Setts of natural stone for external paving - Requirements and test methods

This European standard specifies the performance requirements and the corresponding test methods for all natural stone setts for external paving use. It provides for product marking and for the evaluation of conformity of the product to this European Standard. This European Standard also covers characteristics that are of importance to the trade. It does not cover the effect of de-icing salts.

Pflastersteine aus Naturstein für Außenbereiche - Anforderungen und Prüfverfahren

Diese Europäische Norm enthält die Leistungsanforderungen für sämtliche Pflastersteine aus Naturstein
für Außenbereiche sowie die entsprechenden Prüfverfahren.
Sie ermöglicht die Produktkennzeichnung und Konformitätsbewertung des Produktes nach dieser Euro-
päischen Norm.
Diese Europäische Norm behandelt außerdem charakteristische Merkmale, die für den Handel von
Bedeutung sind.
Diese Norm behandelt nicht die Wirkung von Tausalzen.

Pavés de pierre naturelle pour le pavage extérieur - Exigences et méthodes d'essai

La présente Norme européenne spécifie les exigences de performances relatives aux pavés de pierre naturelle utilisés pour le pavage de sol extérieur, et les méthodes d'essai correspondantes.
Il spécifie le marquage et l'évaluation de conformité des produits au présent document européen.
La présente Norme européenne traite également des caractéristiques importantes sur le plan commercial.
Il ne traite pas des effets des sels de déverglaçage.

Tlakovci iz naravnega kamna za zunanje tlakovanje - Zahteve in preskusne metode

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
31-Aug-2002
Withdrawal Date
20-Jan-2013
Current Stage
9900 - Withdrawal (Adopted Project)
Start Date
18-Dec-2012
Due Date
10-Jan-2013
Completion Date
21-Jan-2013

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Tlakovci iz naravnega kamna za zunanje tlakovanje - Zahteve in preskusne metodePflastersteine aus Naturstein für Außenbereiche - Anforderungen und PrüfverfahrenPavés de pierre naturelle pour le pavage extérieur - Exigences et méthodes d'essaiSetts of natural stone for external paving - Requirements and test methods93.080.20Materiali za gradnjo cestRoad construction materials91.100.15Mineralni materiali in izdelkiMineral materials and productsICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 1342:2001SIST EN 1342:2002en01-september-2002SIST EN 1342:2002SLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST EN 1342:20011DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 1342:2002

EUROPEAN STANDARDNORME EUROPÉENNEEUROPÄISCHE NORMEN 1342December 2001ICS 93.080.20Supersedes EN 1342:2000English versionSetts of natural stone for external paving - Requirements andtest methodsPavés de pierre naturelle pour le pavage extérieur -Exigences et méthodes d'essaiPflastersteine aus Naturstein für Außenbereiche -Anforderungen und PrüfverfahrenThis European Standard was approved by CEN on 14 October 2001.CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this EuropeanStandard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such nationalstandards may be obtained on application to the Management Centre or to any CEN member.This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translationunder the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Management Centre has the same status as the officialversions.CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATIONCOMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATIONEUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNGManagement Centre: rue de Stassart, 36

B-1050 Brussels© 2001 CENAll rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reservedworldwide for CEN national Members.Ref. No. EN 1342:2001 ESIST EN 1342:2002

EN 1342:2001 (E)2ContentspageForeword..............................................................................................................................................31Scope.......................................................................................................................................42Normative references.............................................................................................................43Terms and definitions............................................................................................................44Requirements.........................................................................................................................54.1Dimensions.............................................................................................................................54.2Freeze/thaw resistance..........................................................................................................74.3Compressive strength...........................................................................................................74.4Abrasion resistance...............................................................................................................74.5Slip resistance........................................................................................................................74.6Aspects...................................................................................................................................84.7Water absorption....................................................................................................................84.8Petrographical description....................................................................................................84.9Chemical surface treatment..................................................................................................85Evaluation of conformity.......................................................................................................95.1General....................................................................................................................................95.2Initial type tests......................................................................................................................95.3Factory production control...................................................................................................96Acceptance criteria..............................................................................................................106.1Sampling...............................................................................................................................106.2Conformity criteria...............................................................................................................107Marking, labelling and packaging.......................................................................................11Annex A (normative)

Measurement of dimensions........................................................................12Annex B (normative)

Measurement of abrasion resistance..........................................................16Annex C (normative)

Measurement of unpolished slip resistance value (USRV)......................24Annex D (normative)

Sampling........................................................................................................33Annex ZA (informative)

Clauses of this European Standard addressing the provisions ofthe EU Construction Products Directive...........................................................................34SIST EN 1342:2002

EN 1342:2001 (E)3ForewordThis European Standard has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 178 "Paving units andkerbs", the secretariat of which is held by BSI.This European Standard supersedes EN 1342:2000.This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of anidentical text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2002, and conflicting national standards shallbe withdrawn at the latest by September 2003.This European Standard has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the EuropeanCommission and the European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EUDirective(s).For relationship with EU Directive(s), see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of thisstandard.According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of thefollowing countries are bound to implement this European Standard : Austria, Belgium, CzechRepublic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg,Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.SIST EN 1342:2002

EN 1342:2001 (E)41 ScopeThis European Standard specifies the performance requirements and the corresponding test methodsfor all natural stone setts for external paving use.It provides for product marking and for the evaluation of conformity of the product to this EuropeanStandard.This European Standard also covers characteristics that are of importance to the trade.It does not cover the effect of the de-icing salts.2 Normative referencesThis European Standard incorporates, by dated or undated reference, provisions from otherpublications. These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and thepublications are listed hereafter. For dated references subsequent amendments to or revisions of anyof these publications apply to this European Standard only when incorporated in it by amendment, orrevision. For undated references the latest edition of the publication referred to applies (includingamendments).EN 12371, Natural stone test methods — Determination of frost resistanceEN 1926, Natural stone test methods — Determination of compressive strengthEN 12407, Natural stone test methods — Petrographic descriptionEN 10083-2:1996, Quenched and tempered steels — Part 2: Technical delivery conditions forunalloyed quality steelsEN 13755, Natural stone test methods — Determination of water absorption at atmospheric pressure3 Terms and definitionsFor the purposes of this European Standard the following terms and definitions apply:3.1settsmall natural stone paving block with work dimensions between 50 mm and 300 mm and no plandimension generally exceeding twice the thickness. The minimum nominal thickness is 50 mm3.2textured settsett with a modified appearance resulting from one or several mechanical or thermal surfacetreatments3.3work dimensionany dimension of a sett specified for its manufacture to which the actual dimension should conformwithin specified permissible deviations3.4actual dimensionany dimension of a sett as measuredSIST EN 1342:2002

EN 1342:2001 (E)53.5overall lengththe longer side of the rectangle with the smallest length able to enclose the sett3.6overall widththe shorter side of the rectangle with the smallest area able to enclose the sett3.7thicknessdistance between the upper face and the bedface of the sett3.8upper facesurface of a sett intended to be seen when in use3.9fine texturedsurface treatment with a maximum difference of 0,5 mm between peaks and depressions (for examplepolished, honed or sawn with a diamond disc or blade)3.10honeddull polish or matt finish3.11coarse texturedsurface treatment with more than 2 mm difference between peaks and depressions (for example dollypointed, tooled, shot blasted or flame textured)3.12dolly pointedfinish consisting of peaks and depressions achieved by using a four pointed dolly bit3.13tooledfinish resulting from mechanical surface treatment and showing tool marks3.14hewnunworked, as-riven surface4 Requirements4.1 Dimensions4.1.1 GeneralThe supplier shall state the work dimensions of each sett that is tested, unless supplied in randomsizes. Dimensions shall be measured in accordance with annex A.SIST EN 1342:2002

EN 1342:2001 (E)64.1.2 Permissible deviations4.1.2.1 Plan dimensions and thicknessWhen measured in accordance with A.2, the deviations from the work plan dimensions shall conformto those in Table

1.Table 1 — Deviations on nominal plan dimensionsBetween two hewn faces± 15 mmBetween one textured face and one hewn face± 10 mmBetween two textured faces± 5 mmWhen measured in accordance with A.2, the deviations from the work thickness shall conform tothose in Table

2.Table 2 — Deviations on nominal thicknessClass 1Class 2Marking designationT1T2Between two hewn faces± 30 mm± 15 mmBetween one textured face and one hewn face± 30 mm± 10 mmBetween two textured faces± 30 mm± 5 mmWhen setts are laid in fan shaped arrangements not only cubic setts are required but also a numberof trapezoidal and oblong setts. For setts intended for this use a maximum of 10 % of setts, thedimensions of which lie outside the permissible deviations by up to 10 mm, may be included in thedelivery. In all cases the height of the setts shall be observed. If the setts are not to be laid in fans thisshall be stated when ordering.4.1.2.2 Undercut of hewn sidesWhen measured in accordance with A.3, the lack of perpendicularity of a side shall not exceed 15 mmwith respect to the face.4.1.2.3 Hewn and coarse textured face irregularitiesWhen measured in accordance with A.2, face cavities and protrusions shall not exceed the deviationgiven in Table

3.Table 3 — Deviations on face irregularityHewnTextured5 mm3 mmSIST EN 1342:2002

EN 1342:2001 (E)74.2 Freeze/thaw resistanceThe producer shall declare the freeze/thaw resistance of the stone in accordance with Table

4 whentested in accordance with EN 12371. The number of cycles shall be 48. The test shall be carried outto determine the effect of freeze/thaw cycles on performance characteristics (EN 1926 —compressive strength). The specimens shall be in accordance with the appropriate standard.For some specific uses it may be appropriate to use different test cycles, for example freezing inwater, freezing to a lower temperature, or testing specimens embedded in non-porous siliceousgranules or a different number of cycles.

In these cases national specification standards may befollowed but these variations shall be clearly stated in the test report.If there is no requirement for freeze/thaw resistance or no performance has been determined, thenthis shall be stated.Table 4 — Freeze/thaw resistanceClassClass 0Class 1Marking designationF0F1RequirementNo requirements for freeze/thawresistanceResistant( 20% change in compressivestrength)4.3 Compressive strengthThe producer shall declare a compressive strength (MPa) as the minimum value expected forindividual test specimens when tested in accordance with EN 1926. If no performance has beendetermined this shall be stated.4.4 Abrasion resistanceThe producer shall declare the abrasion resistance (length of chord in mm) as the maximum valueexpected for individual test specimens when tested in accordance with annex B. If no performancehas been determined this shall be stated.4.5 Slip resistanceThe producer shall declare the minimum Unpolished Slip Resistance Value (USRV) expected forindividual test specimens of fine textured setts when tested in accordance with annex C. If noperformance has been determined this shall be stated.If a national requirement on durability of slip/skid resistance exists, this requirement shall bedetermined as described in the national standard valid in the country where this requirement isoperational.NOTE 1Coarse textured and riven setts are assumed to give satisfactory slip resistance. They cannot bereliably tested.It should also be noted that the performance of setts when laid may have a different slip resistance value to thatdetermined on individual setts or test specimens.NOTE 2The unpolished slip resistance value relates to setts as manufactured and helps to ensure adequateslip/skid resistance on installation.SIST EN 1342:2002

EN 1342:2001 (E)8NOTE 3Experience has indicated that a USRV measurement made using a wide slider / full swing on a TRLtype pendulum that is greater than 35 can usually be considered safe.4.6 Aspects4.6.1 AppearanceStone is a naturally occurring material giving rise to variations in colour, veining and texture, therefore,general characteristics of the appearance may be given by one or more specimens (see 4.6.2).4.6.2 Reference sampleA reference sample shall be a number of setts of natural stone of sufficient size to indicate theappearance of the finished work and the approximate appearance regarding the colouring, the veinpattern, the physical structure and face finish.It shall show the general tonality and finish of the natural stone, but does not imply any total uniformityin colour and veins between the sample and supplied product.The reference sample shall be provided and delivered to the customer as an indication to showspecific characteristics such as holes for travertine, worm holes for marble, glass seams, spots,crystalline veins and rusty spots of the offered materials.NOTEThese characteristics should not be considered as flaws and should not be used as a reason forrejection.The name and address of the producer or the supplier shall be indicated on the sample as well asidentification of the material including the trade name, petrographic description, country of origin andextraction area.Reference samples shall also show the surface finish proposed.Any comparison between test and reference samples shall be carried out by placing the referencesample against the test specimens and viewing them at a distance of two metres under normallighting conditions and recording any visible differences in appearance, texture or colour.4.7 Water absorptionWhere required the producer shall declare the water absorption (% by mass) as the maximum valueexpected for individual specimens when tested in accordance with EN 13755.4.8 Petrographical descriptionThe producer shall provide a petrographical description, including a petrographic name of the stonetype, in accordance with EN 12407.4.9 Chemical surface treatmentThe producer/supplier shall declare if the product has been subjected to a chemical surface treatmentand what the treatment was.SIST EN 1342:2002

EN 1342:2001 (E)95 Evaluation of conformity5.1 GeneralThe producer or supplier shall demonstrate compliance of his product, either new or existing, withrequirements of this standard and with the declared values for the product properties by carrying outinitial testing and factory production control. Where tests have previously been done in conformity withthe requirements of this standard (same product, same characteristic, test method and samplingmethod), the results may be taken into account for initial type testing.The value declared by the producer or supplier shall be representative of the current production, forexample the lowest expected value or the minimum test value in normal production.5.2 Initial type testsWhen a product shall first demonstrate conformity with this standard, for example when a new productis developed, and before offering it for sale, appropriate tests shall be carried out to confirm that theproperties of the product meet the requirements of this standard and the values to be declared for itby the producer. Whenever a significant change occurs in the raw material or the production processwhich could change the properties of the finished product, this shall be considered as constituting anew product type.The type tests shall be the reference tests called up in this standard for the properties selected fromthe following list consistent with the product type’s intended use: dimensions; flatness of surface; freeze/thaw resistance; compressive strength; abrasion resistance; slip resistance; aspects (for example visual appearance); water absorption; petrographic description; chemical surface treatment.The results of the initial tests shall be recorded.5.3 Factory production controlA factory production control system shall be established and documented prior to commencingproduction. The factory production control system shall consist of procedures for the internal control ofproduction to ensure that products placed on the marked conform with this standard and themanufacturer’s declared values.SIST EN 1342:2002

EN 1342:2001 (E)10The internal control shall consist of regular inspection checks and tests and the utilisation of theresults to control incoming materials, equipment, the production process and the finished product.5.3.1 Raw materialsSpecifications of all incoming materials and the procedures to be operated to ensure that they complyshall be documented.5.3.2 Production processThe relevant features of the plant and production process shall be defined giving the frequency of theinspection checks and tests, together with the criteria required both on equipment and on work inprogress. The action to be taken when control values or criteria are not met shall be given. Weighingand measuring equipment shall be calibrated and the procedure, frequency and criteria stated.5.3.3 Finished product testingA sampling plan for the testing of finished products shall be defined and the results shall be recordedand available for inspection. When alternative tests to the reference tests are used for the testprocedure their correlation to the reference test shall be available for inspection. All test equipmentshall be calibrated and the procedure, frequency and criteria stated.5.3.4 Stock controlThe stock control of finished products, together with procedures for dealing with non-conformingproducts, shall be detailed.6 Acceptance criteria6.1 SamplingThe sampling procedure from a batch to establish its conformity to this standard and themanufacturer’s declared range of values shall be in accordance with annex D.6.2 Conformity criteria6.2.1 DimensionsWhen tested in accordance with annex A, the mean value of the measurements taken of any onedimension on a single sett shall not vary from the manufacturer’s declared work dimension by morethan the permissible deviations given in 4.1.1.1 for the declared class.6.2.2 Freeze/thaw resistanceWhen tested in accordance with EN 12371 the result for each of the test specimens shall be not lessthan the declared value.6.2.3 Compressive strengthWhen tested in accordance with EN 1926 the result for each of the test specimens shall be not lessthan the declared value.SIST EN 1342:2002

EN 1342:2001 (E)116.2.4 Abrasion resistanceWhen tested in accordance with annex B the result for each of the test specimens shall be not greaterthan the declared value.6.2.5 Slip resistanceWhen tested in accordance with annex C the result for each of the test specimens shall be not lessthan the declared value.6.2.6 Face irregularitiesWhen tested in accordance with annex A, no individual measurement of the deviation from a planeshall exceed the value given in 4.1.1.3.7 Marking, labelling and packagingSetts shall be packed in a manner to avoid damage in transit, and any metal banding used shall becorrosion resistant.The following information shall be supplied either on the packaging, or on the delivery note:a) the petrographic name of the stone;b) the commercial name of the stone;c) the name and address of the supplier;d) the name and location of the quarry;e) the name, number and date of this standard;f) the declared value or marking designation classes (see clause 4);g) other information, for example surface chemical treatments.Where the marking equirements of ZA.3 require the same information as in this clause, such markingshall be considered to meet the requirements of this clause.SIST EN 1342:2002

EN 1342:2001 (E)12Annex A (normative)Measurement of dimensionsA.1 Preparation of specimensRemove all burrs etc. from the setts to be measured.A.2 Plan dimensionA.2.1 ApparatusA.2.1.1Measuring equipment with an accuracy of 0,5 mm.A.2.1.2Callipers with an accuracy of 0,5 mm.A.2.1.3Graduated square with an accuracy of 0,5 mm.A.2.1.4Profile gauge (see Figure

A.1) or equivalent apparatus.A.2.2 ProcedureA.2.2.1 Overall width and height of textured settsMeasure the overall width at the top and bottom of the nominally parallel faces, to the nearest 1 mm,at both ends of the sett. Measure the overall height at the back and front, at both ends of the sett.Record the mean height and width, together with larger and smaller dimension of each, if thedifference between them exceeds 3 mm, all to the nearest 1 mm.A.2.2.2 Face irregularityProceed as follows:a) Place the sett to be measured on a level surface.b) Set the needle support on the spacer/leveller and press the needles down onto the base.c) With the measuring equipment, measure and record the distance of the needles to the needlesupport (mm).d) Divide the sett area into four imaginary areas and with the profile gauge in one of these areas,press all the needles down onto the surface.e) Remove the profile gauge and measure and record the highest and lowest points from the needlesupport (mm).f) Subtract measurement c) from measurement e) to calculate the maximum and minimum profilesg) Repeat in the other three areas and record the four answers.SIST EN 1342:2002

EN 1342:2001 (E)130123456789101112131415Figure A.1 — Profile gaugeSIST EN 1342:2002

EN 1342:2001 (E)14A.3 Chamfers and undercutPlace one blade of the graduated square in contact with the face at one end of the sett and bring theother blade in contact with the vertical side. Record the appropriate dimensions to the nearest 1 mmusing the markings on the square and the rule. Repeat at the other side and then at the other end ofthe sett.A.4 Test reportThe test report shall include the following information:a) name and address of testing laboratory and location where the test was carried out when differentfrom the address of the testing laboratory;b) the number, title and date of issue of this standard;c) a description of the units or specimens tested to the relevant standard;d) unique identification of report (such as serial number) and of each page, and total number ofpages of the report;e) name and address of client;f) date of receipt of test units or specimens and date (s) of performance of tests;g) identification of the test specification or description of the method or procedure;h) description of sampling procedure, where relevant;i) any deviations, additions to or exclusions from the test specification, and any other informationrelevant to a specific test;j) identification of any non-standard test method or procedure utilized;k) a description of the sample including: the petrographic name of the stone; the commercial name of the stone; the name and address of the supplier; the name and location of the quarry; the direction of any bedding or anisotopic features;l) the results of measurements A.2 and, if appropriate, A.3;m) a statement on measurement uncertainty (where relevant);n) a signature and title or equivalent marking of person (s) accepting technical responsibility for thetest report and date of issue;o) a statement that the test results relate only to the units or specimens tested;SIST EN 1342:2002

EN 1342:2001 (E)15p) a statement that the report may not be reproduced except in full without the written approval ofthe testing laboratory.SIST EN 1342:2002

EN 1342:2001 (E)16Annex B (normative)Measurement of abrasion resistanceB.1 Principle of wide wheel abrasion testThe test is carried out by abrading the upper face of a slab with an abrasive material under standardconditions.B.2 Abrasive materialThe abrasive required for this test is corundum (white fused alumina) with grit size of 80 specified inFEPA 42 F:19841). It shall not be used more than three times.B.3 ApparatusD.3.1The wearing machine (see Figure B.1) is essentially made of a wide abrasion wheel, astorage hopper with one or two control valves to regulate the output of the abrasive material, a flowguidance hopper, a clamping trolley and a counterweight.When two valves are used, one shall be used to regulate the rate of flow and can be permanently setwhile the other is used to turn the flow on and off.

1)Federation of European Producers of Abrasive Products.SIST EN 1342:2002

EN 1342:2001 (E)1712546911321013178Key1 Clamping trolley8 Counterweight2 Fixing screw9 Slot3 Specimen10 Groove4 Control valve11 Abrasive material flow5 Storage hopper12 Abrasive collector6 Low guidance hopper13 Wedge7 Wide abrasion wheelFigure B.1 — Principle of wearing machineThe wide abrasion wheel shall be made of steel E360 according to EN 10083-2:1996. The hardnessof the steel shall be between 203 HB and 245 HB. Its diameter shall be (200 ± 1) mm and its widthshall be (70 ± 1) mm. It shall be driven to rotate 75 revolutions in (60 ± 3) seconds.A mobile clamping trolley is mounted on bearings and forced to move forwards to the wheel by acounterweight.The storage hopper containing the abrasive material feeds a flow guidance hopper.SIST EN 1342:2002

EN 1342:2001 (E)18The flow guidance hopper may be cylindrical or rectanglar and shall have a slotted outlet. The lengthof the slot shall be (45 ± 1) mm and the width shall be (4 ± 1) mm. The body of the flow guidancehopper shall be at least 10 mm bigger than the slot in all directions. In the case of a rectangularhopper with at least one of the sides inclined down to the length of the slot, these dimensionallimitations are not necessary (see Figure B.2).964 ± 14 ± 145 ± 145 ± 1bac96a,b,c > 10ABFor key see Figure B.1Figure B.2 a)A Vertical sideB Inclined sideFigure B.2 b)Figure B.2 — Position of slot in the base of the flow guidance hopperThe distance of the fall between the slot and the axle of the wide abrasion wheel shall be(100 ± 5) mm and the flow of abrasives shall be (1-5) mm between the leading edge of the wheel(see Figure B.3).SIST EN 1342:2002

EN 1342:2001 (E)19
> 25100
5100
525
525
51 to 51 to 5200
1200
170
170
17777666699993333 ± ±
± ±
± ± ±_

> 25_For key see Figure B.1.Figure B.3 — Position of slot relative to wide abrasion wheelThe flow of the abrasive material from the flow guidance hopper shall be at a minimum rate of2,5 litres per minute onto the wide abrasion wheel. The flow of abrasive shall be constant and theminimum level of the abrasive in the flow guidance hopper shall be 25 mm (see Figure B.3).B.3.2Magnifying glass, preferably equipped with a light.B.3.3Steel ruler.B.3.4Digital calliper.SIST EN 1342:2002

EN 1342:2001 (E)20B.4 CalibrationThe apparatus shall be calibrated after grinding 400 grooves or every two months whichever is thelesser and every time there is a new operator, a new batch of abrasives, or a new abrasion wheel.The abrasive flow rate shall be verified by pouring the material from a height of approximately 100 mminto a pre-weighed rigid container with a smooth rim, of height (90 ± 10) mm and of known volumewhen filled to the top, this shall be approximately 1 litres. As the container fills, the pourer shall beraised to maintain approximately 100 mm fall. When the container is filled, the top shall be struck offlevel and weighted to determine the mass of abrasive for a known volume, i.e. the density. Abrasiveshall be run through the wearing machine for (60 ± 1) s and collected below the abrasion wheel in apre-weighed container of at least 3 litres capacity. The filled container shall be weighed and from thedensity determined above, the rate of abrasive flow can be verified as 2,5 litres per minute.The apparatus shall be calibrated against a reference of "Boulonnasie Marble"2) using the procedurein B.6 and the counterweight adjusted so that after 75 revolutions of the wheel in (60 ± 3) s the lengthof the groove produced is (20,0 ±

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