Railway applications - Railway rolling stock - Investigation of vehicles position on the reserve curve tracks during running and calculation of buffer overlap

The purpose of this document is to analyse the conducted investigation and evaluation of lateral displacement and buffer overlap between each two specified vehicles of different train sets for defined running cases in curves.
For this purpose, the types of vehicles defining the train sets and different operating conditions are specified. Position of the vehicles on the track at the moment of maximum lateral displacement (minimum buffer overlap) is recorded during the calculation.
The worst cases of lateral displacement and buffer overlap between two coupled vehicles as well as relation to equations in EN 15551:2009 are analysed.

Bahnanwendungen - Schienenfahrzeuge - Untersuchung der Fahrzeugstellungen im Gleis bei Durchfahrt von S-Bögen mit Ermittlung der Pufferüberdeckung

Applications ferroviaires - Synthèse des calculs de la largeur des tampons pour appareils de choc et traction

Železniške naprave - Železniška vozila - Ugotavljanje položaja tirnih vozil med vožnjo po tirnih protikrivinah in izračun prekrivanja odbojnikov

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
09-Jun-2019
Publication Date
03-Oct-2019
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
01-Oct-2019
Due Date
06-Dec-2019
Completion Date
04-Oct-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17373:2019
01-december-2019
Železniške naprave - Železniška vozila - Ugotavljanje položaja tirnih vozil med
vožnjo po tirnih protikrivinah in izračun prekrivanja odbojnikov

Railway applications - Railway rolling stock - Investigation of vehicles position on the

reserve curve tracks during running and calculation of buffer overlap
Bahnanwendungen - Schienenfahrzeuge - Untersuchung der Fahrzeugstellungen im
Gleis bei Durchfahrt von S-Bögen mit Ermittlung der Pufferüberdeckung

Applications ferroviaires - Synthèse des calculs de la largeur des tampons pour appareils

de choc et traction
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 17373:2019
ICS:
45.060.01 Železniška vozila na splošno Railway rolling stock in
general
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17373:2019 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 17373:2019
CEN/TR 17373
TECHNICAL REPORT
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
September 2019
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
ICS 45.060.01
English Version
Railway applications - Railway rolling stock - Investigation
of vehicles position on the reverse curve tracks during
running and calculation of buffer overlap

Applications ferroviaires - Synthèse des calculs de la Bahnanwendungen - Schienenfahrzeuge -

largeur des tampons pour appareils de choc et traction Untersuchung der Fahrzeugstellungen im Gleis bei

Durchfahrt von S-Bögen mit Ermittlung der
Pufferüberdeckung

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 26 May 2019. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 256.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TR 17373:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 6

4 Symbols and abbreviations ......................................................................................................................... 6

5 Boundary conditions ...................................................................................................................................... 7

6 Vehicle dynamic ............................................................................................................................................ 10

6.1 Coefficient of displacement k ................................................................................................................... 10

6.2 Geometric overthrow dg or F ................................................................................................................... 11

6.3 Location of the vehicle in the track and displacement dy ........................................................... 12

6.4 Position of the vehicles in the S-curve .................................................................................................. 13

6.4.1 Bogie vehicles ................................................................................................................................................ 13

6.4.2 Other vehicles ................................................................................................................................................ 14

7 Calculation of the displacement of the vehicle body centre (dy ) — Δdy calculated

p p

with UIC 527-1 assumptions .................................................................................................................... 15

7.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 15

7.2 Basic vehicle ................................................................................................................................................... 16

8 Determination of the minimum half width of the buffer head .................................................... 16

8.1 Calculation (simplified formula derived from UIC 527-1) ............................................................ 16

8.2 Verification ..................................................................................................................................................... 18

8.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 18

8.2.2 Drawing methodology with UIC 527-1 assumptions ....................................................................... 18

8.2.3 Simulation methodology ........................................................................................................................... 18

9 Comparison of the values .......................................................................................................................... 20

10 Buffer overlap of investigated vehicles ................................................................................................ 20

11 Summary ......................................................................................................................................................... 21

Annex A (informative) Position of the vehicles on the track calculated and compared with

estimation according to UIC 527-1 assumption ................................................................................ 23

Annex B (informative) Drawing methodology — Examples ........................................................................ 27

Annex C (informative) Multi-body simulation methodology — Examples ............................................. 34

C.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 34

C.2 Multi-body simulation by Siemens ........................................................................................................ 34

C.3 Multi-body simulation by SNCF ............................................................................................................... 45

Annex D (informative) Remark about the buffer head geometry and buffer overlap ....................... 52

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 57

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European foreword

This document (CEN/TR 17373:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 256

“Railway applications”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

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Introduction

During CEN/TC 256/SC 2/WG 33/SG 2 meetings for the writing of the European Standard EN 15551,

SNCF presented its experience about derailments in the space of time from 1976 to 1982 due to

insufficient buffer overlap and proposed to modify the formulae written in EN 15551:2009, Annex J to

make greater the width of buffer heads sufficient for safety operation service. The formulae SNCF

proposed, based on the former assumptions acc. UIC-leaflet from January 1964, simply takes into

account the maximal own play of the vehicles, instead of the 5 mm value given in UIC 527-1:2005, 3.2.2

and EN 15551:2009, K.6. Indeed, this 5 mm value is a realistic value for freight wagons but not for other

types of vehicles. Regarding the modification of the formulae proposed by SNCF the other members of

W 33 pointed out that:

— it is not possible to increase the internal half width of the buffer head over the limits specified by

UIC 527-1:2005, Annex A and EN 15551:2009, 6.2.2;

— since 1965 there have been two language versions of UIC 527-1, a French version and a German

version, and they have the following discrepancy in the formulae for calculation of the width of

buffer head:

— UIC 527-1 French version: calculates the half width of the buffer head with different formulae

for vehicles with running bogies (e.g. coaches, wagons) or with power bogies (e.g. locomotives,

power heads and motor vehicles). Thus, the width of the buffer head calculated for vehicles

with power bogies will be greater than the width of the buffer head calculated for vehicles with

running (non-power) bogies;

— UIC 527-1 German version: calculates the half width of the buffer head with the same formulae

for all types of bogie vehicles, namely: for vehicles with running bogies as well as for vehicles

with power bogies.

— No cases of buffer locking due to an insufficient dimensioning of buffer width (with consequently

insufficient buffer overlap) were really noticed in Germany, whereas also in German speaking

countries the UIC 527-1 formulae in the German version have been used for decades to dimension

the buffer heads width.

— The geometry of the outside half width of buffer heads (opposite to vehicle centre line) of SNCF

derailed coaches have had a circular shape geometry that reduced the buffing surface in Geometry

specified in UIC 527-1:2005, Annex A).

In order to develop a uniform methodology for the calculation of the width of buffer heads, WG 33

decided to create an ad hoc group whose mission was to analyse, by means of realistic simulations,

realized with the multi-body Software SIMPACK, if the formulae, written in the standard

EN 15551:2009, Annex J, provide the width of buffer head enough for required minimum buffer overlap

and what the domain of use of these formulae was.

This document presents the work made by the WG 33 Ad hoc group and the conclusions of this Group.

The investigation is conducted for specified vehicles in different vehicle combinations (train sets) for

defined running cases in curves.
The purpose of this investigation is evaluation of following parameters:
— lateral displacement of coupled vehicles on the track;
— lateral displacement of coupled vehicles to each other;
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— buffer overlap between two specified coupled vehicles with given buffers.

For this purpose, the types of vehicles defining the train sets and different operational conditions are

specified. Position of the vehicles on the track at the moment of maximum lateral displacement to each

other (minimum buffer overlap) is recorded.

The worst cases of lateral displacement and buffer overlap between two coupled vehicles as well as

relation to UIC 527-1 and EN 15551 formulae are analysed.
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1 Scope

The purpose of this document is to analyse the conducted investigation and evaluation of lateral

displacement and buffer overlap between each two specified vehicles of different train sets for defined

running cases in curves.

For this purpose, the types of vehicles defining the train sets and different operating conditions are

specified. Position of the vehicles on the track at the moment of maximum lateral displacement

(minimum buffer overlap) is recorded during the calculation.

The worst cases of lateral displacement and buffer overlap between two coupled vehicles as well as

relation to formulae in EN 15551:2009 are analysed.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
No terms and definitions are listed in this document.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
4 Symbols and abbreviations
Symbol Designation Unit
Distance between end wheelsets of vehicles not fitted with bogies or
a mm
between bogie centres
Geometric overthrow of the vehicle on the outside of the curve mm
Geometric overthrow of the vehicle on the inside of the curve mm
Distance from the centre line of the buffer to the contact point at the
buffer head, index 1, 2 in accordance to the vehicle number
Distance between the centre lines of the 2 buffers mm
Geometric overthrow of the vehicle on the outside of the curve for car
F mm
body pivots on the track centre line
Compressive force with buffers in contact kN
Compressive force simulates the forces which occur on the vehicles
during braking or pushing operation
Own lateral play (internal lateral displacement) of the vehicle (j1) in
j1 mm
secondary suspension
j2 Lateral play in primary suspension mm
j3 Lateral play of the wheelset in a track mm
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Symbol Designation Unit
k Coefficient of lateral displacement of the vehicle on the track —
l Track gauge, distance between the rail running edges mm
Nominal track gauge mm
nom
LoB Length over buffer mm or m
Distance from the section under consideration to the adjacent end
n mm
wheelset or the closest bogie centre or bogie pivot
Overhang, distance from buffer face to the closest singular wheelset or
closest bogie centre
n for the sections between the wheelsets or bogie centres mm
p Bogie wheelbase mm
R Horizontal curve radius mm or m
Horizontal curve radius, left curve mm or m
Horizontal curve radius, right curve mm or m
v Vehicle speed m/s or km/h
5 Boundary conditions
The configurations and scenarios studied are described in Table 1 and Table 2.
Table 1 — Boundary conditions
v = 30 km/h constant for R = 150 m
Velocity
v = 40 km/h constant for R = 190 m
R 150 m — 6,79 m — R 150 m gauge 1 470 mm
Track
R 190 m — 0 m — R 190 m gauge 1 458 mm
Number of vehicles 3
Vehicle st
1 class intercity “Avmz”
DB 3 times the same type
configuration
Avmz – Avmz - Avmz
VTU coaches
SNCF 1 3 times the same type
VTU – VTU – VTU
Loco BB 27000 + 2 freight wagons (FW)
SNCF 2 (FW, length over buffers, LoB = 18 m, a = 12 m)
Loco + Loco + coach
2 Loco (Vectron) + coach (UIC-type)
Siemens
Loco + Loco + coach
F = 0 kN = const
Compressive force
between vehicles
F = 200 kN = const
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Screw coupler nominal case (N) degraded case (D)
tightening
— for locomotives Dimension in millimetre
or wagons
— for coaches
Buffers in contact
— 2 turns before contact with nuts
— Specific rules (SNCF)

The compressive force simulates the forces which occur on the vehicles during braking or pushing operation.

In Table 2, the configurations of the coupled vehicles studied are indicated by the sign “X”. The

additional scenarios indicated by a footnote “a” for the “worst case” are the “special” cases where it is

assumed that higher requirements might occur and the calculation of the buffer head width in

accordance with the specified formulae are not valid for all vehicles.
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Table 2 — Configuration of coupled vehicles
Screw 0 kN 0 kN 200 kN 200 kN
Operator/
Vehicle configuration coupler R 150 m R 190 m R 150 m R 190 m
Manufacturer
tightening v = 30 km/h v = 40 km/h v = 30 km/h v = 40 km/h
N X X X X
DB 3 coaches “Avmz”
2 locomotives + 1 UIC N X X
coach
Siemens
Locomotive = Siemens
Vectron
N X X X X
SNCF 1 3 coaches “VTU”
1 locomotive N X
SNCF 2 + 2 freight wagons
locomotive = BB27000
Key
N = nominal case, see Table 1, Screw coupler tightening
D = degraded case, see Table 1, Screw coupler tightening
X = configuration to be calculated/simulated
Classified as "worst case"

As specified by the previous tables (Table 1 and Table 2), the two following parameters are taken into

account, because they are considered as the most influential ones:
— Screw coupler tightening;
— Compressive force (as a reaction to the braking or pushing mode).

In order to compare the results between the calculations from the group members, a uniform

coordinate system for the analysis of output data was determined. This coordinate system is defined in

accordance with 3-finger rule of the right hand, where “x” follows the track in running direction of the

train set, and it is shown in Figure 1.
Key
v velocity of the train set
train
R radius, left curve
Figure 1 — Coordinate system
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It is also necessary to fix of the variables to be registered. The following scheme presents the variable

names for vehicle 1 (i is the position of the bogies: i = 1 is the first bogie entering in the S-curve).

Key
velocity of the train set
train
l track gauge: 1 470 mm
1 vehicle body
2 vehicle body centre line
3 track centre line
x, y axis of the coordinate system
wheelset
bogie pivot
own play of the vehicle body on the bogie (j1): Example: j1 , j1
i i1+
play of the wheelsets in a track (j3): Example: jj3 ,, 3' 3j , 3'j
i i i1+ i1+

NOTE 1 i is the position of the bogie: i = 1 is the first bogie entering in the S-curve

NOTE 2 ' indicates the second wheelset of the bogie
NOTE 3 The play j2 (bogie internal to primary spring) is neglected.
Figure 2 — Visualization of the names of analysed parameters
6 Vehicle dynamic
6.1 Coefficient of displacement k

The lateral displacement of the wheelsets in the track (j3) is different for the bogie vehicles and other

vehicles. Thus, there are two formulae for the calculation of the coefficient “k” for the position of the

wheelsets of the bogies in the curve, see Figure 3.
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na+
(1)
a) Bogie vehicles
2⋅+na
(2)
b) All other vehicles
Key

a is the distance, in mm, between end wheelsets or bogie pivots of the vehicle concerned;

n is the overhang, in mm, of the buffer face in relation to the end wheelsets or bogie pivot;

k is the coefficient of displacement of the vehicle in the track.
Figure 3 — Coefficient k for bogie vehicles and other vehicles
6.2 Geometric overthrow dg or F
For the definition of the Geometric overthrow (dg), see Figure 4.
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an − n
(3)
dg =
an − n
α α
(4)
F≡ dg =
a) dg of the vehicle on a curved track
(5)
dg =
b) dg of the bogie on a curved track
Figure 4 — Geometric overthrow dg
6.3 Location of the vehicle in the track and displacement dy

The displacement of the centre lines of the two buffers dy to each other is the main parameter to be

analysed and it is approximately the shortest distance between the two centre lines (see Figure 5,

item 1 and item 2).
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Key
dy distance between the centre lines of the two buffers

dy distance from the centre line of the buffer to the contact point at the buffer head of vehicle 1

dy distance from the centre line of the buffer to the contact point at the buffer head of vehicle 2

1 vehicle body centre line of vehicle 1
2 vehicle body centre line of vehicle 2
3 track centre line
Figure 5 — Scheme of displacement of vehicle body centre line in a S-curve
6.4 Position of the vehicles in the S-curve
6.4.1 Bogie vehicles
Figure 6 shows the position of bogie vehicles in S-curve.
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Key
v velocity of the train set and running direction
train
1 vehicle body centre line of vehicle 1
2 track centre line
3 vehicle body centre line of vehicle 2
4 wheelsets 30 mm outside from the centre line of the track

5 first wheelset in running direction 30 mm outside from the centre line of the track; second wheelset

30 mm inside from the centre line of the track
n is the overhang, in mm, distance from the buffer face to the bogie pivot
a is the distance, in mm, between bogie pivots of the vehicle concerned
own play of the vehicle (j1)
play of the wheelset in the track (j3)
Figure 6 — Position of the vehicles in the S-curve for bogie vehicles
6.4.2 Other vehicles

Figure 7 shows the position of other vehicles in S-curve, e.g. vehicles with two singular wheelsets.

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Key
v velocity of the train set and running direction
train
1 vehicle body centre line of vehicle 1
2 track centre line
3 vehicle body centre line of vehicle 2
4 wheelset 30 mm outside from the centre line of the track
5 wheelset 30 mm inside from the centre line of the track
n is the overhang, in mm, distance from the buffer face to the end
wheelsets
a is the distance, in mm, between end wheelsets of the vehicle concerned
own play of the vehicle (j1)
the play of the wheelset in the track (j3)
Figure 7 — Position of the vehicles in the S-curve for other vehicles
7 Calculation of the displacement of the vehicle body centre (dy ) — Δdy
p p
calculated with UIC 527-1 assumptions
7.1 General

The formulae written in UIC 527-1 and in EN 15551:2009, Annex J, come from a study described by UIC

Document [6] from January 1964 and are covered in UIC 527-1.

The formulae calculate the minimum half width of buffer heads so that the overlap of the buffers of any

two vehicles running on a given S-curved track is not less than that of the buffers of two so-called

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“basic” vehicles running under the same conditions. The work of the UIC group from 1964 was divided

into four stages:
1) Definition of a basic vehicle;

2) Determination of the tracks where two basic vehicles shall ensure the safe running without buffer

locking (minimal straight line between two curves);

3) Determination of the minimum safe buffer width for any vehicles (input data are the dimensions of

the vehicles);
4) Consideration about lateral plays (displacements), such as:
— own play – internal lateral displacement of the vehicle;
— play of the wheelsets on the track.

The created formulae assumed a corresponding singular position of two coupled consecutive vehicles

on a track. It also distinguished the type of vehicle (bogie vehicles and other vehicles).

The formulae in UIC 527-1 and in EN 15551:2009, Annex J calculate the minimum half width of buffer

heads for vehicles in S-curve of R 150 m —6 m — R 150 m with track gauge of 1 470 mm as a worst

case.
7.2 Basic vehicle
The basic vehicle is described by the following criteria:

— minimum horizontal overlap of 25 mm of two buffer heads in contact, with vehicles running on

tracks;
— distance between end wheelsets or bogie pivots: a = 12 m;

— overhang distance between buffer face and the singular end wheelset or bogie pivot: n = 3 m;

— own play of the vehicle: j1 = 5 mm;
— play of the wheelsets on a track 1 470 mm wide j3 = 30 mm.
Track
8 Determination of the minimum half width of the buffer head
8.1 Calculation (simplified formula derived from UIC 527-1)
Figures 3 to 7 show the position of the vehicles in an S-curve.
 

The minimum of the half width buffer head , taking into account the vehicle geometry, according to

 
 

Formulae (1), (2), (4), and (5), is determined according to the respective Formulae (6) to (8) valid for

the respective areas, which are schematically shown in Figure 8 as function versus a. The

an+
( )
Figure 8 explains the index of 1 to 3 of .
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Figure 8 — Areas where Formula (6) to Formula (8) are valid for

Depending on the maximum of the geometrical overthrow (F) and the distance between the end

wheelsets or bogie pivots of the vehicle (a) and/or the overhang (n ), the minimum the half width of

the buffer head  will be calculated by one of Formula (6) to Formula (8) as a guiding value for

 

R = 150 m and with 30 mm lateral clearance between the track and wheelset each side.

= 30k+−130 , in mm if F ≤ 150 mm and (a + n ) ≤ 15 000 mm (6)
2 1 200 000
=Fk+ 30−−20 , in mm if F ≥ 150 mm and n ≥ 3 000 mm (7)
2 1 200 000
if (a + n ) > 15 000 mm and n < 3 000 mm:
a a
 
2 a
3 000−+n  1
( )
 
an+− 15 000 n
∆ ( ) ∆
a a
3 1 2  
=+=+ , in mm (8)
22 2
   
300 000 −−4 60 000 4
   
   
where
p is the bogie wheelbase (P = 0 for 2 wheelset vehicles, see also Figure 4 b).

In the formulae, the play of the wheelsets in a track (j3) and the own play of the vehicle (j1) are fixed:

— j3 = 30 mm;
— j1 = 5 mm.
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With the previous hypothesis in terms of vehicle position in the track and play, it is possible to estimate

dy on the basis of UIC 527-1 assumptions for any coupled vehicles.
8.2 Verification
8.2.1 General

The values dy on the basis of UIC 527-1 for the train set configurations, detailed in Tables 1 and 2, were

investigated by CAD drawings.

NOTE The internal displacement j1 on each vehicle on both bogies are always considered in the same

direction, namely outside of the corresponding curve.

Relation between buffer width and the vertical displacement of buffers to each other, is presented in

Annex D.
8.2.2 Drawing methodology with UIC 527-1 assumptions

Investigation of the distance dy between the centre lines of two vehicles on the track with assumptions

according to UIC 527-1 for the same boundary conditions as SIMPACK simulation were conducted.

Boundary conditions are as following:
— S-curve with intermediate straight line: R 150 m — 6,79 m — R 150 m;
— Track clearance to wheelset (each side): 30 mm;
— Own lateral play each vehicle body on the bogies: 5 mm.
The results of the drawing investigation are presented in Table 3.

The results of the drawing investigation compared to results of multi-body simulation, are presented in

Annex A.
An example of the drawing methodology is presented in Annex B.
Table 3 — Result dy estimated by CAD drawing based on UIC 527-1 assumptions
Coach Avmz Coach VTU Loco BB27000 Loco Vectron Loco Vectron
No Configuration + + + + +
Coach Avmz Coach VTU "basic" wagon Coach UIC Loco Vectron
1 dy , in mm 476 516 312 421 358
b, c
2 dy , in mm 558 600 403 512 458

Obtained for vehicles in the track centre line, with geometrical overthrow without lateral displacement (for information

only).
Obtained with UIC 527-1 assumptions.
Estimated by CAD drawing with j1 = 5 mm and j3 = 30 mm.

The values in grey cells are taken into account for comparison with results of the SIMPACK simulation

in Table 4.
8.2.3 Simulation methodology

The multi-body software shall consider all necessary parameters of the vehicles and of the track.

The multi-body simulation for different types of vehicles is made in a defined track configuration for

defined scenarios and running conditions (see Clause 5).
Examples of multi-body simulation methodology by SIMPACK are given in Annex C.
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The result of the calculations with multi-body simulation is given in Table 5.

The value dy is calculated with the multi-body simulation for each vehicle configuration, marked by “X”

in Table 2.

Table 4 — dy calculated with SIMPACK multi-body simulation for each configuration

dy in mm
Screw
Operator/
Brake force 0 kN Brake force 200 kN
coupler
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17373:2019
01-junij-2019
Železniške naprave - Železniška vozila - Ugotavljanje položaja tirnih vozil med
vožnjo po tirnih protikrivinah in izračun prekrivanja odbojnikov

Railway applications - Railway rolling stock - Investigation of vehicles position on the

reserve curve tracks during running and calculation of buffer overlap
Bahnanwendungen - Schienenfahrzeuge - Untersuchung der Fahrzeugstellungen im
Gleis bei Durchfahrt von S-Bögen mit Ermittlung der Pufferüberdeckung

Applications ferroviaires - Synthèse des calculs de la largeur des tampons pour appareils

de choc et traction
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: FprCEN/TR 17373
ICS:
45.060.01 Železniška vozila na splošno Railway rolling stock in
general
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17373:2019 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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FINAL DRAFT
TECHNICAL REPORT
FprCEN/TR 17373
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
January 2019
ICS
English Version
Railway applications - Railway rolling stock - Investigation
of vehicles position on the reserve curve tracks during
running and calculation of buffer overlap

Applications ferroviaires - Synthèse des calculs de la Bahnanwendungen - Schienenfahrzeuge -

largeur des tampons pour appareils de choc et traction Untersuchung der Fahrzeugstellungen im Gleis bei

Durchfahrt von S-Bögen mit Ermittlung der
Pufferüberdeckung

This draft Technical Report is submitted to CEN members for Vote. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC

256.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a Technical Report. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a Technical Report.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. FprCEN/TR 17373:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and Definitions ................................................................................................................................... 6

4 Symbols and abbreviations ......................................................................................................................... 6

5 Boundary conditions ...................................................................................................................................... 7

6 Vehicle dynamic ............................................................................................................................................ 11

6.1 Coefficient of displacement k ................................................................................................................... 11

6.2 Geometric overthrow dg or F ................................................................................................................... 12

6.3 Location of the vehicle in the track and displacement dy ........................................................... 12

6.4 Position of the vehicles in the S-curve .................................................................................................. 13

6.4.1 Bogie vehicles ................................................................................................................................................ 13

6.4.2 Other vehicles ................................................................................................................................................ 14

7 Calculation of the displacement of the vehicle body centre (dy ) ............................................. 15

7.1 dy calculated with UIC 527-1 assumptions ....................................................................................... 15

7.1.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 15

7.1.2 Basic vehicle ................................................................................................................................................... 16

8 Determination of the minimum half width of the buffer head .................................................... 16

8.1 Calculation (simplified formula derived from UIC 527-1) ............................................................ 16

8.2 Verification ..................................................................................................................................................... 18

8.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 18

8.2.2 Drawing methodology with UIC 527-1 assumptions ....................................................................... 18

8.2.3 Simulation methodology ........................................................................................................................... 18

9 Comparison of the values .......................................................................................................................... 20

10 Buffer overlap of investigated vehicles ................................................................................................ 20

11 Summary ......................................................................................................................................................... 21

Annex A (informative) Position of the vehicles on the track calculated and compared with

estimation according UIC 527-1 assumption ..................................................................................... 23

Annex B (informative) Drawing methodology — Examples ...................................................................... 27

Annex C (informative) Multi body simulation methodology — Examples ........................................... 38

C.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 38

C.2 Multi body simulation by Siemens ......................................................................................................... 38

C.3 Multi body simulation by SNCF................................................................................................................ 48

Annex D (informative) Notice to the buffer head geometry and buffer overlap ................................ 55

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 59

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European foreword

This document (FprCEN/TR 17373:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 256

“Railway Applications”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.
This document is currently submitted to the Vote on TR.
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Introduction

During CEN/TC 256/SC 2/WG 33/SG 2 meetings for the writing of European Standard EN 15551, SNCF

presented its experience about derailments in the space of time from 1976 to 1982 due to insufficient

buffer overlap and proposed to modify the equations written in EN 15551:2009, Annex J to make

greater the width of buffer heads sufficient for safety operation service. The equations SNCF proposed,

based on the former assumptions acc. UIC-leaflet from January 1964, simply takes into account the

maximal own play of the vehicles, instead of the 5 mm value given in UIC 527-1:2005, 3.2.2 and

EN 15551:2009, K.6. Indeed, this 5 mm value is a realistic value for freight wagons but not for other

types of vehicles. Regarding the modification of the equations proposed by SNCF the other members of

W 33 pointed out that:

— it is not possible to increase the internal half width of the buffer head over the limits specified by

UIC 527-1:2005, Apendix A and EN 15551:2009, 6.2.2;

— since 1965 there are two language versions of UIC 527-1, a French version and a German version,

and they have a following discrepancy in formulae for calculation of the width of buffer head:

— UIC 527-1 in French version: calculate the half width of buffer head with different formulae for

vehicles with running bogies (e.g. coaches, wagons) or with power bogies (e.g. locomotives,

power heads and motor vehicles). Thus, the width of the buffer head calculated for vehicles

with power bogies should be greater than the width of the buffer head calculated for vehicles

with running (non-power) bogies;

— UIC 527-1 in German version: calculate the half width of buffer head with the same formulae

for all types of bogie vehicles, namely: for vehicles with running bogies as well as for vehicles

with power bogies.

— No cases of buffer locking due to an insufficient dimensioning of buffer width (with consequently

insufficient buffer overlap) were really noticed in Germany, whereas also in German speaking

countries the UIC 527-1 equations in German version have been used for decades to dimension the

buffer heads width.

— The geometry of the outside half width of buffer heads (opposite to vehicle centre line) of SNCF

derailed coaches have had a circular shape geometry that reduced the buffing surface in Geometry

specified in UIC 527-1:2005, Apendix A).

To elaborate a uniform methodology for the calculation of the width of buffer heads, WG 33 decided to

create an ad hoc group whose mission was to analyse, by means of realistic simulations, realized with

the multi body Software SIMPACK, if the equations, written in the standard EN 15551:2009, Annex J,

provide the width of buffer head enough for required minimum buffer overlap and what the domain of

use of these equations was.

This document presents the work made by the WG 33 Ad hoc group and the conclusion of this group.

Investigation is conducted for specified vehicles in different vehicle combinations (train sets) for

defined running cases in curves.
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The purpose of this investigation is evaluation of following parameters:
— lateral displacement of coupled vehicles on the track;
— lateral displacement of coupled vehicles to each other;
— buffer overlap between two specified coupled vehicles with given buffers.

For this purpose, the types of vehicles defining the train sets and different operational conditions are

specified. Position of the vehicles on the track at the moment of maximum lateral displacement to each

other (minimum buffer overlap) is recorded.

The worst cases of lateral displacement and buffer overlap between two coupled vehicles as well as

relation to UIC 527-1 and EN 15551 equations are analysed.
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1 Scope

The purpose of this document is to analyse the conducted investigation and evaluation of lateral

displacement and buffer overlap between each two specified vehicles of different train sets for defined

running cases in curves.

For this purpose, the types of vehicles defining the train sets and different operating conditions are

specified. Position of the vehicles on the track at the moment of maximum lateral displacement

(minimum buffer overlap) is recorded during the calculation.

The worst cases of lateral displacement and buffer overlap between two coupled vehicles as well as

relation to equations in EN 15551:2009 are analysed.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and Definitions
No terms and definitions are listed in this document.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
4 Symbols and abbreviations
Symbol Designation Unit
Distance between end wheel sets of vehicles not fitted with bogies or
a mm
between bogie centres
Geometric overthrow of the vehicle on the outside of the curve mm
Geometric overthrow of the vehicle on the inside of the curve mm
Distance from the centre line of the buffer to the contact point at the
buffer head, index 1, 2 in accordance to the vehicle number
Distance between the centre lines of the 2 buffers mm
Geometric overthrow of the vehicle on the outside of the curve for car
F mm
body pivots on the track centre line
Compressive force buffers in contact kN
Compressive force simulates the forces with occur on the vehicles during
braking or pushing operation
own lateral play (internal lateral displacement) of the vehicle (j1) in
j1 mm
secondary suspension
j2 Lateral play in primary suspension mm
j3 Lateral play of the wheel set in a track mm
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Symbol Designation Unit
k coefficient of lateral displacement of the vehicle in the track —
l Track gauge, distance between the rail running edges mm
Nominal track gauge mm
nom
LoB Length over buffer mm or m
Distance from the section under consideration to the adjacent end wheel
n mm
set or the closest bogie centre or bogie pivot
Overhang, distance from buffer face to the closest singular wheel set or
closest bogie centre
n for the sections between the wheel sets or bogie centres mm
p Bogie wheelbase mm
R Horizontal curve radius mm or m
Horizontal curve radius, left curve mm or m
Horizontal curve radius, right curve mm or m
v Vehicle speed m/s or km/h
5 Boundary conditions

The configurations and scenarios studied by each participant are described in Table 1 and Table 2.

Table 1 — Boundary conditions
v = 30 km/h constant for R = 150 m
Velocity
v = 40 km/h constant for R = 190 m
R150m — 6,79 m — R150m gauge 1 470 mm
Track
R190m — 0 m — R190m gauge 1 458 mm
Number of vehicles 3
Vehicle configuration st
1 class intercity "Avmz"
DB 3 times the same type
Avmz – Avmz - Avmz
VTU coaches
SNCF 1 3 times the same type
VTU – VTU – VTU
Loco BB 27000 + 2 freight wagons (FW)
SNCF 2 (FW, length over buffers, LoB = 18 m, a = 12 m)
Loco + Loco + coach
2 Loco (Vectron) + coach (UIC-type)
Siemens
Loco + Loco + coach
F = 0 kN = const
Compressive force
between vehicles
F = 200 kN = const
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Screw coupler nominal case (N) degraded case (D)
tightening
— for locomotives or Dimension in millimeter
wagons
— for coaches
Buffers in contact
— 2 rounds before contact with nuts
— Specific rules (SNCF)

The compressive force simulates the forces with occur on the vehicles during braking or pushing operation

In Table 2, the studied configurations of the coupled vehicles are indicated by the sign “X”. The

scenarios additional indicated by a footnote “a” for “worst case” are the “special” cases where it is

assumed that higher requirements might occur and the calculation of the buffer head width in

accordance to the specified formulas are not valid for all vehicles.
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Table 2 — Configuration of coupling vehicles
Operator/
Vehicle configuration
Manufacturer
N X X X X
DB 3 coaches "Avmz"
N X X
2 Locomotive + 1 UIC coach
Siemens
Locomotive = Siemens Vectron
N X X X X
SNCF 1 3 coaches "VTU"
N X
1 Locomotive + 2 freight wagons
SNCF 2
Locomotive = BB27000
Key
N = nominal case, see Table 1, Screw coupler tightening
D = degraded case, see Table 1, Screw coupler tightening
X = configuration to be calculated/simulated
Classified as "worst case"

As specified by the previous tables (Table 1 and Table 2), the two following parameters are taken into

account, because they are considered as the most influent ones:
— Screw coupler tightening;
— Compressive force (as reaction of braking or pushing mode).

In order to compare the results between the calculations from the group members, a uniform

coordinate system for the analysis of output data was determined. This coordinate system is defined in

accordance with 3-finger rule of the right hand, where “x” follows the track in running direction of the

train set, and is shown in Figure 1.
Screw
coupler
tightening
0 kN
R 150 m
v =
30 km/h
0 kN
R 190 m
v =
40 km/h
200 kN
R 150 m
v =
30 km/h
200 kN
R 190 m
v =
40 km/h
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Key
v velocity of the train set
Train
R radius, left curve
Figure 1 — Coordinate system

It is also necessary to fix of the variables to be registered. The following scheme presents the variable

names for vehicle 1 (i is the position of the bogies: i = 1 is the first bogie entering in the S-curve).

Key
v velocity of the train set track centre line
Train
l track gauge: 1 470 mm R radius, left curve
vehicle body x, y axis of the coordinate system
vehicle body centre line
wheel set
bogie pivot
own play of the vehicle body on the bogie (j1): Example: j1 , j1 ,
i i1+
play of the wheel sets in a track (j3): Example: jj3 ,, 3' j3 , j3'
i i i1+ i1+

NOTE 1 i is the position of the bogie: i = 1 is the first bogie entering in the S-curve

NOTE 2 ' indicates the second wheel set of the bogie
NOTE 3 The play j2 (bogie internal to primary spring) is neglected.
Figure 2 — Visualization of the names of analysed parameters
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6 Vehicle dynamic
6.1 Coefficient of displacement k

The lateral displacement of the wheel sets in the track (j3) is different for the bogie vehicles and other

vehicles. Thus, there are two equations for the calculation of the coefficient “k” for the position of the

wheel sets of the bogies in the curve, see Figure 3.
na+
(1)
a) bogie vehicles
2⋅+na
k= (2)
b) all other vehicles
where:
a is the distance, in mm, between end wheel sets or bogie pivots of the vehicle
concerned;

n is the overhang, in mm, of the buffer face in relation to the end wheel sets or bogie

pivot;
k is the coefficient of displacement of the vehicle in the track.
Figure 3 — Coefficient k for bogie vehicles and other vehicles
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6.2 Geometric overthrow dg or F
For the definition of the Geometric overthrow (dg), see Figure 4.
an−
nii
(3)
dg =
an − n
(4)
F≡ dg =
a) dg of the vehicle on a curved track
(5)
dg =
b) dg of the bogie on a curved track
Figure 4 — Geometric overthrow dg
6.3 Location of the vehicle in the track and displacement dy

The displacement of the centre lines of the two buffers dy to each other is the main parameter to be

analysed and it is approximately the shortest distance between the two centre lines (see Figure 5,

item 1 and item 2).
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Key
dy distance between the centre lines of the 2 buffers

dy distance from the centre line of the buffer to the contact point at the buffer head of vehicle 1

dy distance from the centre line of the buffer to the contact point at the buffer head of vehicle 2

1 vehicle body centre line of vehicle 1
2 vehicle body centre line of vehicle 2
3 track centre line
Figure 5 — Scheme of displacement of vehicle body centre line in a S-curve
6.4 Position of the vehicles in the S-curve
6.4.1 Bogie vehicles
The Figure 6 shows the position of bogie vehicles in S-curve.
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Key
v velocity of the train set and running direction
Train
1 vehicle body centre line of vehicle 1
2 track centre line
3 vehicle body centre line of vehicle 2
4 wheel sets 30 mm outside from the centre line of the track

5 first wheel set in running direction 30 mm outside from the centre line of the track; second wheel set

30 mm inside from the centre line of the track
n is the overhang, in mm, distance from the buffer face to the bogie pivot
a is the distance, in mm, between bogie pivots of the vehicle concerned
own play of the vehicle (j1)
play of the wheel set in the track (j3)
Figure 6 — Position of the vehicles in the S-curve for bogie vehicles
6.4.2 Other vehicles

The Figure 7 shows the position of other vehicles in S-curve, e.g. vehicles with two singular wheel sets.

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Key
v velocity of the train set and running direction
Train
1 vehicle body centre line of vehicle 1
2 track centre line
3 vehicle body centre line of vehicle 2
4 Wheel set 30 mm outside from the centre line of the track
5 Wheel set 30 mm inside from the centre line of the track
n is the overhang, in mm, distance from the buffer face to the end wheel sets
a is the distance, in mm, between end wheel sets of the vehicle concerned
own play of the vehicle (j1)
the play of the wheel set in the track (j3)
Figure 7 — Position of the vehicles in the S-curve for other vehicles
7 Calculation of the displacement of the vehicle body centre (dy )
7.1 dy calculated with UIC 527-1 assumptions
7.1.1 General

The equations written in UIC 527-1 and in the standard EN 15551:2009, Annex J, come from a study

described by UIC Document [1] from 21. January 1964 and is covered into UIC 527-1.

The equations calculate the minimal half width of buffer heads so that the overlap of the buffers of any

two vehicles running on a given S-curved track is not less than that of the buffers of two so-called

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“basic” vehicles running under the same conditions. The work of the UIC group from 1964 was divided

into four stages:
1) Definition of a basic vehicle;

2) Determination of the tracks where two basic vehicles shall ensure the safety running without buffer

locking (minimal straight line between two curves);

3) Determination of the minimal safe buffer width for any vehicles (input data are the dimensions of

the vehicles).
4) Consideration about lateral plays (displacements), such as:
— own play – internal lateral displacement of the vehicle;
— play of the wheel sets on the track.

The created equations assumed a corresponding singular position of two coupled consecutive vehicles

in a track. It also distinguished the type of vehicle (bogie vehicles and other vehicles).

The equations in UIC 527-1 and in EN 15551:2009, Annex J calculate the minimal half width of buffer

heads for vehicles in S-curve of R150 m-6 m-R150 m with track gauge of 1 470 mm as a worst case.

7.1.2 Basic vehicle
The basic vehicle is described by the following criteria:

— minimum horizontal overlap of 25 mm of two buffer heads in contact, with vehicles running on

tracks;
— distance between end wheel sets or bogie pivots: a = 12 m;

— overhang distance between buffer face and the singular end wheel set or bogie pivot: n = 3 m;

— own play of the vehicle: j1 = 5 mm;
— play of the wheel sets on a track 1 470 mm wide j3 = 30 mm.
Track
8 Determination of the minimum half width of the buffer head
8.1 Calculation (simplified formula derived from UIC 527-1)
The Figure 3 to 7 show the position of the vehicles in S-curve.
 

The minimum of the half width buffer head , taking into account the vehicle geometrs, according to

 
 

the Formulas 1, 2, 4, and 5, is determined according to the respective Formulas 6 to 8 valid for the

respective areas, which are schematically shown in Figure 8 as function an+ versus a. The Figure 8

( )
explains the index of 1 to 3 of .
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Figure 8 — Areas, where the Formulae 6 to 8 are valid for

Depending on the maximum of the geometrical overthrow (F) and the distance between the end wheel

sets or bogie pivots of the vehicle (a) and/or the overhang (n ), the minimum the half width of the

buffer head  will be calculated by one of the Formulas 6 to 8 as a guiding value for R = 150 m and

with 30 mm lateral clearance between the track and wheel set each side.
(6)
= 30k+−130 , in mm when F ≤ 150 mm and (a + n ) ≤ 15 000 mm
2 1 200 000
=Fk+ 30−−20 , in mm when F ≥ 150 mm and n ≥ 3 000 mm (7)
2 1 200 000
when (a + n ) > 15 000 mm and n < 3 000 mm:
a a
 
3 000−+n  1
( )
 
an+− 15 000 n
∆ ( ) ∆
a a
3 12  
, in mm
=+=+
(8)
2 2   2  
300 000 −−4 60 000 4
   
   
where
p is the bogie wheelbase (P = 0 for 2 wheel set vehicles, see also Figure 4 b).

In the equations, the play of the wheel sets in a track (j3) and the own play of the vehicle (j1) are fixed:

— j3 = 30 mm;
— j1 = 5 mm.

With the previous hypothesis in terms of vehicle position in the track and play, it is possible to estimate

dy on the basis of UIC 527-1 assumptions for any coupled vehicles.
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8.2 Verification
8.2.1 General

The values dy on the basis of UIC 527-1 for the train set configurations, detailed in Table 1 and 2, were

investigated by CAD drawings.

NOTE The internal displacement j1 on each vehicle on both bogies are always considered in the same

direction, namely outside of the corresponding curve.

Relation between buffer width and the vertical displacement of buffers to each other, is presented in

Annex D.
8.2.2 Drawing methodology with UIC 527-1 assumptions

Investigation of the distance dy between the centre lines of two vehicles on the track with assumptions

according to UIC 527-1 for the same boundary conditions as SIMPACK simulation were conducted.

Boundary conditions are as following:
— S- curve with intermediate straight line: R 150 – 6,79 m – R 150;
— Track clearance to wheel set (each side): 30 mm;
— Own lateral play each vehicle body on the bogies: 5 mm.
The results of drawing investigation are presented in Table 3.

The results of drawing investigation compared to results of multi body simulation, are presented in

Annex A.
An example of drawing methodology is presented in Annex B.
Table 3 — Result d estimated by CAD drawing based on UIC 527-1 assumptions
Loco
Coach Avmz Coach VTU Loco Vectron Loco Vectron
BB27000
No Configuration + + + +
Coach Avmz Coach VTU Coach UIC Loco Vectron
"basic" wagon
1 dy , in mm 476 516 312 421 358
b, c
dy , in mm
2 558 600 403 512 458

obtained for vehicles in the track centre line, with geometrical overthrow without lateral displacement (for information

only)
obtained with UIC 527-1 assumptions
estimated by CAD drawing with j1 = 5 mm and j3 = 30 mm

The values in grey cells will be taken into account for comparison with results of the SIMPACK

simulation in Table 4.
8.2.3 Simulation methodology

The multi software shall consider all necessary parameters of the vehicles and of the track.

The multi body simulation for different types of vehicles is made in a defined track configuration for

defined scenarios and running conditions (see Clause 5).
Examples of multi body simulation methodology by SIMPACK are given in An
...

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