted. It is therefore recommended to apply,

as far as possible, the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, for the preparation of regional and national standards.”

Additionally, when preparing terminological entries in regional or national standards, there are issues specific

to terminological entries that merit consideration in the adoption process.

ISO/IEC Guide 21 outlines the principles used to determine whether an International Standard can be adopted

as a regional or national standard, including a method to assess the degree to which an International Standard

corresponds to national or regional standardization needs. In comparison, this part of ISO 10241 defines rules

for the adoption of terminological entries from international standards into regional or national standards, as

well as the principles used to determine the degree to which terminological entries, concepts, and concept

systems from an international standard correspond to national or regional realities.

Issues similar to those involved in the adoption of a complete document from one cultural or linguistic

environment into another can occur when adopting only the terminological entries because different cultural

and linguistic communities perceive and conceptualize objects differently. In some communities, for instance,

the “first floor” is the floor above the entrance or ground level, whereas in others “first floor” means the entrance

or ground level. Such differences also have an impact on the standardization of terminological entries.

This part of ISO 10241 establishes guidelines for dealing with key issues to be considered in the process

of adopting standardized terminological entries. It clarifies the challenges faced by standardizing bodies in

the process of adopting internationally standardized terminological entries. It also indicates how nationally

standardized terminological entries developed in accordance with the guidelines in ISO 10241-1 can serve as

a resource or starting point for standardizing terminological entries at the international or regional level.

1) Where the first letter of each word in the term, International Standard, is capitalized, it is defined as “international

standard where the international standards organization is ISO or IEC”.

2) Where the term, international standard, is entirely in lower-case letters, it is defined as “standard adopted by an

international standardizing/standards organization and made available to the public”.

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 10241-2:2012(E)
Terminological entries in standards —
Part 2:
Adoption of standardized terminological entries
1 Scope

This part of ISO 10241 addresses the introduction of standardized terminological entries into other cultural and

linguistic environments, and in particular the adoption of internationally standardized terminological entries by

regional and national standardizing bodies. It establishes principles and guidelines for dealing with the key

issues to be considered in this process.

It also provides examples of, and solutions to, problems that occur when the adopting standardizing body

— adopts internationally standardized terminological entries,

— aligns the concept systems of the adopting standardizing body with internationally standardized

concept systems, and

— prepares standardized terminological entries as additions or supplements to internationally standardized

terminological entries.
2 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

NOTE 1 In the selection and wording of the terminological entries contained in this clause, preference has been given

to general comprehensibility. Therefore, commonly used terms (which are generally understandable) are not defined.

Some terminological entries that have been taken from other sources have been modified to meet the needs of the target

group of this part of ISO 10241. In accordance with ISO 10241-1, the modifications are indicated by the string “modified”

following the source.

NOTE 2 Because most of the terminological entries listed here have been selected from other standards, complete

concept systems are not represented. The terminological entries are thus presented in mixed order.

2.1
standard

document, established by consensus and approved by a recognized body, that provides for common and

repeated use, rules, guidelines and characteristics for activities or their results, aimed at the achievement of

the optimum degree of order in a given context

Note 1 to entry: Standards should be based on the consolidated results of science, technology and experience, and

aimed at the promotion of optimum community benefits.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 2:2004, 3.2]
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 10241-2:2012(E)
2.2
standardizing body
standardizing organization
standards developing organization
SDO

body or organization that carries out recognized activities in the area of standardization such as the development,

adoption and publication of standards (2.1) and whose membership may be composed of national, regional

or other standardizing bodies, or of organizations such as companies, governmental, academic or other

institutions and individuals.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 2:2004, 4.3, modified — By extending the definition to any kind of standards

developing organization, the definition now covers all standardizing bodies and organizations.]

2.3.1
terminology standardization

development of terminological entries (2.3.3) in terminology standards (2.3.2) and of terminology sections in

other standards, and their approval by a standardizing body (2.2)

[SOURCE: ISO 15188:2001, 3.5, modified— “establishment of terminology standards” has been replaced by

“development of terminological entries in terminology standards”, “technical standards” has been replaced by

“other standards” and “approval by an authoritative body” has been replaced by “approval by a standardizing

body” for the sake of consistency in this part of ISO 10241.]
2.3.2
terminology standard

standard (2.1) that is concerned with terms (2.6.2) accompanied by their definitions (2.5), and sometimes by

explanatory notes, illustrations, examples, etc.

Note 1 to entry: As a rule, both terminology standards and terminology sections in other standards comprise more than

a single standardized terminological entry, i.e. they comprise a terminological data collection.

Note 2 to entry: A terminology standard can be an international, regional or national terminology standard.

[SOURCE: ISO 10241-1:2011, 3.1.1 — Notes 1 and 2 to entry have been added to explain the broader use of

the term terminology standard within the scope of this part of ISO 10241.]
2.3.3
terminological entry

part of a terminological data collection that contains the terminological data (ISO 10241-1:2011, 3.1.3) related

to one concept (2.4.1.1)

Note 1 to entry: A terminological entry prepared in accordance with the principles and methods given in ISO 704 follows

the same structural principles whether it is monolingual or multilingual.
2.3.4
standardized terminological entry

terminological entry (2.3.3) that has been standardized by a standardizing body (2.2)

Note 1 to entry: A concept is considered standardized if the entire terminological entry or the definition (or non-verbal

representation in those domains or subjects in which non-verbal representations are conventionally used) and the

designations assigned to it have been standardized.

Note 2 to entry: A terminological entry can be standardized at the international, regional or national level.

Note 3 to entry: ISO 10241-1:2011, Annex A, provides examples of monolingual and multilingual standardized

terminological entries.
2 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 10241-2:2012(E)
2.3.5
terminological data model

conceptual structure for organizing terminological data, typically for implementation

in database management systems, on which a terminological entry (2.3.3) is based, including the terminological

data categories (ISO 10241-1:2011, 3.1.4) with their properties and inter-relationships

Note 1 to entry: In terminology standardization, the terminological data model is based on the terminological data

categories referred to in ISO 10241-1:2011, together with their properties and inter-relationships. It is not equivalent to the

structure of a standard (ISO/IEC Guide 21-1:2005, 3.10) or other document, defined in ISO/IEC Guide 21-1 as the “order

of the clauses, subclauses, paragraphs, tables, figures, annexes”.

Note 2 to entry: If demanded by the culture or language of the adopting standardizing body, it is possible both to add or

delete language- or culture-related terminological data categories and to adapt the presentation of the terminological data

(to different renderings depending on user needs, the purpose of the terminological data collection, etc.) without changing

the technical content of the adopted terminological entry or its underlying terminological data model.

2.4.1.1
concept

unit of knowledge created by a unique combination of characteristics (ISO 1087-1:2000, 3.2.4)

Note 1 to entry: Concepts are not necessarily bound to particular languages. They are, however, influenced by the social

or cultural background, which often leads to different categorizations.
[SOURCE: ISO 1087-1:2000, 3.2.1]
2.4.1.2
concept harmonization

activity leading to the establishment of a correspondence between two or more closely related or overlapping

concepts (2.4.1.1) having professional, technical, scientific, social, economic, linguistic, cultural or other

differences, in order to eliminate or reduce minor differences between them

Note 1 to entry: The purpose of concept harmonization is to improve communication.

[SOURCE: ISO 860:2007, 3.1]
2.4.2.1
concept system
DEPRECATED: system of concepts

set of concepts (2.4.1.1) structured according to the relations among them

[SOURCE: ISO 1087-1:2000, 3.2.11]
2.4.2.2
concept system harmonization

activity leading to the establishment of a correspondence between two or more closely related or overlapping

concept systems (2.4.2.1) having professional, technical, scientific, social, economic, linguistic, cultural or other

differences, in order to eliminate or reduce minor differences between them

Note 1 to entry: The purpose of concept system harmonization is to improve communication.

[SOURCE: ISO 860:2007, 3.2]
2.5
definition

representation of a concept (2.4.1.1) by a descriptive statement which serves to

differentiate it from related concepts

Note 1 to entry: Usually, a non-verbal representation can only complement a definition, and not replace it. However, in

certain domains or subjects (e.g. within a system of interdependent formulae), non-verbal representations are conventionally

used instead of a descriptive statement.
[SOURCE: ISO 10241-1:2011, 3.4.2.1]
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 10241-2:2012(E)
2.6.1
designation
designator

representation of a concept (2.4.1.1) by a signifier which denotes it

Note 1 to entry: In terminology work, three types of designations are distinguished: symbols, appellations and terms.

Note 2 to entry: In everyday language, the word representation can have several meanings. Here, it means expressing

or denoting by means of words, a figure or a symbol. In accordance with ISO 10241-1, 3.4.1.1.3, symbols can be letter

symbols, graphical symbols or other kinds of symbol.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087-1:2000, 3.4.1, modified — By adding Note 2 to entry so that it is consistent with ISO 10241-1.]

2.6.2
term

verbal designation (2.6.1) of a general concept (ISO 1087-1:2000, 3.2.3) in a specific domain (ISO 10241-1:2011,

3.3.1) or subject (ISO 10241-1:2011, 3.3.2)

Note 1 to entry: Terms can include letters and letter symbols, numerals, mathematical symbols, typographical signs

and syntactic signs (e.g. punctuation marks, hyphens, parentheses, square brackets and other connectors or delimiters)

sometimes in character styles (i.e. fonts and bold, italic, bold italic, or other style conventions) governed by domain-,

subject- or language-specific conventions.
Note 2 to entry: A term may have variants, e.g. different forms of spelling.

Note 3 to entry: Terms may be quite complex, containing two or more roots or two or more words.

Note 4 to entry: Several terms in a given language representing the same concept are synonymous terms (synonyms).

Terms in different languages representing the same concept are equivalent terms (equivalents).

[SOURCE: ISO 10241-1:2011, 3.4.1.1.2]
2.6.3
borrowed term

term (2.6.2) taken from another language or from another domain (ISO 10241-1:2011, 3.3.1) or subject

(ISO 10241-1:2011, 3.3.2)
2.7.1
adoption

publication of a regional or national normative document based on a relevant

International Standard, or endorsement of the International Standard as having the same status as a national

normative document, with any deviations from the International Standard identified

Note 1 to entry: Adapted from ISO/IEC Guide 2:2004, definition 10.1.

Note 2 to entry: The term “taking over” is sometimes used to cover the same concept as “adoption”.

Note 3 to entry: For the conditions of adoption of an International Standard as a regional or national standard, see

ISO/IEC Guide 21-1:2004, 4.1.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 21-1:2004, 3.6, modified — By adding in front of the definition

in order to make the context of ISO/IEC Guide 21-1 clear. For the same reason, “ISO/IEC Guide 21-1:2004,”

has been added to Note 3 to entry.]
2.7.2
adoption of a standardized terminological entry

taking over of a standardized terminological entry (2.3.4) by another standardizing

body (2.2), with any technical deviations (2.8.3) identified

Note 1 to entry: While the adoption of an International Standard concerns the entire document, the basic principles and

rules of adopting standards largely apply also to the adoption of terminological entries. The latter concerns individual

terminological entries, concepts and concept systems, and the constituent elements of terminological entries. Therefore,

the kinds of information to be adopted are different from those of entire standards texts, and the adoption processes might

differ accordingly.
4 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 10241-2:2012(E)

Note 2 to entry: In practice, the adoption of a standardized terminological entry can involve “translating” a standardized

terminological entry. In terminology standardization, “translating” refers to the expression of some or all of the textual data

from a standardized terminological entry in the language of the adopting standardizing body, together with the adaptation

of textual or non-textual data to the language or terminological data model of the adopting standardizing body.

2.7.3.1
translated text
translation

text expressing the equivalent of a source text in another language

2.7.3.1.1
faithful translation

translated text (2.7.3.1) without technical deviation (2.8.3)

Note 1 to entry: Textual information in a terminological entry; formally speaking, a text is any string of characters that can

be interpreted as linguistically meaningful.

Note 2 to entry: The faithful translation of an internationally standardized terminological entry results in a terminological

entry which is identical, in terms of technical content, in the language of the adopting standardizing body.

2.7.3.1.2
adapted translation
translated text (2.7.3.1) with adaptations

Note 1 to entry: The adaptations can relate to different conventions or to the specificities of the language of the adopting

standardizing body.

Note 2 to entry: The adapted translation of a terminological entry results in a “modified” terminological entry in the

language of the adopting standardizing body.
2.8.1
technical content

set of characteristics of a concept (2.4.1.1) in a standardized terminological

entry (2.3.4) expressed through a definition (2.5) and other terminological data (ISO 10241-1:2011, 3.1.3)

2.8.2
editorial change

any change that does not alter the technical content (2.8.1)

Note 1 to entry: A list of editorial changes permitted in the case of an identical adoption is given in 3.2.2.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 21-1:2004, 3.7, modified — By adding “” in front of

the definition, cross-referencing to entry 2.8.1 “technical content”, removing “permitted” after “change”, and

adapting the cross-reference in Note 1 to entry so that it reflects the scope of this part of 10241.]

2.8.3
technical deviation

any difference between the technical content (2.8.1) of the internationally

standardized terminological entry (2.3.4) and that of the adopted standardized terminological entry (2.3.4)

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 21-1:2004, 3.8, modified — By adding “ in front of the

definition and adapting the definition so that it reflects the scope of this part of 10241.]

2.8.4
change in wording

replacement of single words or phrases in the regionally or nationally standardized

terminological entry (2.3.4) by synonyms to reflect domain-, subject- and language-specific conventions in the

region or country of the adopting standardizing body

EXAMPLE: Some countries use “lift” whereas others use “elevator” for the same device.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 21-1:2004, 3.9, modified — By adding “” in front of the

definition and adapting the definition so that it reflects the scope of this part of 10241.]

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 10241-2:2012(E)
2.8.5
vice versa principle

principle whereby anything that is contained in an internationally standardized

terminological entry (2.3.4) in terms of technical content (2.8.1) is contained in the regionally or nationally

standardized terminological entry and vice versa

Note 1 to entry: Adherence to the terminological data model (2.3.1) as provided in ISO 10241-1 facilitates the fulfilment

of the vice versa principle.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 21-1:2004, 3.11, modified — By adding “” in front of

the definition as well as adapting the definition and adding Note 1 to entry so that it reflects the scope of this

part of 10241.]
2.9
special language
language for special purposes
DEPRECATED: LSP

language used in a domain (ISO 10241-1:2010, 3.3.1) or subject (ISO 10241-1:2010, 3.3.2), and characterized

by the use of specific linguistic means of expression

Note 1 to entry: The specific linguistic means of expression always include domain- and subject-specific terminology

and phraseology, as well as other kinds of designation, and can also cover ways of presentation (e.g. character styles such

as script fonts, typeface such as bold, italic, bold italic and other style conventions) governed by domain-, subject- and

language-specific conventions.
3 Principles for the adoption of standardized terminological entries
3.1 General principles

The following principles shall be applied when deciding how to adopt standardized terminological entries:

— standardized terminological entries should be adopted if possible without technical deviation;

— any modification shall be clearly explained;

— to ensure identical technical content, a standardizing body representing specific cultural and linguistic as

well as domain-specific and subject-specific communities should, if necessary, take special measures to

address discrepancies between concept systems;

— the adopting standardizing body shall take responsibility for any documentation on culture-, language-,

domain- or subject-specific issues;

— difficulties in adopting an internationally standardized terminological entry shall be recorded and reported

to the respective international standardizing body so that the latter can serve as a resource for future

harmonization of the terminological entries involved.

If there are distinct rules in a given standardizing body for the terminological data model, the wording or

presentation of individual standardized terminological entries, the presentation of the respective concept

systems or other constituent elements of terminological entries, these rules, or at least a reference to them,

can be provided using Annex A.
3.2 Degrees of correspondence
3.2.1 General

To enable the comparison of regionally or nationally standardized terminological entries with the respective

internationally standardized terminological entries, an indication of their degree of correspondence is essential

6 © ISO 2012 –
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 10241-2:2013
01-julij-2013
Terminološki vnosi v standardih - 2. del: Privzem standardiziranih terminoloških
vnosov

Terminological entries in standards -- Part 2: Adoption of standardized terminological

entries

Articles terminologiques dans les normes -- Partie 2: Adoption d'articles terminologiques

normalisés
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 10241-2:2012
ICS:
01.020 7HUPLQRORJLMD QDþHODLQ Terminology (principles and
NRRUGLQDFLMD coordination)
01.120 Standardizacija. Splošna Standardization. General
pravila rules
SIST ISO 10241-2:2013 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 10241-2:2013
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 10241-2:2013
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 10241-2
First edition
2012-08-15
Terminological entries in standards —
Part 2:
Adoption of standardized terminological
entries
Articles terminologiques dans les normes —
Partie 2: Adoption d’articles terminologiques normalisés
Reference number
ISO 10241-2:2012(E)
ISO 2012
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 10241-2:2013
ISO 10241-2:2012(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2012

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s

member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 10241-2:2013
ISO 10241-2:2012(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Terms and definitions ......................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Principles for the adoption of standardized terminological entries ...................................................... 6

3.1 General principles ............................................................................................................................................... 6

3.2 Degrees of correspondence ............................................................................................................................. 6

3.3 Specific principles related to the method of adoption .............................................................................. 9

4 Adoption of internationally standardized terminological entries as a means of harmonization ... 9

4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.2 Adoption of internationally standardized concepts .................................................................................10

4.3 Adoption of internationally standardized concept systems ..................................................................15

4.4 Adoption of internationally standardized definitions ..............................................................................18

4.5 Wording of other textual constituents of terminological entries .........................................................19

4.6 Non-verbal representations ............................................................................................................................19

4.7 Selection and formation of designations ....................................................................................................19

5 Conventions of the adopting standardizing body for the presentation and layout of

terminological entries ......................................................................................................................................26

5.1 General observations .......................................................................................................................................26

5.2 Modification of the standardized terminological data model ................................................................27

5.3 Indication of normative status .......................................................................................................................27

5.4 Lexicographical ordering ................................................................................................................................27

5.5 Lexicographical symbols ................................................................................................................................27

Annex A (informative) Template for reporting specific provisions concerning the adoption of

standardized terminological entries .............................................................................................................28

Bibliography .....................................................................................................................................................................29

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST ISO 10241-2:2013
ISO 10241-2:2012(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International

Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 10241-2 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 37, Terminology and other language and content

resources, Subcommittee SC 2, Terminographical and lexicographical working methods.

ISO 10241 consists of the following parts, under the general title Terminological entries in standards:

— Part 1: General requirements and examples of presentation
— Part 2: Adoption of standardized terminological entries
iv © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST ISO 10241-2:2013
ISO 10241-2:2012(E)
Introduction

The “Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade” (TBT Agreement) of the World Trade Organization (WTO)

requires its members to ensure that they do not create unnecessary barriers to trade through regulations or

conformity assessment schemes that deviate from international standards. Under the TBT Agreement, WTO

members are bound to use international standards whenever possible. According to the TBT Agreement,

therefore, regional and national standards should be based on international standards, thus ensuring technical

equivalence and avoiding any conflicts or inconsistencies with regard to trade. The same principle applies

equally to the adoption of standardized terminological entries.

To ensure unambiguous comprehension and interpretation of the main terms and other kinds of designation

used in their subject field, committees may specify all or part of their standardized terminology in the form of a

terminology standard, or in sections defining terminology in other standards.

ISO/IEC Guide 21-1 specifies methods for the adoption of International Standards as regional or national

standards: endorsement by authority, publication with a regional or national coversheet and publication by

reprinting, translation and redrafting. When adopting international standards, specific care might be needed

with regard to the terminological entries. For example, standardizing bodies using languages or language

variants other than the official languages of the international standard being adopted often encounter difficulties

in the preparation of equivalent terminological entries.

According to ISO/IEC Guide 21-1, “The adoption of an International Standard as a regional or national standard

will be extremely difficult if the regional or national rules or traditions concerning structure and layout of regional

or national standards differ from those of the standard being adopted. It is therefore recommended to apply,

as far as possible, the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, for the preparation of regional and national standards.”

Additionally, when preparing terminological entries in regional or national standards, there are issues specific

to terminological entries that merit consideration in the adoption process.

ISO/IEC Guide 21 outlines the principles used to determine whether an International Standard can be adopted

as a regional or national standard, including a method to assess the degree to which an International Standard

corresponds to national or regional standardization needs. In comparison, this part of ISO 10241 defines rules

for the adoption of terminological entries from international standards into regional or national standards, as

well as the principles used to determine the degree to which terminological entries, concepts, and concept

systems from an international standard correspond to national or regional realities.

Issues similar to those involved in the adoption of a complete document from one cultural or linguistic

environment into another can occur when adopting only the terminological entries because different cultural

and linguistic communities perceive and conceptualize objects differently. In some communities, for instance,

the “first floor” is the floor above the entrance or ground level, whereas in others “first floor” means the entrance

or ground level. Such differences also have an impact on the standardization of terminological entries.

This part of ISO 10241 establishes guidelines for dealing with key issues to be considered in the process

of adopting standardized terminological entries. It clarifies the challenges faced by standardizing bodies in

the process of adopting internationally standardized terminological entries. It also indicates how nationally

standardized terminological entries developed in accordance with the guidelines in ISO 10241-1 can serve as

a resource or starting point for standardizing terminological entries at the international or regional level.

1) Where the first letter of each word in the term, International Standard, is capitalized, it is defined as “international

standard where the international standards organization is ISO or IEC”.

2) Where the term, international standard, is entirely in lower-case letters, it is defined as “standard adopted by an

international standardizing/standards organization and made available to the public”.

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST ISO 10241-2:2013
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST ISO 10241-2:2013
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 10241-2:2012(E)
Terminological entries in standards —
Part 2:
Adoption of standardized terminological entries
1 Scope

This part of ISO 10241 addresses the introduction of standardized terminological entries into other cultural and

linguistic environments, and in particular the adoption of internationally standardized terminological entries by

regional and national standardizing bodies. It establishes principles and guidelines for dealing with the key

issues to be considered in this process.

It also provides examples of, and solutions to, problems that occur when the adopting standardizing body

— adopts internationally standardized terminological entries,

— aligns the concept systems of the adopting standardizing body with internationally standardized

concept systems, and

— prepares standardized terminological entries as additions or supplements to internationally standardized

terminological entries.
2 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

NOTE 1 In the selection and wording of the terminological entries contained in this clause, preference has been given

to general comprehensibility. Therefore, commonly used terms (which are generally understandable) are not defined.

Some terminological entries that have been taken from other sources have been modified to meet the needs of the target

group of this part of ISO 10241. In accordance with ISO 10241-1, the modifications are indicated by the string “modified”

following the source.

NOTE 2 Because most of the terminological entries listed here have been selected from other standards, complete

concept systems are not represented. The terminological entries are thus presented in mixed order.

2.1
standard

document, established by consensus and approved by a recognized body, that provides for common and

repeated use, rules, guidelines and characteristics for activities or their results, aimed at the achievement of

the optimum degree of order in a given context

Note 1 to entry: Standards should be based on the consolidated results of science, technology and experience, and

aimed at the promotion of optimum community benefits.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 2:2004, 3.2]
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST ISO 10241-2:2013
ISO 10241-2:2012(E)
2.2
standardizing body
standardizing organization
standards developing organization
SDO

body or organization that carries out recognized activities in the area of standardization such as the development,

adoption and publication of standards (2.1) and whose membership may be composed of national, regional

or other standardizing bodies, or of organizations such as companies, governmental, academic or other

institutions and individuals.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 2:2004, 4.3, modified — By extending the definition to any kind of standards

developing organization, the definition now covers all standardizing bodies and organizations.]

2.3.1
terminology standardization

development of terminological entries (2.3.3) in terminology standards (2.3.2) and of terminology sections in

other standards, and their approval by a standardizing body (2.2)

[SOURCE: ISO 15188:2001, 3.5, modified— “establishment of terminology standards” has been replaced by

“development of terminological entries in terminology standards”, “technical standards” has been replaced by

“other standards” and “approval by an authoritative body” has been replaced by “approval by a standardizing

body” for the sake of consistency in this part of ISO 10241.]
2.3.2
terminology standard

standard (2.1) that is concerned with terms (2.6.2) accompanied by their definitions (2.5), and sometimes by

explanatory notes, illustrations, examples, etc.

Note 1 to entry: As a rule, both terminology standards and terminology sections in other standards comprise more than

a single standardized terminological entry, i.e. they comprise a terminological data collection.

Note 2 to entry: A terminology standard can be an international, regional or national terminology standard.

[SOURCE: ISO 10241-1:2011, 3.1.1 — Notes 1 and 2 to entry have been added to explain the broader use of

the term terminology standard within the scope of this part of ISO 10241.]
2.3.3
terminological entry

part of a terminological data collection that contains the terminological data (ISO 10241-1:2011, 3.1.3) related

to one concept (2.4.1.1)

Note 1 to entry: A terminological entry prepared in accordance with the principles and methods given in ISO 704 follows

the same structural principles whether it is monolingual or multilingual.
2.3.4
standardized terminological entry

terminological entry (2.3.3) that has been standardized by a standardizing body (2.2)

Note 1 to entry: A concept is considered standardized if the entire terminological entry or the definition (or non-verbal

representation in those domains or subjects in which non-verbal representations are conventionally used) and the

designations assigned to it have been standardized.

Note 2 to entry: A terminological entry can be standardized at the international, regional or national level.

Note 3 to entry: ISO 10241-1:2011, Annex A, provides examples of monolingual and multilingual standardized

terminological entries.
2 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST ISO 10241-2:2013
ISO 10241-2:2012(E)
2.3.5
terminological data model

conceptual structure for organizing terminological data, typically for implementation

in database management systems, on which a terminological entry (2.3.3) is based, including the terminological

data categories (ISO 10241-1:2011, 3.1.4) with their properties and inter-relationships

Note 1 to entry: In terminology standardization, the terminological data model is based on the terminological data

categories referred to in ISO 10241-1:2011, together with their properties and inter-relationships. It is not equivalent to the

structure of a standard (ISO/IEC Guide 21-1:2005, 3.10) or other document, defined in ISO/IEC Guide 21-1 as the “order

of the clauses, subclauses, paragraphs, tables, figures, annexes”.

Note 2 to entry: If demanded by the culture or language of the adopting standardizing body, it is possible both to add or

delete language- or culture-related terminological data categories and to adapt the presentation of the terminological data

(to different renderings depending on user needs, the purpose of the terminological data collection, etc.) without changing

the technical content of the adopted terminological entry or its underlying terminological data model.

2.4.1.1
concept

unit of knowledge created by a unique combination of characteristics (ISO 1087-1:2000, 3.2.4)

Note 1 to entry: Concepts are not necessarily bound to particular languages. They are, however, influenced by the social

or cultural background, which often leads to different categorizations.
[SOURCE: ISO 1087-1:2000, 3.2.1]
2.4.1.2
concept harmonization

activity leading to the establishment of a correspondence between two or more closely related or overlapping

concepts (2.4.1.1) having professional, technical, scientific, social, economic, linguistic, cultural or other

differences, in order to eliminate or reduce minor differences between them

Note 1 to entry: The purpose of concept harmonization is to improve communication.

[SOURCE: ISO 860:2007, 3.1]
2.4.2.1
concept system
DEPRECATED: system of concepts

set of concepts (2.4.1.1) structured according to the relations among them

[SOURCE: ISO 1087-1:2000, 3.2.11]
2.4.2.2
concept system harmonization

activity leading to the establishment of a correspondence between two or more closely related or overlapping

concept systems (2.4.2.1) having professional, technical, scientific, social, economic, linguistic, cultural or other

differences, in order to eliminate or reduce minor differences between them

Note 1 to entry: The purpose of concept system harmonization is to improve communication.

[SOURCE: ISO 860:2007, 3.2]
2.5
definition

representation of a concept (2.4.1.1) by a descriptive statement which serves to

differentiate it from related concepts

Note 1 to entry: Usually, a non-verbal representation can only complement a definition, and not replace it. However, in

certain domains or subjects (e.g. within a system of interdependent formulae), non-verbal representations are conventionally

used instead of a descriptive statement.
[SOURCE: ISO 10241-1:2011, 3.4.2.1]
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST ISO 10241-2:2013
ISO 10241-2:2012(E)
2.6.1
designation
designator

representation of a concept (2.4.1.1) by a signifier which denotes it

Note 1 to entry: In terminology work, three types of designations are distinguished: symbols, appellations and terms.

Note 2 to entry: In everyday language, the word representation can have several meanings. Here, it means expressing

or denoting by means of words, a figure or a symbol. In accordance with ISO 10241-1, 3.4.1.1.3, symbols can be letter

symbols, graphical symbols or other kinds of symbol.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087-1:2000, 3.4.1, modified — By adding Note 2 to entry so that it is consistent with ISO 10241-1.]

2.6.2
term

verbal designation (2.6.1) of a general concept (ISO 1087-1:2000, 3.2.3) in a specific domain (ISO 10241-1:2011,

3.3.1) or subject (ISO 10241-1:2011, 3.3.2)

Note 1 to entry: Terms can include letters and letter symbols, numerals, mathematical symbols, typographical signs

and syntactic signs (e.g. punctuation marks, hyphens, parentheses, square brackets and other connectors or delimiters)

sometimes in character styles (i.e. fonts and bold, italic, bold italic, or other style conventions) governed by domain-,

subject- or language-specific conventions.
Note 2 to entry: A term may have variants, e.g. different forms of spelling.

Note 3 to entry: Terms may be quite complex, containing two or more roots or two or more words.

Note 4 to entry: Several terms in a given language representing the same concept are synonymous terms (synonyms).

Terms in different languages representing the same concept are equivalent terms (equivalents).

[SOURCE: ISO 10241-1:2011, 3.4.1.1.2]
2.6.3
borrowed term

term (2.6.2) taken from another language or from another domain (ISO 10241-1:2011, 3.3.1) or subject

(ISO 10241-1:2011, 3.3.2)
2.7.1
adoption

publication of a regional or national normative document based on a relevant

International Standard, or endorsement of the International Standard as having the same status as a national

normative document, with any deviations from the International Standard identified

Note 1 to entry: Adapted from ISO/IEC Guide 2:2004, definition 10.1.

Note 2 to entry: The term “taking over” is sometimes used to cover the same concept as “adoption”.

Note 3 to entry: For the conditions of adoption of an International Standard as a regional or national standard, see

ISO/IEC Guide 21-1:2004, 4.1.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 21-1:2004, 3.6, modified — By adding in front of the definition

in order to make the context of ISO/IEC Guide 21-1 clear. For the same reason, “ISO/IEC Guide 21-1:2004,”

has been added to Note 3 to entry.]
2.7.2
adoption of a standardized terminological entry

taking over of a standardized terminological entry (2.3.4) by another standardizing

body (2.2), with any technical deviations (2.8.3) identified

Note 1 to entry: While the adoption of an International Standard concerns the entire document, the basic principles and

rules of adopting standards largely apply also to the adoption of terminological entries. The latter concerns individual

terminological entries, concepts and concept systems, and the constituent elements of terminological entries. Therefore,

the kinds of information to be adopted are different from those of entire standards texts, and the adoption processes might

differ accordingly.
4 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST ISO 10241-2:2013
ISO 10241-2:2012(E)

Note 2 to entry: In practice, the adoption of a standardized terminological entry can involve “translating” a standardized

terminological entry. In terminology standardization, “translating” refers to the expression of some or all of the textual data

from a standardized terminological entry in the language of the adopting standardizing body, together with the adaptation

of textual or non-textual data to the language or terminological data model of the adopting standardizing body.

2.7.3.1
translated text
translation

text expressing the equivalent of a source text in another language

2.7.3.1.1
faithful translation

translated text (2.7.3.1) without technical deviation (2.8.3)

Note 1 to entry: Textual information in a terminological entry; formally speaking, a text is any string of characters that can

be interpreted as linguistically meaningful.

Note 2 to entry: The faithful translation of an internationally standardized terminological entry results in a terminological

entry which is identical, in terms of technical content, in the language of the adopting standardizing body.

2.7.3.1.2
adapted translation
translated text (2.7.3.1) with adaptations

Note 1 to entry: The adaptations can relate to different conventions or to the specificities of the language of the adopting

standardizing body.

Note 2 to entry: The adapted translation of a terminological entry results in a “modified” terminological entry in the

language of the adopting standardizing body.
2.8.1
technical content

set of characteristics of a concept (2.4.1.1) in a standardized terminological

entry (2.3.4) expressed through a definition (2.5) and other terminological data (ISO 10241-1:2011, 3.1.3)

2.8.2
editorial change

any change that does not alter the technical content (2.8.1)

Note 1 to entry: A list of editorial changes permitted in the case of an identical adoption is given in 3.2.2.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 21-1:2004, 3.7, modified — By adding “” in front of

the definition, cross-referencing to entry 2.8.1 “technical content”, removing “permitted” after “change”, and

adapting the cross-reference in Note 1 to entry so that it reflects the scope of this part of 10241.]

2.8.3
technical deviation

any difference between the technical content (2.8.1) of the internationally

standardized terminological entry (2.3.4) and that of the adopted standardized terminological entry (2.3.4)

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 21-1:2004, 3.8, modified — By adding “ in front of the

definition and adapting the definition so that it reflects the scope of this part of 10241.]

2.8.4
change in wording

replacement of single words or phrases in the regionally or nationally standardized

terminological entry (2.3.4) by synonyms to reflect domain-, subject- and language-specific conventions in the

region or country of the adopting standardizing body

EXAMPLE: Some countries use “lift” whereas others use “elevator” for the same device.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 21-1:2004, 3.9, modified — By adding “” in front of the

definition and adapting the definition so that it reflects the scope of this part of 10241.]

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST ISO 10241-2:2013
ISO 10241-2:2012(E)
2.8.5
vice versa principle

principle whereby anything that is contained in an internationally standardized

terminological entry (2.3.4) in terms of technical content (2.8.1) is contained in the regionally or nationally

standardized terminological entry and vice versa

Note 1 to entry: Adherence to the terminological data model (2.3.1) as provided in ISO 10241-1 facilitates the fulfilment

of the vice versa principle.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 21-1:2004, 3.11, modified — By adding “” in front of

the definition as well as adapting the definition and adding Note 1 to entry so that it reflects the scope of this

part of 10241.]
2.9
special language
language for special purposes
DEPRECATED: LSP

language used in a domain (ISO 10241-1:2010, 3.3.1) or subject (ISO 10241-1:2010, 3.3.2), and characterized

by the use of specific linguistic means of expression

Note 1 to entry: The specific linguistic means of expression always include domain- and subject-specific terminology

and phraseology, as well as other kinds of designation, and can also cover ways of presentation (e.g. character styles such

as script fonts, typeface such as bold, italic, bold italic and other style conventions) governed by domain-, subject- and

language-specific conventions.
3 Principles for the adoption of standardized terminological entries
3.1 General principles

The following principles shall be applied when deciding how to adopt standardized terminological entries:

— standardized terminological entries should be adopted if possible without technical deviation;

— any modification shall be clearly explained;

— to ensure identical technical content, a standardizing body representing specific cultural and linguistic as

well as domain-speci
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 10241-2
Première édition
2012-08-15
Articles terminologiques dans les
normes —
Partie 2:
Adoption d’articles terminologiques
normalisés
Terminological entries in standards —
Part 2: Adoption of standardized terminological entries
Numéro de référence
ISO 10241-2:2012(F)
ISO 2012
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 10241-2:2012(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2012

Droits de reproduction réservés. Sauf prescription différente, aucune partie de cette publication ne peut être reproduite ni utilisée sous

quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique, y compris la photocopie et les microfilms, sans l’accord écrit

de l’ISO à l’adresse ci-après ou du comité membre de l’ISO dans le pays du demandeur.

ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Publié en Suisse
ii © ISO 2012 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 10241-2:2012(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos .....................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Domaine d’application ....................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Termes et définitions .......................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Principes d’adoption d’articles terminologiques normalisés ................................................................. 6

3.1 Principes généraux ............................................................................................................................................. 6

3.2 Degrés de correspondance .............................................................................................................................. 7

3.3 Principes spécifiques relatifs à la méthode d’adoption .........................................................................10

4 Adoption d’articles terminologiques normalisés à l’échelon international comme

moyen d’harmonisation ...................................................................................................................................10

4.1 Généralités ..........................................................................................................................................................10

4.2 Adoption de concepts normalisés à l’échelon international ................................................................. 11

4.3 Adoption de systèmes de concepts normalisés à l’échelon international ........................................16

4.4 Adoption de définitions normalisées à l’échelon international ............................................................19

4.5 Libellé des autres éléments textuels constitutifs des articles terminologiques .............................20

4.6 Représentations non verbales .......................................................................................................................21

4.7 Choix et formation des désignations ...........................................................................................................21

5 Conventions de l’organisme à activités normatives procédant à l’adoption pour la présentation

et la mise en page des articles terminologiques ......................................................................................29

5.1 Observations générales ...................................................................................................................................29

5.2 Modification du modèle de données terminologiques normalisé ........................................................29

5.3 Indication du statut normatif ..........................................................................................................................30

5.4 Mise en ordre lexicographique ......................................................................................................................30

5.5 Symboles lexicographiques ...........................................................................................................................30

Annexe A (informative) Modèle pour la notification de dispositions spécifiques relatives à l’adoption

d’articles terminologiques normalisés à l’échelon international .........................................................31

Bibliographie ....................................................................................................................................................................32

© ISO 2012 – Tous droits réservés iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 10241-2:2012(F)
Avant-propos

L’ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d’organismes nationaux de

normalisation (comités membres de l’ISO). L’élaboration des Normes internationales est en général confiée aux

comités techniques de l’ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude a le droit de faire partie du comité

technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales, gouvernementales et non gouvernementales,

en liaison avec l’ISO participent également aux travaux. L’ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission

électrotechnique internationale (CEI) en ce qui concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les Normes internationales sont rédigées conformément aux règles données dans les Directives ISO/CEI, Partie 2.

La tâche principale des comités techniques est d’élaborer les Normes internationales. Les projets de Normes

internationales adoptés par les comités techniques sont soumis aux comités membres pour vote. Leur publication

comme Normes internationales requiert l’approbation de 75 % au moins des comités membres votants.

L’attention est appelée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l’objet de droits

de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L’ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable de ne pas avoir

identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence.

L’ISO 10241-2 a été élaborée par le comité technique ISO/TC 37, Terminologie et autres ressources langagières

et ressources de contenu, sous-comité SC 2, Méthodes de travail terminographiques et lexicographiques.

L’ISO 10241 comprend les parties suivantes, présentées sous le titre général Articles terminologiques

dans les normes:
— Partie 1: Exigences générales et exemples de présentation
— Partie 2: Adoption d’articles terminologiques normalisés
iv © ISO 2012 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 10241-2:2012(F)
Introduction

L’«Accord sur les Barrières Techniques au Commerce» (accord BTC) de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce

(OMC) exige de ses membres qu’ils s’assurent de ne pas créer de barrières inutiles au commerce par le biais

de réglementations ou de systèmes d’évaluation de la conformité s’écartant des normes internationales. En

vertu de l’Accord, les membres de l’OMC sont tenus d’utiliser les normes internationales chaque fois qu’ils en

ont la possibilité. Par conséquent, selon l’Accord BTC, il convient que des normes régionales et nationales

soient fondées sur des normes internationales pour garantir l’équivalence technique entre les normes et éviter

ainsi les conflits ou incohérences dans le cadre du commerce. Le même principe s’applique aussi à l’adoption

d’articles terminologiques normalisés.

Afin d’assurer une compréhension et une interprétation sans ambiguïté des principaux termes et autres types de

désignations utilisés dans leur domaine, les comités peuvent spécifier tout ou partie de leur terminologie normalisée

sous la forme d’une norme de terminologie, ou de sections définissant la terminologie dans d’autres normes.

Le Guide ISO/CEI 21-1 spécifie les méthodes pour l’adoption de Normes internationales (définies comme

étant des normes internationales adoptées par l’ISO ou la CEI) en tant que normes régionales ou nationales:

entérinement, publication avec une page de couverture régionale ou nationale et édition par réimpression,

traduction et nouvelle rédaction. Lors de l’adoption de Normes internationales, une attention particulière doit être

portée au traitement des articles terminologiques. Par exemple, les organismes à activités normatives utilisant

des langues ou des variantes de langue autres que les langues officielles de la Norme internationale faisant l’objet

de l’adoption, rencontrent souvent des difficultés lors de l’élaboration d’articles terminologiques équivalents.

Conformément au Guide ISO/CEI 21-1 «l’adoption d’une Norme internationale en tant que norme régionale

ou nationale sera extrêmement difficile si les règles ou les traditions régionales ou nationales en matière

de structure et de présentation diffèrent de celles applicables aux normes faisant l’objet de l’adoption. Il est

recommandé, en conséquence, d’appliquer dans toute la mesure du possible les Directives ISO/CEI, Partie

2, dans le cadre de l’élaboration des normes régionales et nationales.» Par ailleurs, lors de l’élaboration des

articles terminologiques des normes régionales ou nationales, d’autres préoccupations propres aux articles

terminologiques méritent d’être prises en compte lors du processus d’adoption.

Le Guide ISO/CEI 21 énonce les principes appliqués pour déterminer si une Norme internationale peut

être adoptée en tant que norme régionale ou nationale, y compris une méthode pour évaluer le degré de

correspondance d’une Norme internationale aux besoins nationaux ou régionaux en matière de normalisation.

Par comparaison, la présente partie de l’ISO 10241 définit des règles relatives à l’adoption d’articles

terminologiques de normes internationales dans des normes régionales ou nationales, ainsi que les principes

utilisés pour déterminer le degré de correspondance entre les articles, concepts et systèmes conceptuels

d’une Norme internationale et les réalités nationales ou régionales.

Des préoccupations similaires à celles rencontrées lors de l’adoption d’un document complet issu d’un milieu

culturel ou linguistique dans un autre peuvent apparaître lorsque l’adoption ne porte que sur les articles

terminologiques car les différentes communautés culturelles et linguistiques perçoivent et conceptualisent

différemment les objets. Dans certaines communautés par exemple, on désigne par «premier étage» l’étage

situé au-dessus de l’entrée ou du niveau du sol, tandis que d’autres utilisent le terme «premier étage» pour

désigner le niveau de l’entrée ou le niveau du sol. De telles différences ont également une incidence sur la

normalisation des articles terminologiques.

La présente partie de l’ISO 10241 établit des lignes directrices pour le traitement de certains points-clés à

prendre en compte dans le processus d’adoption d’articles terminologiques normalisés. Elle précise les défis que

doivent relever les organismes à activités normatives dans le processus d’adoption d’articles terminologiques

normalisés à l’échelon international. Elle indique également comment des articles terminologiques normalisés

à l’échelon national, élaborés conformément aux lignes directrices de l’ISO 10241-1 peuvent servir de ressource

ou de point de départ pour la normalisation d’articles terminologiques au niveau international ou régional.

1) Les Normes internationales (N majuscule) sont des «normes internationales, lorsque l’organisation internationale de

normalisation est l’ISO ou la CEI».

2) Les normes internationales (n minuscule) sont des «normes adoptées par une organisation internationale à activités

normatives/de normalisation et qui sont mises à la disposition du public».
© ISO 2012 – Tous droits réservés v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 10241-2:2012(F)
Articles terminologiques dans les normes —
Partie 2:
Adoption d’articles terminologiques normalisés
1 Domaine d’application

La présente partie de l’ISO 10241 traite de l’introduction d’articles terminologiques normalisés dans d’autres

milieux culturels et linguistiques, et en particulier de l’adoption d’articles terminologiques normalisés à l’échelon

international par des organismes régionaux et nationaux à activités normatives. Elle établit des principes et des

lignes directrices permettant de traiter des questions clés à prendre en compte dans le cadre de ce processus.

Elle fournit également des exemples et des solutions aux problèmes susceptibles d’apparaître lorsque

l’organisme à activités normatives procédant à l’adoption
— adopte des articles terminologiques normalisés à l’échelon international,

— aligne des systèmes de concepts de l’organisme à activités normatives procédant à l’adoption sur des

systèmes de concepts normalisés à l’échelon international, et

— prépare des articles terminologiques normalisés en complément ou en supplément des articles

terminologiques normalisés à l’échelon international.
2 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions suivants s’appliquent.

NOTE 1 Pour la sélection et le libellé des articles terminologiques contenus dans le présent article, la préférence a

été donnée à une compréhension générale. Par conséquent, les termes communément utilisés (qui sont généralement

compréhensibles) ne sont pas définis. Certains articles terminologiques provenant d’autres sources ont été modifiés

pour répondre aux besoins du groupe cible de la présente partie de l’ISO 10241. Conformément à l’ISO 10241-1, les

modifications sont repérées par la chaîne «modifié» suivant la source.

NOTE 2 Dans la mesure où la plupart des articles terminologiques énumérés dans le présent document ont

été sélectionnés à partir d’autres normes, les systèmes de concepts complets ne sont pas représentés. Les articles

terminologiques sont de ce fait présentés dans un ordre mixte.
2.1
norme

document, établi par consensus et approuvé par un organisme reconnu, qui fournit, pour des usages communs

et répétés, des règles, des lignes directrices et des caractéristiques, pour des activités ou leurs résultats,

garantissant un niveau d’ordre optimal dans un contexte donné

Note 1 à l’article: Il convient que les normes soient fondées sur les acquis conjugués de la science, de la technique et de

l’expérience et visent à l’avantage optimal de la communauté.
[SOURCE: Guide ISO/CEI 2:2004, 3.2]
© ISO 2012 – Tous droits réservés 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 10241-2:2012(F)
2.2
organisme à activités normatives
organisation à activités normatives
organisation élaborant des normes
OEN

organisme ou organisation réalisant des activités reconnues dans le domaine de la normalisation, telles que

l’élaboration, l’adoption et la publication de normes (2.1) et dont les membres peuvent être des organismes

nationaux, régionaux ou autres organismes à activités normatives, des organisations telles que des entreprises,

des institutions gouvernementales, académiques ou autres institutions, et des particuliers

[SOURCE: Guide ISO/CEI 2:2004, 4.3, modifié — par extension de la définition à tout type d’organisation

élaborant des normes, la définition couvre à présent tous les organismes à activités normatives et organisations.]

2.3.1
normalisation terminologique

élaboration des articles terminologiques (2.3.3) de normes de terminologie (2.3.2) et de sections terminologiques

d’autres normes, et leur approbation par un organisme à activités normatives (2.2)

[SOURCE: ISO 15188:2001, 3.5, modifié — «établissement de normes sur les principes terminologiques,

de normes terminologiques ou» a été remplacé par «élaboration des articles terminologiques de normes de

terminologie et», «normes techniques» a été remplacé par «autres normes» et «approbation par un organisme

qui fait autorité» a été remplacé par « leur approbation par un organisme à activités normatives» dans un souci

de cohérence de la présente partie de l’ISO 10241.]
2.3.2
norme de terminologie

norme (2.1) qui fixe des termes (2.6.2) accompagnés de leur définition (2.5), et parfois de notes explicatives,

d’illustrations, d’exemples, etc.

Note 1 à l’article: La règle veut que les normes de terminologie et les sections terminologiques d’autres normes

comprennent plus d’un article terminologique normalisé, c’est-à-dire une collection de données terminologiques.

Note 2 à l’article: Une norme de terminologie peut être une norme de terminologie internationale, régionale ou nationale.

[SOURCE: ISO 10241-1:2011, 3.1.1 — Les Notes 1 et 2 à l’article ont été ajoutées pour expliquer l’utilisation

plus large du terme «norme de terminologie» relevant du domaine d’application de la présente partie de

l’ISO 10241.]
2.3.3
article terminologique

partie d’une collection de données terminologiques qui contient les données terminologiques (ISO 10241-1:2011,

3.1.3) relatives à un concept (2.4.1.1)

Note 1 à l’article: Un article terminologique élaboré conformément aux principes et méthodes donnés dans l’ISO 704 suit

les mêmes principes de structuration, qu’il soit monolingue ou multilingue.
2.3.4
article terminologique normalisé

article terminologique (2.3.3) qui a été normalisé par un organisme à activités normatives (2.2)

Note 1 à l’article: Un concept est considéré normalisé si l’article terminologique complet ou la définition (ou sa représentation

non verbale dans les domaines ou sujets dans lesquels des représentations non verbales sont conventionnellement

utilisées) et les désignations qui lui sont assignées ont été normalisés.

Note 2 à l’article: Un article terminologique peut être normalisé au niveau international, régional ou national.

Note 3 à l’article: L’ISO 10241-1:2011, Annexe A, fournit de nombreux exemples d’articles terminologiques normalisés

monolingues et multilingues.
2 © ISO 2012 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 10241-2:2012(F)
2.3.5
modèle de données terminologiques

structure conceptuelle pour organiser des données terminologiques, en général

en vue de la mise en œuvre dans des systèmes de gestion de bases de données, sur laquelle un article

terminologique (2.3.3) est fondé, y compris les catégories de données (ISO 10241-1:2011, 3.1.4) terminologiques

avec leurs propriétés et interrelations

Note 1 à l’article: En normalisation terminologique, le modèle de données terminologiques est fondé sur les catégories

de données terminologiques mentionnées dans l’ISO 10241-1:2011 et sur leurs propriétés et interrelations. Elle n’est pas

équivalente à la structure d’une norme (Guide ISO/CEI 21-1:2005, 3.10) ou d’un autre document, définie dans le Guide

ISO/CEI 21-1 comme étant l’«ordre des articles, paragraphes, alinéas, tableaux, figures, annexes».

Note 2 à l’article: Si cela est exigé par la culture ou la langue de l’organisme à activités normatives procédant à l’adoption,

il est possible d’ajouter ou de supprimer des catégories de données terminologiques relatives à la langue ou à la culture

et d’adapter la présentation des données terminologiques (à différentes restitutions selon les besoins des utilisateurs,

l’objectif de la collection de données terminologiques, etc.) sans modifier le contenu technique de l’article terminologique

adopté et son modèle de données terminologiques sous-jacent.
2.4.1.1
concept
notion

unité de connaissance créée par une combinaison unique de caractères (ISO 1087-1:2000, 3.2.4)

Note 1 à l’article: Les concepts ne sont pas nécessairement liés à des langues particulières. Ils sont cependant soumis à

l’influence du contexte socioculturel qui conduit souvent à des catégorisations différentes.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087-1:2000, 3.2.1]
2.4.1.2
harmonisation des concepts

activité aboutissant à l’établissement d’une correspondance entre deux ou plusieurs concepts (2.4.1.1) très

proches les uns des autres ou se recouvrant et présentant des différences d’ordre professionnel, technique,

scientifique, social, économique, linguistique, culturel, etc., afin de réduire ou d’éliminer des différences mineures

Note 1 à l’article: L’harmonisation des concepts a pour but d’améliorer la communication.

[SOURCE: ISO 860:2007, 3.1]
2.4.2.1
système de concepts
système de notions

ensemble de concepts (2.4.1.1) structuré selon les relations qui les unissent

[SOURCE: ISO 1087-1:2000, 3.2.11]
2.4.2.2
harmonisation des systèmes de concepts

activité aboutissant à l’établissement d’une correspondance entre deux ou plusieurs systèmes de concepts

(2.4.2.1) très proches les uns des autres ou se recouvrant et présentant des différences d’ordre professionnel,

technique, scientifique, social, économique, linguistique, culturel, etc., afin de réduire ou d’éliminer des

différences mineures

Note 1 à l’article: L’harmonisation des systèmes de concepts a pour but d’améliorer la communication.

[SOURCE: ISO 860:2007, 3.2]
© ISO 2012 – Tous droits réservés 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 10241-2:2012(F)
2.5
définition

représentation d’un concept (2.4.1.1) par un énoncé descriptif permettant de le

différencier des concepts associés

Note 1 à l’article: Généralement, une représentation non verbale ne peut que compléter une définition et non la remplacer.

Cependant, dans certains domaines ou sujets, par exemple dans un système de formules interdépendantes, les

représentations non verbales sont conventionnellement utilisées à la place d’un énoncé descriptif.

[SOURCE: ISO 10241-1:2011, 3.4.2.1]
2.6.1
désignation

représentation d’un concept (2.4.1.1) par un signe qui le dénomme

Note 1 à l’article: Dans le travail terminologique, on distingue trois types de désignation: les symboles, les appellations

et les termes.

Note 2 à l’article: Dans la langue générale, le mot représentation peut avoir plusieurs significations. Ici, il signifie

l’expression ou la description au moyen de mots, d’une figure ou d’un symbole. Selon l’ISO 10241-1, 3.4.1.1.3, les symboles

peuvent être des symboles littéraux, des symboles graphiques ou d’autres types de symboles.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087-1:2000, 3.4.1, modifié — En ajoutant la Note 2 à l’article afin qu’il soit cohérent avec

l’ISO 10241-1]
2.6.2
terme

désignation (2.6.1) verbale d’un concept général (ISO 1087-1:2000, 3.2.3) dans un domaine (ISO 10241-1:2011,

3.3.1) ou sujet (ISO 10241-1:2011, 3.3.2) spécifique

Note 1 à l’article: Les termes peuvent comprendre des lettres et des symboles littéraux, des chiffres, des symboles

mathématiques, des signes typographiques et des signes syntaxiques (par exemple signes de ponctuation, traits d’union,

parenthèses, crochets ou autres séparateurs), parfois dans des typographies (c’est-à-dire polices de caractères et gras, italique,

gras italique ou autres conventions stylistiques) régies par des conventions spécifiques au domaine, au sujet ou à la langue.

Note 2 à l’article: Un terme peut avoir des variantes, par exemple des orthographes différentes.

Note 3 à l’article: Les termes peuvent être relativement complexes et comporter au moins deux radicaux ou mots.

Note 4 à l’article: Dans une langue donnée, plusieurs termes représentant le même concept sont des termes synonymes

(des synonymes). Les termes dans différentes langues représentant le même concept sont des termes équivalents (des

équivalents).
[SOURCE: ISO 10241-1:2011, 3.4.1.1.2]
2.6.3
emprunt

terme (2.6.2) provenant d’une langue étrangère ou d’un autre domaine (10241-1:2011, 3.3.1) ou sujet (10241-

1:2011, 3.3.2)
2.7.1
adoption

<élaboration de normes> publication d’un document normatif régional ou national fondé sur une Norme

internationale pertinente, ou entérinement de la Norme internationale avec le même statut qu’un document

normatif national, tout écart par rapport à la Norme internationale étant signalé

Note 1 à l’article: Adapté du Guide ISO/CEI 2:2004, définition 10.1.

Note 2 à l’article: Le terme «reprise» est employé parfois pour exprimer la même notion que celle d’«adoption».

Note 3 à l’article: Pour les conditions d’adoption d’une Norme internationale en tant que norme régionale ou nationale,

voir le Guide ISO/CEI Guide 21-1:2004, 4.1.
4 © ISO 2012 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 10241-2:2012(F)

[SOURCE: Guide ISO/CEI 21-1:2004, 3.6, modifié – en ajoutant <élaboration de normes> avant la définition

afin de clarifier le contexte du Guide ISO/CEI 21-1. Pour la même raison, «Guide ISO/CEI 21-1:2004» a été

ajouté à la Note 3 à l’article.]
2.7.2
adoption d’un article terminologique normalisé

reprise d’un article terminologique normalisé (2.3.4) par un autre organisme à

activités normatives (2.2), avec tout écart technique (2.8.3) signalé

Note 1 à l’article: Alors que l’adoption d’une Norme internationale concerne la totalité du document, les principes

fondamentaux et les règles d’adoption des normes s’appliquent aussi dans une large mesure à l’adoption d’articles

terminologiques. Cette dernière concerne des articles terminologiques, concepts et systèmes de concepts individuels, et

les éléments constitutifs des articles terminologiques. Par conséquent, les types d’information devant être adoptés sont

différents des textes intégraux des normes et les processus d’adoption peuvent différer en conséquence.

Note 2 à l’article: Dans la pratique, l’adoption d’un article terminologique normalisé peut impliquer la «traduction» d’un

article terminologique normalisé. En normalisation terminologique, la «traduction» se rapporte à l’expression de certaines

ou de toutes les données textuelles d’un article terminologique normalisé dans la langue de l’organisme à activités

normatives procédant à l’adoption, ainsi qu’à l’adaptation de données textuelles ou non textuelles à la langue ou au

modèle de données terminologiques de l’organisme à activités normatives procédant à l’adoption.

2.7.3.1
texte traduit
traduction

texte exprimant, dans une autre langue, l’équivalent d’un texte source

2.7.3.1.1
traduction fidèle

texte traduit (2.7.3.1) sans écart technique (2.8.3)

Note 1 à l’article: Information textuelle d’un article terminologique: strictement parlant, un texte est toute chaîne de

caractères qui peut être interprétée comme significative d’un point de vue linguistique.

Note 2 à l’article: La traduction fidèle d’un article terminologique normalisé à l’échelon international aboutit à un article

terminologique qui est identique, en termes de contenu technique, dans la langue de l’organisme à activités normatives

procédant à l’adoption.
2.7.3.1.2
traduction adaptée
texte traduit (2.7.3.1) avec des adaptations

Note 1 à l’article: Les adaptations peuvent se rapporter à des conventions différentes ou aux spécificités de la langue de

l’organisme à activités normatives procédant à l’adoption.

Note 2 à l’article: La traduction adaptée d’un article terminologique aboutit à un article terminologique «modifié» dans la

langue de l’organisme à activités normatives procédant à l’adoption.
2.8.1
contenu technique

ensemble de caractéristiques d’un concept (2.4.1.1) dans un article

terminologique normalisé (2.3.4) exprimé par le biais d’une définition (2.5) et d’autres données terminologiques

(ISO 10241-1:2011, 3.1.3)
2.8.2
modification rédactionnelle

toute modification qui n’altère pas le contenu technique (2.8.1)

Note 1 à l’article: Une liste de modifications rédactionnelles autorisées dans le cas d’une adoption identique est

donnée en 3.2.2.

[SOURCE: Guide ISO/CEI 21-1:2004, 3.7, modifié — par l’ajout de «» avant la

définition, la suppression de «autorisée» après «modification», le renvoi à l’article 2.8.1 «contenu technique»

© ISO 2012 – Tous droits réservés 5
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 10241-2:2012(F)

et l’adaptation du renvoi de la Note 1 à l’article afin qu’il reflète le domaine d’application de la présente partie

de l’ISO 10241.]
2.8.3
écart technique

toute différence entre le contenu technique (2.8.1) de l’article terminologique

normalisé (2.3.4) à l’échelon international et celui de l’article terminologique normalisé (2.3.4) adopté

[SOURCE: Guide ISO/CEI 21-1:2004, 3.8, modifié — par l’ajout de «» avant la

définition et par l’adaptation de la définition afin qu’elle reflète le domaine d’application de la présente partie de

l’ISO 10241.]
2.8.4
modification du libellé

remplacement de mots ou de phrases isolés dans l’article terminologique normalisé

(2.3.4) à l’échelon régional ou national par des synonymes afin de refléter les conventions spécifiques au domaine,

au sujet ou à la langue dans la région ou le pays de l’organisme à activités normatives procédant à l’adoption

EXEMPLE: Certains pays utilisent «micheline» alors que d’autres utilisent «autorail» pour le même engin.

[SOURCE: Guide ISO/CEI 21-1:2004, 3.9, modifié — par l’ajout de «» avant la

définition et par l’adaptation de la définition afin qu’elle reflète le domaine d’application de la présente partie de

l’ISO 10241.]
2.8.5
principe de réversibilité

principe selon lequel tout élément figurant dans un article terminologique

normalisé (2.3
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.