Space engineering - Electromagnetic compatibility handbook

The objective of this EMC Handbook is to point out all the issues relevant to space systems EMC, to provide a general technical treatment and to address the interested reader to more thorough and in-depth publications.
NOTE: It is possible to find fundamental and advanced treatment of many aspects related to EMC: many universities offer courses on EMC and a large number of textbooks, papers and technical documents are available. Therefore replicating in this Handbook the available knowledge is impractical and meaningless.
Emphasis is given to space systems EMC design, development and verification, and specifically to the practical aspects related to these issues.
NOTE: This has been possible thanks to the collaboration of space industry, especially on items which are not textbook issues and whose solution needs the widespread experience gained in large number of projects.

Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch zur elektromagnetischen Kompatibilität

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel pour la compatibilité électromagnétique

Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik o elektromagnetni združljivosti

Cilj tega priročnika o elektromagnetni združljivosti je opozoriti na vsa vprašanja z zvezi z elektromagnetno združljivostjo vesoljskih sistemov, zagotoviti splošno tehnično obravnavo ter usmeriti zainteresiranega bralca k temeljitejšim in poglobljenim publikacijam.
OPOMBA: Tematika elektromagnetne združljivosti je izčrpno obravnavana s temeljnih in naprednih vidikov: številne univerze ponujajo tečaje o elektromagnetni združljivosti, na voljo pa je veliko učbenikov, člankov in tehničnih dokumentov. Zato ponavljanje znanja, ki je že na voljo, v tem priročniku ni praktično in smiselno.
Poudarek je na projektiranju, razvoju in potrjevanju elektromagnetne združljivosti vesoljskih sistemov ter zlasti na praktičnih vidikih, povezanih s temi vprašanji.
OPOMBA: To je mogoče na podlagi sodelovanja vesoljske industrije, zlasti pri zadevah, ki niso učbeniška vprašanja in katerih rešitev zahteva obsežne izkušnje, pridobljene pri velikem številu projektov.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
27-Oct-2021
Publication Date
01-Feb-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
31-Jan-2022
Due Date
07-Apr-2022
Completion Date
02-Feb-2022

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-20-07:2022
01-marec-2022
Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik o elektromagnetni združljivosti
Space engineering - Electromagnetic compatibility handbook
Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch zur elektromagnetischen Kompatibilität
Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel pour la compatibilité électromagnétique
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 17603-20-07:2022
ICS:
33.100.01 Elektromagnetna združljivost Electromagnetic compatibility
na splošno in general
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-20-07:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-20-07:2022
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SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-20-07:2022
TECHNICAL REPORT CEN/TR 17603-20-07
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
January 2022
ICS 49.140
English version
Space engineering - Electromagnetic compatibility
handbook

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel pour la compatibilité Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch zur

électromagnétique elektromagnetischen Kompatibilität

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 29 November 2021. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/CLC/JTC 5.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels
© 2022 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means
Ref. No. CEN/TR 17603-20-07:2022 E
reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
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CEN/TR 17603-20-07:2022 (E)
Table of contents

European Foreword ................................................................................................. 11

Introduction .............................................................................................................. 12

1 Scope ..................................................................................................................... 13

2 References ............................................................................................................ 14

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms .......................................................... 15

3.1 Terms from other documents .................................................................................. 15

3.2 Terms specific to the present document ................................................................. 15

3.3 Abbreviated terms................................................................................................... 16

3.4 Nomenclature ......................................................................................................... 20

4 Rationale for ECSS-E-ST-20-07C unit level test requirements ......................... 21

4.1 General rationale for standard EMC test requirements ........................................... 21

4.2 Test set-up requirements ........................................................................................ 21

4.2.1 Line impedance stabilization network ........................................................ 21

4.2.2 Mains isolation transformers ..................................................................... 23

4.2.3 Anechoic chambers ................................................................................... 23

4.3 EMC test requirements ........................................................................................... 24

4.3.1 Overview ................................................................................................... 24

4.3.2 CE, power leads, differential mode, 30 Hz to 100 kHz ............................... 24

4.3.3 CE, power and signal leads, 100 kHz to 100 MHz ..................................... 24

4.3.4 CE, power leads, inrush current ................................................................ 25

4.3.5 DC Magnetic field emission, magnetic moment ......................................... 25

4.3.6 Absence of RE magnetic field requirement, 30 Hz to 50 kHz, in the

standard .................................................................................................... 26

4.3.7 RE, electric field, 30 MHz to 18 GHz ......................................................... 26

4.3.8 CS, power leads, 30 Hz to 100 kHz ........................................................... 27

4.3.9 CS, bulk cable injection, 50 kHz to 100 MHz ............................................. 27

4.3.10 CS, power leads, transients ...................................................................... 31

4.3.11 RS, magnetic field, 30 Hz to 100 kHz ........................................................ 31

4.3.12 RS, electric field, 30 MHz to 18 GHz ......................................................... 32

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4.3.13 Susceptibility to electrostatic discharges ................................................... 32

5 System level activities.......................................................................................... 34

5.1 EMC Programme .................................................................................................... 34

5.1.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 34

5.1.2 EMC Programme philosophy .................................................................... 34

5.1.3 Early EMC activities .................................................................................. 36

5.1.4 EMC control plan ...................................................................................... 42

5.2 System level design aspects ................................................................................... 43

5.2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 43

5.2.2 Electrical bonding ...................................................................................... 43

5.2.3 Grounding methods and rationale ............................................................. 49

5.2.4 Cable shields connection rules, methods and rationale ............................. 65

5.2.5 EGSE grounding rules and methods ......................................................... 73

5.2.6 Protection against ESD ............................................................................. 74

5.2.7 Magnetic cleanliness ................................................................................. 74

5.2.8 Design methods for RFC ........................................................................... 77

5.3 System level verification ......................................................................................... 77

5.3.1 System level analyses ............................................................................... 77

5.3.2 System level tests ................................................................................... 107

5.4 Troubleshooting and retrofit techniques ................................................................ 116

5.4.1 RFC below 500 MHz ............................................................................... 116

5.4.2 Reduction of RF leakages of external units ............................................. 116

5.4.3 Filter connectors ..................................................................................... 117

6 Design techniques for EMC ............................................................................... 118

6.1 Unit level design techniques ................................................................................. 118

6.1.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 118

6.1.2 Control of the radiated emission from digital electronics .......................... 118

6.1.3 Connection of zero volt planes to chassis ............................................... 124

6.1.4 Mixed signal PCBs .................................................................................. 126

6.2 Design rules and techniques for magnetic cleanliness .......................................... 127

6.2.1 Overview ................................................................................................. 127

6.2.2 Electronic Parts and Circuits ................................................................... 127

6.2.3 Solar Array .............................................................................................. 130

6.2.4 Shielding ................................................................................................. 130

6.2.5 Structure and housings ........................................................................... 130

6.2.6 Harness, Wiring and Grounding .............................................................. 131

6.2.7 Compensation ......................................................................................... 132

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6.3 Controlling the CE from DC/DC converters ........................................................... 132

7 EMC test methods .............................................................................................. 140

7.1 DC and low frequency magnetic field measurements ........................................... 140

7.1.1 Measurements for multiple dipole modelling............................................ 140

7.1.2 Measurements for spherical harmonics modelling ................................... 143

7.1.3 “Six points method” ................................................................................. 146

7.1.4 Perm and deperm ................................................................................... 149

7.1.5 Low frequency magnetic field measurements .......................................... 151

7.1.6 Magnetic properties measurements ........................................................ 151

7.2 Measuring the primary to secondary capacitance of a DC/DC converter .............. 157

7.3 Electric and electromagnetic field measurements ................................................. 158

7.3.1 Low frequency electric field measurements ............................................. 158

7.3.2 UHF/SHF sniff tests ................................................................................ 160

7.3.3 Reverberation chamber tests .................................................................. 162

7.4 Voltage and current probes ................................................................................... 173

7.4.1 Passive measurement and injection current probes ................................ 173

7.4.2 “True differential” uses of current probes ................................................. 176

7.4.3 Voltage probes ........................................................................................ 178

7.5 Conducted susceptibility techniques ..................................................................... 179

7.5.1 CS, power leads, transients .................................................................... 179

7.5.2 Double BCI ............................................................................................. 187

7.6 Radiated susceptibility techniques ........................................................................ 194

7.6.1 UHF/SHF spray tests .............................................................................. 194

7.6.2 Reverberation chamber tests .................................................................. 195

8 EMC analysis methods and computational models ........................................ 197

8.1 EMC analysis methods ......................................................................................... 197

8.1.1 DC magnetic, multiple dipole modelling ................................................... 197

8.1.2 DC magnetic, spherical harmonics .......................................................... 200

8.1.3 Electrical interfaces survival to ESD ........................................................ 204

8.1.4 Oversized cavity theory ........................................................................... 206

8.1.5 Shielding analyses .................................................................................. 211

8.2 EMC computational models and software ............................................................. 219

Annex A References .............................................................................................. 220

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Figures

Figure 4-1: Line impedance stabilization network schematic ................................................ 22

Figure 4-2: LISN with return internally grounded at input ...................................................... 22

Figure 4-3: ECSS-E-ST-20-07C BCI signal test characteristics ............................................ 28

Figure 4-4: MIL-STD-461F/CS114 signal characteristics ...................................................... 28

Figure 4-5: MIL-STD-461F/CS115 signal characteristics ...................................................... 29

Figure 4-6: MIL-STD-461F/CS116 signal characteristics ...................................................... 29

Figure 4-7: ECSS-E-ST-20-07C BCI calibration setup .......................................................... 30

Figure 4-8: CS transient, as a percentage of power line voltage, as recommended in

ECSS-E-ST-20-07C Annex. ............................................................................... 31

Figure 4-9: ESD test performed with a commercial ESD generator ...................................... 33

Figure 5-1: Example of receiver sensitivity mask (ESS Rosetta S-Band receiver) ................ 37

Figure 5-2: Coupling of an external unit to an antenna connected receiver........................... 38

Figure 5-3: Coupling of an internal unit to an antenna connected receiver ........................... 39

Figure 5-4: Coupling of transmitter connected antenna to an external unit ........................... 40

Figure 5-5: Inputs and perimeter of the EMC control plan ..................................................... 42

Figure 5-6: Filter decreased efficiency due to poor bonding ................................................. 43

Figure 5-7: Narrow strips, fixation by screws ........................................................................ 45

Figure 5-8: Wide strips, fixation by rivets and screws ........................................................... 46

Figure 5-9: Thick strips, fixation by screws ........................................................................... 46

Figure 5-10: Shaped grounding strips, fixation by rivets ....................................................... 47

Figure 5-11: Shaped grounding sheet .................................................................................. 48

Figure 5-12: SMOS arm panel featuring an external Al foil co-cured with the CFRP ............. 48

Figure 5-13: General configuration of equipment bonding .................................................... 49

Figure 5-14: Simple sensor acquisition with floating reference at sensor end ....................... 50

Figure 5-15: Complex electrical sub-system with floating reference at sensor end ............... 50

Figure 5-16: General representation of a floating device ...................................................... 52

Figure 5-17: Typical CMVR for 10m cable length ................................................................. 52

Figure 5-18: Example of simulated CMVR for an infra-red bolometer experiment ................. 54

Figure 5-19: Conceptual representation of circuits sharing a common reference through

connections having parasitic impedance ............................................................ 56

Figure 5-20: Illustration of current distribution and resulting voltage drop across a

ground plane ...................................................................................................... 57

Figure 5-21: Net partial inductance of a ground plane as a function of track height h

and track length ℓ (similar to Fig. 14 of [11]) ....................................................... 58

Figure 5-22: Common mode voltage generation and propagation with improper

grounding ........................................................................................................... 59

Figure 5-23: Common mode voltage propagation mitigation ................................................. 59

Figure 5-24: Primary to secondary common mode decoupling ............................................. 60

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Figure 5-25: Example of equipment internal grounding for internal decoupling (top view) ..... 61

Figure 5-26: Common mode current segregation in an EGSE cabinet .................................. 62

Figure 5-27: High EMI decoupling and current segregation using module enclosures in

a rack/bin or equipment housing. ....................................................................... 63

Figure 5-28: Typical equipment bonding implementation (bonding strap) ............................. 63

Figure 5-29: Equivalent diagram of a unit-to-panel connection by bonding strap .................. 64

Figure 5-30: Impedance between equipment housing and structure panel for

non-conductive and conductive thermal fillers .................................................... 65

Figure 5-31: Cable shield connected to the chassis at both ends ......................................... 66

Figure 5-32: Example of attenuation of external common mode voltage by a cable

shield, showing the rejection above a certain frequency (here 3 kHz) ................ 67

Figure 5-33: Typical transfer impedances of shielded cables ............................................... 67

Figure 5-34: Cable shield connected to a ground pin (solution to be avoided) ...................... 68

Figure 5-35: Cable shields connected to a halo ring ............................................................. 69

Figure 5-36: Cable shields connected to a halo ring – Example layout ................................. 69

Figure 5-37: Cable shields connected to a halo ring inside a connector backshell ................ 70

Figure 5-38: Grounding tag inside a connector back-shell .................................................... 70

Figure 5-39: Cable shield connection to a grounding tag inside a connector backshell ......... 70

Figure 5-40: Tag ring cable shield termination ...................................................................... 71

Figure 5-41: Pigtail ............................................................................................................... 71

Figure 5-42: Connector backshell and overshield ................................................................. 71

Figure 5-43: Shielded cables inside an overshield ................................................................ 72

Figure 5-44: Comparison of various cable and bundle shielding methods ............................ 73

Figure 5-45: Magnetic field versus distance from a magnetic source of 1 Am² ..................... 77

Figure 5-46: Rough overview of noise sources on a star distributed DC power bus .............. 78

Figure 5-47: Example of TDMA current and resulting bus voltage in sunlight mode ............. 79

Figure 5-48: Example of LIDAR current consumption profile ................................................ 80

Figure 5-49: Electrical (left) and thermal (right) equivalent circuits of a fuse ......................... 80

Figure 5-50: Electrical fuse model with arc ........................................................................... 82

Figure 5-51: Typical fuse current shape ............................................................................... 82

Figure 5-52: Probability density function of P for

= 0 dBm ...................................... 85

rdB r dB

Figure 5-53: Cumulative distribution function of P for

= 0 dBm ............................... 86

rdB r dB

Figure 5-54: Cumulative distribution function of P for

= 0 dBm, log scale ............... 86

rdB r dB
Figure 5-55: RE/RS coupling between high and low power RF units inside the CM

cavity .................................................................................................................. 87

Figure 5-56: Worst case power received by an EED from the RF environment

according to the frequency, for E = 145 dBµV/m ................................................ 89

Figure 5-57: CCS of generic twisted shielded pairs of various lengths loaded by various

impedances ........................................................................................................ 91

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Figure 5-58: Main parts of A5 (courtesy of EADS Astrium) ................................................... 94

Figure 5-59: CAD model of the lightning protection system of A5, with the relevant peak

current levels (courtesy of EADS Astrium) .......................................................... 95

Figure 5-60: Photograph and CAD model of the lightning protection system of A5

(courtesy of EADS Astrium)................................................................................ 96

Figure 5-61: Meshing of A5 and its lightning protection system for FDTD, indirect stroke

(courtesy of EADS Astrium)................................................................................ 97

Figure 5-62: Meshing of A5 for FDTD, direct stroke (courtesy of EADS Astrium).................. 97

Figure 5-63: Lightning stroke current shape ......................................................................... 98

Figure 5-64: Current distribution along A5 launcher (courtesy of EADS Astrium) ................. 99

Figure 5-65: Cross-section of the harness and cable duct used to derive the line

parameters, then used in the network simulation ................................................ 99

Figure 5-66: Network simulation of lighting stroke coupling to some launcher cables ......... 100

Figure 5-67: Voltage and current on the launcher external cables, due to a lightning

stroke (simulation results) ................................................................................ 101

Figure 5-68: A5 payload coupling modes ........................................................................... 102

Figure 5-69: Model of the umbilical cable bundle for the calculation of internal voltages

induced by the lightning current ........................................................................ 103

Figure 5-70: Common mode voltage for a shield current Ish = 1 A ..................................... 103

Figure 5-71: Coupling of lighting stroke induced magnetic field to an external shielded

harness of a satellite under the fairing .............................................................. 104

Figure 5-72: Magnetic coupling model results for a shield current Ish = 1A ........................ 104

Figure 5-73: Result of a DC magnetic field simulation involving MTBs ............................... 106

Figure 5-74: Tentative of “EMC oriented” grounding diagram ............................................. 106

Figure 5-75: Example of EICD grounding diagram ............................................................. 107

Figure 5-76: Example of grounding diagram to be avoided ................................................. 107

Figure 5-77: TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X Spacecraft Constellation Flight.......................... 110

Figure 5-78: TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X in helix flight formation ...................................... 111

Figure 5-79: Magnetic Test Facility MFSA with Rosetta Lander (courtesy of IABG) ............ 113

Figure 5-80: CNES Magnetic laboratory "J.B. BIOT", compensation and simulation coils

(courtesy of CNES) .......................................................................................... 114

Figure 5-81: CNES Magnetic laboratory "J.B. BIOT", perm and deperm coils (courtesy

of CNES) .......................................................................................................... 115

Figure 5-82: CNES Magnetic laboratory "J.B. BIOT", geometry of the compensation

and of the simulation coils ................................................................................ 115

Figure 6-1: Trapezoidal signal with 50% duty cycle ............................................................ 119

Figure 6-2: Spectrum of a trapezoidal signal with 50% duty cycle ...................................... 119

Figure 6-3: Clock signal routed on the top layer of a PCB .................................................. 120

Figure 6-4: Spectrum radiated by a clock signal routed on the top layer of a PCB .............. 120

Figure 6-5: Small loop model for differential mode radiated emission ................................. 121

Figure 6-6: Limitation of rise and fall times ......................................................................... 122

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Figure 6-7: Example of PCB ground plane connection to chassis for a modular unit .......... 124

Figure 6-8: Ground plane connection to chassis - Example with a backplane ..................... 125

Figure 6-9: Good practice to achieve GND plane electrical continuity to chassis via

surface contact using card lock retainers (also called wedge locks) ................. 125

Figure 6-10: Alternative method using multiple screws to minimize current constriction

effects .............................................................................................................. 126

Figure 6-11: Common mode current segregation at PCB level ........................................... 126

Figure 6-12: Canonical model showing the three essential functions of a DC/DC

converter .......................................................................................................... 133

Figure 6-13: Model of the general switching-mode regulator with addition of an input

filter and incorporation of the canonical model ................................................. 134

Figure 6-14: Simplified circuit example of open-loop input impedance ................................ 135

Figure 6-15: Voltage and current snubbers ......................................................................... 136

Figure 6-16: One-cell low-pass LC filter .............................................................................. 136

Figure 6-17: LC filter with parallel RC damping .................................................................. 137

Figure 6-18: Example of double cell filter ............................................................................ 138

Figure 7-1: Rotational magnetic measurement ................................................................... 140

Figure 7-2: Mobile Coil Facility ........................................................................................... 141

Figure 7-3: Illustration of most narrow protuberance and maximum signal ......................... 142

Figure 7-4: Optimal distance for magnetic measurements .................................................. 143

Figure 7-5: Measurements for spherical harmonics modelling: regular coverage of a

sphere .............................................................................................................. 144

Figure 7-6: The “six-point method” ..................................................................................... 147

Figure 7-7: Improved “six-point method” ............................................................................. 148

Figure 7-8: Perm B-Field .................................................................................................... 149

Figure 7-9: Deperm H-Field (not to scale)........................................................................... 149

Figure 7-10: Deperm signal as measured with an air-core coil at the centre of the coil

system of the “Ulysses” MCF of ESTEC ........................................................... 150

Figure 7-11: Steps of induced magnetic moment measurement ......................................... 152

Figure 7-12: Example of rotational measurement at 10 cm (central sensor) from the

component under test; magnetic moment = 0,13 mAm ................................... 153

Figure 7-13: BIPM method for magnetic susceptibility measurement .................................. 154

Figure 7-14: Real and imaginary parts of AC magnetic susceptibility .................................. 156

Figure 7-15: DC/DC converter equivalent model for primary to secondary parasitic
capacitance measurement ......................................................
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17603-20-07:2021
01-oktober-2021
Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik o elektromagnetni združljivosti
Space engineering - Electromagnetic compatibility handbook
Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch zur elektromagnetischen Kompatibilität
Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel pour la compatibilité électromagnétique
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: FprCEN/TR 17603-20-07
ICS:
33.100.01 Elektromagnetna združljivost Electromagnetic compatibility
na splošno in general
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17603-20-07:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17603-20-07:2021
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kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17603-20-07:2021
TECHNICAL REPORT
FINAL DRAFT
FprCEN/TR 17603-20-07
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
August 2021
ICS 49.140
English version
Space engineering - Electromagnetic compatibility
handbook

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel pour la compatibilité Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch zur

électromagnétique elektromagnetischen Kompatibilität

This draft Technical Report is submitted to CEN members for Vote. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/CLC/JTC 5.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a Technical Report. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a Technical Report.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. FprCEN/TR 17603-20-07:2021 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17603-20-07:2021
FprCEN/TR 17603-20-07:2021 (E)
Table of contents

European Foreword ................................................................................................. 11

Introduction .............................................................................................................. 12

1 Scope ..................................................................................................................... 13

2 References ............................................................................................................ 14

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms .......................................................... 15

3.1 Terms from other documents .................................................................................. 15

3.2 Terms specific to the present document ................................................................. 15

3.3 Abbreviated terms................................................................................................... 16

3.4 Nomenclature ......................................................................................................... 20

4 Rationale for ECSS-E-ST-20-07C unit level test requirements ......................... 21

4.1 General rationale for standard EMC test requirements ........................................... 21

4.2 Test set-up requirements ........................................................................................ 21

4.2.1 Line impedance stabilization network ........................................................ 21

4.2.2 Mains isolation transformers ..................................................................... 23

4.2.3 Anechoic chambers ................................................................................... 23

4.3 EMC test requirements ........................................................................................... 24

4.3.1 Overview ................................................................................................... 24

4.3.2 CE, power leads, differential mode, 30 Hz to 100 kHz ............................... 24

4.3.3 CE, power and signal leads, 100 kHz to 100 MHz ..................................... 24

4.3.4 CE, power leads, inrush current ................................................................ 25

4.3.5 DC Magnetic field emission, magnetic moment ......................................... 25

4.3.6 Absence of RE magnetic field requirement, 30 Hz to 50 kHz, in the

standard .................................................................................................... 26

4.3.7 RE, electric field, 30 MHz to 18 GHz ......................................................... 26

4.3.8 CS, power leads, 30 Hz to 100 kHz ........................................................... 27

4.3.9 CS, bulk cable injection, 50 kHz to 100 MHz ............................................. 27

4.3.10 CS, power leads, transients ...................................................................... 31

4.3.11 RS, magnetic field, 30 Hz to 100 kHz ........................................................ 31

4.3.12 RS, electric field, 30 MHz to 18 GHz ......................................................... 32

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4.3.13 Susceptibility to electrostatic discharges ................................................... 32

5 System level activities.......................................................................................... 34

5.1 EMC Programme .................................................................................................... 34

5.1.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 34

5.1.2 EMC Programme philosophy .................................................................... 34

5.1.3 Early EMC activities .................................................................................. 36

5.1.4 EMC control plan ...................................................................................... 42

5.2 System level design aspects ................................................................................... 43

5.2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 43

5.2.2 Electrical bonding ...................................................................................... 43

5.2.3 Grounding methods and rationale ............................................................. 49

5.2.4 Cable shields connection rules, methods and rationale ............................. 65

5.2.5 EGSE grounding rules and methods ......................................................... 73

5.2.6 Protection against ESD ............................................................................. 74

5.2.7 Magnetic cleanliness ................................................................................. 74

5.2.8 Design methods for RFC ........................................................................... 77

5.3 System level verification ......................................................................................... 77

5.3.1 System level analyses ............................................................................... 77

5.3.2 System level tests ................................................................................... 107

5.4 Troubleshooting and retrofit techniques ................................................................ 116

5.4.1 RFC below 500 MHz ............................................................................... 116

5.4.2 Reduction of RF leakages of external units ............................................. 116

5.4.3 Filter connectors ..................................................................................... 117

6 Design techniques for EMC ............................................................................... 118

6.1 Unit level design techniques ................................................................................. 118

6.1.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 118

6.1.2 Control of the radiated emission from digital electronics .......................... 118

6.1.3 Connection of zero volt planes to chassis ............................................... 124

6.1.4 Mixed signal PCBs .................................................................................. 126

6.2 Design rules and techniques for magnetic cleanliness .......................................... 127

6.2.1 Overview ................................................................................................. 127

6.2.2 Electronic Parts and Circuits ................................................................... 127

6.2.3 Solar Array .............................................................................................. 130

6.2.4 Shielding ................................................................................................. 130

6.2.5 Structure and housings ........................................................................... 130

6.2.6 Harness, Wiring and Grounding .............................................................. 131

6.2.7 Compensation ......................................................................................... 132

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6.3 Controlling the CE from DC/DC converters ........................................................... 132

7 EMC test methods .............................................................................................. 140

7.1 DC and low frequency magnetic field measurements ........................................... 140

7.1.1 Measurements for multiple dipole modelling............................................ 140

7.1.2 Measurements for spherical harmonics modelling ................................... 143

7.1.3 “Six points method” ................................................................................. 146

7.1.4 Perm and deperm ................................................................................... 149

7.1.5 Low frequency magnetic field measurements .......................................... 151

7.1.6 Magnetic properties measurements ........................................................ 151

7.2 Measuring the primary to secondary capacitance of a DC/DC converter .............. 157

7.3 Electric and electromagnetic field measurements ................................................. 158

7.3.1 Low frequency electric field measurements ............................................. 158

7.3.2 UHF/SHF sniff tests ................................................................................ 160

7.3.3 Reverberation chamber tests .................................................................. 162

7.4 Voltage and current probes ................................................................................... 173

7.4.1 Passive measurement and injection current probes ................................ 173

7.4.2 “True differential” uses of current probes ................................................. 176

7.4.3 Voltage probes ........................................................................................ 178

7.5 Conducted susceptibility techniques ..................................................................... 179

7.5.1 CS, power leads, transients .................................................................... 179

7.5.2 Double BCI ............................................................................................. 187

7.6 Radiated susceptibility techniques ........................................................................ 194

7.6.1 UHF/SHF spray tests .............................................................................. 194

7.6.2 Reverberation chamber tests .................................................................. 195

8 EMC analysis methods and computational models ........................................ 197

8.1 EMC analysis methods ......................................................................................... 197

8.1.1 DC magnetic, multiple dipole modelling ................................................... 197

8.1.2 DC magnetic, spherical harmonics .......................................................... 200

8.1.3 Electrical interfaces survival to ESD ........................................................ 204

8.1.4 Oversized cavity theory ........................................................................... 206

8.1.5 Shielding analyses .................................................................................. 211

8.2 EMC computational models and software ............................................................. 219

Annex A References .............................................................................................. 220

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Figures

Figure 4-1: Line impedance stabilization network schematic ................................................ 22

Figure 4-2: LISN with return internally grounded at input ...................................................... 22

Figure 4-3: ECSS-E-ST-20-07C BCI signal test characteristics ............................................ 28

Figure 4-4: MIL-STD-461F/CS114 signal characteristics ...................................................... 28

Figure 4-5: MIL-STD-461F/CS115 signal characteristics ...................................................... 29

Figure 4-6: MIL-STD-461F/CS116 signal characteristics ...................................................... 29

Figure 4-7: ECSS-E-ST-20-07C BCI calibration setup .......................................................... 30

Figure 4-8: CS transient, as a percentage of power line voltage, as recommended in

ECSS-E-ST-20-07C Annex. ............................................................................... 31

Figure 4-9: ESD test performed with a commercial ESD generator ...................................... 33

Figure 5-1: Example of receiver sensitivity mask (ESS Rosetta S-Band receiver) ................ 37

Figure 5-2: Coupling of an external unit to an antenna connected receiver........................... 38

Figure 5-3: Coupling of an internal unit to an antenna connected receiver ........................... 39

Figure 5-4: Coupling of transmitter connected antenna to an external unit ........................... 40

Figure 5-5: Inputs and perimeter of the EMC control plan ..................................................... 42

Figure 5-6: Filter decreased efficiency due to poor bonding ................................................. 43

Figure 5-7: Narrow strips, fixation by screws ........................................................................ 45

Figure 5-8: Wide strips, fixation by rivets and screws ........................................................... 46

Figure 5-9: Thick strips, fixation by screws ........................................................................... 46

Figure 5-10: Shaped grounding strips, fixation by rivets ....................................................... 47

Figure 5-11: Shaped grounding sheet .................................................................................. 48

Figure 5-12: SMOS arm panel featuring an external Al foil co-cured with the CFRP ............. 48

Figure 5-13: General configuration of equipment bonding .................................................... 49

Figure 5-14: Simple sensor acquisition with floating reference at sensor end ....................... 50

Figure 5-15: Complex electrical sub-system with floating reference at sensor end ............... 50

Figure 5-16: General representation of a floating device ...................................................... 52

Figure 5-17: Typical CMVR for 10m cable length ................................................................. 52

Figure 5-18: Example of simulated CMVR for an infra-red bolometer experiment ................. 54

Figure 5-19: Conceptual representation of circuits sharing a common reference through

connections having parasitic impedance ............................................................ 56

Figure 5-20: Illustration of current distribution and resulting voltage drop across a

ground plane ...................................................................................................... 57

Figure 5-21: Net partial inductance of a ground plane as a function of track height h

and track length ℓ (similar to Fig. 14 of [11]) ....................................................... 58

Figure 5-22: Common mode voltage generation and propagation with improper

grounding ........................................................................................................... 59

Figure 5-23: Common mode voltage propagation mitigation ................................................. 59

Figure 5-24: Primary to secondary common mode decoupling ............................................. 60

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Figure 5-25: Example of equipment internal grounding for internal decoupling (top view) ..... 61

Figure 5-26: Common mode current segregation in an EGSE cabinet .................................. 62

Figure 5-27: High EMI decoupling and current segregation using module enclosures in

a rack/bin or equipment housing. ....................................................................... 63

Figure 5-28: Typical equipment bonding implementation (bonding strap) ............................. 63

Figure 5-29: TITLE? ............................................................................................................. 64

Figure 5-30: Impedance between equipment housing and structure panel for

non-conductive and conductive thermal fillers .................................................... 65

Figure 5-31: Cable shield connected to the chassis at both ends ......................................... 66

Figure 5-32: Example of attenuation of external common mode voltage by a cable

shield, showing the rejection above a certain frequency (here 3 kHz) ................ 67

Figure 5-33: Typical transfer impedances of shielded cables ............................................... 67

Figure 5-34: Cable shield connected to a ground pin (solution to be avoided) ...................... 68

Figure 5-35: Cable shields connected to a halo ring ............................................................. 69

Figure 5-36: Cable shields connected to a halo ring – Example layout ................................. 69

Figure 5-37: Cable shields connected to a halo ring inside a connector backshell ................ 70

Figure 5-38: Grounding tag inside a connector back-shell .................................................... 70

Figure 5-39: Cable shield connection to a grounding tag inside a connector backshell ......... 70

Figure 5-40: Tag ring cable shield termination ...................................................................... 71

Figure 5-41: Pigtail ............................................................................................................... 71

Figure 5-42: Connector backshell and overshield ................................................................. 71

Figure 5-43: Shielded cables inside an overshield ................................................................ 72

Figure 5-44: Comparison of various cable and bundle shielding methods ............................ 73

Figure 5-45: Magnetic field versus distance from a magnetic source of 1 Am² ..................... 77

Figure 5-46: Rough overview of noise sources on a star distributed DC power bus .............. 78

Figure 5-47: Example of TDMA current and resulting bus voltage in sunlight mode ............. 79

Figure 5-48: Example of LIDAR current consumption profile ................................................ 80

Figure 5-49: Electrical (left) and thermal (right) equivalent circuits of a fuse ......................... 80

Figure 5-50: Electrical fuse model with arc ........................................................................... 82

Figure 5-51: Typical fuse current shape ............................................................................... 82

Figure 5-52: Probability density function of P for

= 0 dBm ...................................... 85

rdB r dB

Figure 5-53: Cumulative distribution function of P for

= 0 dBm ............................... 86

rdB r dB

Figure 5-54: Cumulative distribution function of P for

= 0 dBm, log scale ............... 86

rdB r dB
Figure 5-55: RE/RS coupling between high and low power RF units inside the CM

cavity .................................................................................................................. 87

Figure 5-56: Worst case power received by an EED from the RF environment

according to the frequency, for E = 145 dBV/m ................................................ 89

Figure 5-57: CCS of generic twisted shielded pairs of various lengths loaded by various

impedances ........................................................................................................ 91

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Figure 5-58: Main parts of A5 (courtesy of EADS Astrium) ................................................... 94

Figure 5-59: CAD model of the lightning protection system of A5, with the relevant peak

current levels (courtesy of EADS Astrium) .......................................................... 95

Figure 5-60: Photograph and CAD model of the lightning protection system of A5

(courtesy of EADS Astrium)................................................................................ 96

Figure 5-61: Meshing of A5 and its lightning protection system for FDTD, indirect stroke

(courtesy of EADS Astrium)................................................................................ 97

Figure 5-62: Meshing of A5 for FDTD, direct stroke (courtesy of EADS Astrium).................. 97

Figure 5-63: Lightning stroke current shape ......................................................................... 98

Figure 5-64: Current distribution along A5 launcher (courtesy of EADS Astrium) ................. 99

Figure 5-65: Cross-section of the harness and cable duct used to derive the line

parameters, then used in the network simulation ................................................ 99

Figure 5-66: Network simulation of lighting stroke coupling to some launcher cables ......... 100

Figure 5-67: Voltage and current on the launcher external cables, due to a lightning

stroke (simulation results) ................................................................................ 101

Figure 5-68: A5 payload coupling modes ........................................................................... 102

Figure 5-69: Model of the umbilical cable bundle for the calculation of internal voltages

induced by the lightning current ........................................................................ 103

Figure 5-70: Common mode voltage for a shield current Ish = 1 A ..................................... 103

Figure 5-71: Coupling of lighting stroke induced magnetic field to an external shielded

harness of a satellite under the fairing .............................................................. 104

Figure 5-72: Magnetic coupling model results for a shield current Ish = 1A ........................ 104

Figure 5-73: Result of a DC magnetic field simulation involving MTBs ............................... 106

Figure 5-74: Tentative of “EMC oriented” grounding diagram ............................................. 106

Figure 5-75: Example of EICD grounding diagram ............................................................. 107

Figure 5-76: Example of grounding diagram to be avoided ................................................. 107

Figure 5-77: TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X Spacecraft Constellation Flight.......................... 110

Figure 5-78: TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X in helix flight formation ...................................... 111

Figure 5-79: Magnetic Test Facility MFSA with Rosetta Lander (courtesy of IABG) ............ 113

Figure 5-80: CNES Magnetic laboratory "J.B. BIOT", compensation and simulation coils

(courtesy of CNES) .......................................................................................... 114

Figure 5-81: CNES Magnetic laboratory "J.B. BIOT", perm and deperm coils (courtesy

of CNES) .......................................................................................................... 115

Figure 5-82: CNES Magnetic laboratory "J.B. BIOT", geometry of the compensation

and of the simulation coils ................................................................................ 115

Figure 6-1: Trapezoidal signal with 50% duty cycle ............................................................ 119

Figure 6-2: Spectrum of a trapezoidal signal with 50% duty cycle ...................................... 119

Figure 6-3: Clock signal routed on the top layer of a PCB .................................................. 120

Figure 6-4: Spectrum radiated by a clock signal routed on the top layer of a PCB .............. 120

Figure 6-5: Small loop model for differential mode radiated emission ................................. 121

Figure 6-6: Limitation of rise and fall times ......................................................................... 122

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Figure 6-7: Example of PCB ground plane connection to chassis for a modular unit .......... 124

Figure 6-8: Ground plane connection to chassis - Example with a backplane ..................... 125

Figure 6-9: Good practice to achieve GND plane electrical continuity to chassis via

surface contact using card lock retainers (also called wedge locks) ................. 125

Figure 6-10: Alternative method using multiple screws to minimize current constriction

effects .............................................................................................................. 126

Figure 6-11: Common mode current segregation at PCB level ........................................... 126

Figure 6-12: Canonical model showing the three essential functions of a DC/DC

converter .......................................................................................................... 133

Figure 6-13: Model of the general switching-mode regulator with addition of an input

filter and incorporation of the canonical model ................................................. 134

Figure 6-14: Simplified circuit example of open-loop input impedance ................................ 135

Figure 6-15: Voltage and current snubbers ......................................................................... 136

Figure 6-16: One-cell low-pass LC filter .............................................................................. 136

Figure 6-17: LC filter with parallel RC damping .................................................................. 137

Figure 6-18: Example of double cell filter ............................................................................ 138

Figure 7-1: Rotational magnetic measurement ................................................................... 140

Figure 7-2: Mobile Coil Facility ........................................................................................... 141

Figure 7-3: Illustration of most narrow protuberance and maximum signal ......................... 142

Figure 7-4: Optimal distance for magnetic measurements .................................................. 143

Figure 7-5: Measurements for spherical harmonics modelling: regular coverage of a

sphere .............................................................................................................. 144

Figure 7-6: The “six-point method” ..................................................................................... 147

Figure 7-7: Improved “six-point method” ............................................................................. 148

Figure 7-8: Perm B-Field .................................................................................................... 149

Figure 7-9: Deperm H-Field (not to scale)........................................................................... 149

Figure 7-10: Deperm signal as measured with an air-core coil at the centre of the coil

system of the “Ulysses” MCF of ESTEC ........................................................... 150

Figure 7-11: Steps of induced magnetic moment measurement ......................................... 152

Figure 7-12: Example of rotational measurement at 10 cm (central sen
...

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