Characterization of waste - Determination of loss on ignition in waste, sludge and sediments

This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of the loss on ignition.
This procedure is applicable to all kinds of waste, sludge and sediments.
The loss on ignition is often used as an estimate for the content of non-volatile organic matter in waste, sludge and sediments. It should be noted that any content of elementary carbon and volatilisation of organic materials or chemical reactions by inorganic compounds, is included in the loss on ignition.

Charakterisierung von Abfall - Bestimmung des Glühverlustes in Abfall, Schlamm und Sedimenten

Caractérisation des déchets - Détermination de la perte au feu des déchets, des boues et des sédiments

La présente Norme européenne spécifie une méthode de détermination de la perte au feu.
Le mode opératoire est applicable a tous les types de déchets, boues et sédiments.
La perte au feu est souvent utilisée afin d'évaluer la teneur des déchets, des boues et des sédiments en matiere organique non volatile. Il convient de noter que la teneur en carbone élémentaire et la volatilisation de matériaux organiques ou des réactions chimiques au sein de composés inorganiques sont comprises, le cas échéant,  dans la perte au feu.

Karakterizacija odpadkov - Določevanje žarilne izgube odpadka, blata in sedimentov

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Public Enquiry End Date
19-May-2005
Publication Date
16-Aug-2007
Withdrawal Date
10-Oct-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
9900 - Withdrawal (Adopted Project)
Start Date
01-Oct-2021
Due Date
24-Oct-2021
Completion Date
11-Oct-2021

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Characterization of waste - Determination of loss on ignition in waste, sludge and sedimentsVHGLPHQWRYCaractérisation des déchets - Détermination de la perte au feu des déchets, des boues et des sédimentsCharakterisierung von Abfall - Bestimmung des Glühverlustes in Abfall, Schlamm und SedimentenTa slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 15169:2007SIST EN 15169:2007en,fr,de13.030.40Naprave in oprema za odstranjevanje in obdelavo odpadkovInstallations and equipment for waste disposal and treatmentICS:SLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST EN 15169:200701-september-2007

EUROPEAN STANDARDNORME EUROPÉENNEEUROPÄISCHE NORMEN 15169February 2007ICS 13.030.40 English VersionCharacterization of waste - Determination of loss on ignition inwaste, sludge and sedimentsCaractérisation des déchets - Détermination de la perte aufeu des déchets, des boues et des sédimentsCharakterisierung von Abfall - Bestimmung desGlühverlustes in Abfall, Schlamm und SedimentenThis European Standard was approved by CEN on 13 January 2007.CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this EuropeanStandard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such nationalstandards may be obtained on application to the CEN Management Centre or to any CEN member.This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translationunder the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN Management Centre has the same status as theofficial versions.CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATIONCOMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATIONEUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNGManagement Centre: rue de Stassart, 36

B-1050 Brussels© 2007 CENAll rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reservedworldwide for CEN national Members.Ref. No. EN 15169:2007: E

EN 15169:2007 (E) 2 Contents Page Foreword..............................................................................................................................................................3 1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................4 2 Normative references............................................................................................................................4 3 Terms and definitions...........................................................................................................................4 4 Principle..................................................................................................................................................5 5 Interference............................................................................................................................................5 6 Hazards...................................................................................................................................................5 7 Sample preservation and preparation.................................................................................................5 8 Apparatus...............................................................................................................................................6 9 Procedure...............................................................................................................................................6 10 Expression of results............................................................................................................................8 11 Performance characteristics................................................................................................................9 12 Test report..............................................................................................................................................9 Annex A (informative)

Summary of general requirements and recommendations.................................10 Annex B (informative)

Additional validation data........................................................................................11 B.1 General..................................................................................................................................................11 B.2 Type of samples and sample preparation.........................................................................................11 B.3 Homogeneity and stability..................................................................................................................11 B.4 Validation data for sludge from EN 12879.........................................................................................12 Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................13

EN 15169:2007 (E) 3 Foreword This document (EN 15169:2007) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 292 “Characterization of waste”, the secretariat of which is held by NEN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by August 2007, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by August 2007. The method described in this standard has been derived from EN 12879 which was prepared by CEN/TC 308. Anyone dealing with waste and sludge analysis should be aware of the risks of that kind of material, irrespective of the parameters to be determined. Waste and sludge samples may contain hazardous (e. g. toxic, reactive, flammable, infectious) substances, which can be prone to biological and/or chemical reaction. Consequently these samples should be handled with special care. Gases which may be produced by microbiological or chemical activity are potentially flammable and will pressurise sealed bottles. Bursting bottles are likely to result in hazardous shrapnel, dust and/or aerosol. National regulations should be followed with respect to all hazards associated with this method. According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EN 15169:2007 (E) 4 1 Scope This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of the loss on ignition. This procedure is applicable to all kinds of waste, sludge and sediments. The loss on ignition is often used as an estimate for the content of non-volatile organic matter in waste, sludge and sediments. It should be noted that any content of elementary carbon and volatilisation of organic materials or chemical reactions by inorganic compounds, is included in the loss on ignition. 2 Normative references The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 14346, Characterisation of waste — Calculation of dry matter by determination of dry residue or water content 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. 3.1 loss on ignition change in mass as a result of heating a sample under specified conditions. The loss on ignition is expressed in weight percent of the dry matter 3.2 residue on ignition mass remaining after heating a sample under specified conditions. The residue on ignition is expressed in weight percent of the dry matter 3.3 dry residue wdr remaining mass fraction of a sample after a drying process at 105 °C, as specified in EN 14346 3.4 water content ww mass fraction of water in a sample determined by Karl-Fischer titration, as specified in EN 14346 3.5 dry matter wdm mass fraction of a sample excluding water expressed as a percentage by mass, calculated by determination of dry residue or water content according to EN 14346 3.6 constant mass constant mass is obtained when the change in mass during a further period of heating of 1 h is within 0,5 % (m/m) or 2 mg, whatever is greater

EN 15169:2007 (E) 5 4 Principle A test portion is heated in a furnace up to (550 ± 25) °C. The difference in mass before and after the heating process is used to calculate the loss on ignition. The determination is performed on a beforehand dried sample following EN 14346 or directly on the undried sample including a drying step or by referring to the dry matter. 5 Interference In principle there are no interferences connected to the determination, as the loss on ignition is an empirical parameter. However, for many purposes the determination is used for assessing the content of organic matter in waste, sludge or sediment samples. It should be noted that any elementary carbon in the sample will be included in the loss on ignition value. Furthermore, any volatilisation or chemical reactions of inorganic compounds will also be included in the loss of ignition value. NOTE 1 Chemically bound water or volatile metals (e. g. in hydroxides from flue gas cleaning processes) could be released during heating, contributing to the loss on ignition with a positive amount.

NOTE 2 Iron or other metals present in the sample in the metallic state could be oxidised during heating, contributing to the loss on ignition with a negative amount. NOTE 3 Sulphides present in the sample could be oxidised to sulphate during heating, contributing to the loss on ignition with a negative amount. 6 Hazards It is advised not to store samples in the open laboratory. If samples are to be stored, this has to be done in a well ventilated place. 7 Sample preservation and preparation 7.1 Preservation When not analysed immediately samples should be stored in tight containers. For biologically inactive samples special preservation may not be necessary. Biologically active samples may need to have the lids loosened to prevent build-up of gas pressure. If samples are known to be biologically active they should be made inactive e. g. by freezing or air drying.

EN 15169:2007 (E) 6 7.2 Preparation The samples supplied for analysis should be as homogeneous as possible. Depending on the nature and appearance of the sample, different procedures can be used according EN 15002, e. g. a) Solid samples may be directly comminuted (avoiding heat) and reduced to a granular powder, preferably a particle size less than 200 µm. If no volatiles are present samples may be air-dried prior to comminuting. The drying temperature shall not exceed 40 °C. b) Moist or pasty-like samples may be mixed with aluminium oxide until a granular material is obtained and then comminuted, preferably a particle size less than 200 µm. In this case the ratio of aluminium oxide to sample shall be considered in the calculation of the loss on ignition. c) Liquid samples shall be homogenized immediately prior to weighing. Foreign bodies or non comminutable material (e. g. metallic parts such as nuts, bolts, scrap) should be separated from the sample and the weight and nature of the material be recorded. 8 Apparatus 8.1 Flat bottom crucible, typically 50 mm to 70 mm in diameter, suitable for heating to 550 °C e. g. made of porcelain, silica, nickel or platinum. 8.2 Muffle furnace or equivalent equipment, capable of maintaining a temperature of (550 ± 25) °C. 8.3 Desiccator, containing a desiccant. 8.4 Analytical balance with an accuracy of 1 mg or better. 8.5 Metal plate. 9 Procedure 9.1 Samples not containing volatiles The determination of loss on ignition and the determination of dry matter are performed as separate operations on different portions of the same sample. For some materials, however, it is convenient to carry out the determination of both dry residue and loss on ignition in successive operations in the same crucible. Procedure for dry residue see EN 14346. In all cases necessary precautions should be taken to avoid absorption of atmospheric humidity by the sample until it is weighed. Prepare a crucible (8.1) by placing it in the furnace (8.2) and heat at (550 ± 25) °C for at least 20 min. Transfer the crucible from the furnace (8.2) after initial cooling on a metal plate (8.5) to a desiccator (8.3) and finish cooling to ambient temperature. Weigh the empty crucible to constant mass to the nearest 1 mg (m(a)) on an analytical balance (8.4). Transfer 0,5 g to 5 g

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