Human Factors (HF) - Inclusive eServices for all: Optimizing the accessibility and the use of upcoming user-interaction technologies

The present document provides guidance for the user interaction design of telecommunication devices and services that are likely to become available for large-scale rollout to consumers in the next five to ten years. In particular, the document identifies provisions that have to be made in order to ensure that forthcoming interaction technologies deployed in devices and services will be usable by all users including older people and/or people with disabilities.
The present document lists user interaction technologies likely to be employed in future devices and services in the form of a technology roadmap. For each identified technology, key characteristics specified include:
• user requirements impacted by the technology;
• benefits and accessibility barriers that will result from deployment;
• solutions related to accessibility barriers (both those benefiting disabled users only as well as those being useful for all users in different contexts).
Measures are identified that need to be addressed prior to the large-scale implementation of those technologies in order to ensure their usability by users with the widest range of characteristics.
Within the scope of the document are those interaction technologies that are likely to be used in information and communication products and services and are likely to achieve a mass-market breakthrough between 2010 and 2020.
Interaction technologies that are exclusively used in:
• stand-alone, off-line products and services;
• assistive devices;
• safety and security-related products and services;
are not within the scope of the present document, even though the guidelines may also apply to some of them.
General user interface design issues (e.g. cognitive workload) that affect the usability and accessibility of user interfaces for eServices are also outside of the scope of the present document.
The intended readers of the present document are the designers, manufacturers and suppliers of all ICT products and services that may use new user interaction technologies in their future offerings. Researchers benefit from the present document by integrating its findings into their research at a very early stage.
It is expected that the present document should be utilised in the earliest stages of the planning of a new product or eService to ensure that the measures proposed can be taken into account during all stages of the product design and implementation process. Such usage should ensure that the resulting product or eService is as barrier free in its design as possible.

Človeški dejavniki (HF) - Vključujoče e-storitve za vse: Optimiziranje dostopnosti in uporaba naslednjega uporabnika - tehnologije medsebojnega vplivanja

Ta dokument zagotavlja vodilo za zasnovo telekomunikacijskih naprav in storitev z medsebojnim vplivanjem uporabnikov, ki bodo verjetno uvedeni v velikem obsegu in potrošnikom na voljo v naslednjih petih do desetih letih. Dokument predvsem opredeljuje potrebne ukrepe, ki bodo zagotovili, da bodo prihajajoče tehnologije medsebojnega vplivanja, uporabljene v napravah in storitvah, pripravne za vse uporabnike, vključno s starejšimi in/ali invalidnimi osebami.
Ta dokument navaja seznam tehnologij medsebojnega vplivanja uporabnikov, ki se bodo verjetno uporabljale v prihodnjih napravah in storitvah, v obliki tehnološkega zemljevida. Ključne lastnosti za vsako opredeljeno tehnologijo vključujejo:
• uporabniške zahteve, na katere vpliva tehnologija;
• koristi in ovire pri dostopnosti, do katerih bo prišlo zaradi uporabe;
• rešitve, ki se nanašajo na ovire pri dostopnosti (rešitve, ki koristijo invalidnim uporabnikom, in rešitve, koristne za vse uporabnike v različnih kontekstih).
Opredeljeni so ukrepi, ki jih je treba sprejeti pred uvedbo teh tehnologij, da uporabniki zagotovijo njihovo uporabnost z najširšim razponom lastnosti.
Predmet tega dokumenta so tehnologije z medsebojnim vplivanjem, ki se bodo verjetno uporabljale pri informacijskih in komunikacijskih proizvodih in storitvah ter bodo verjetno dosegle preboj na množični trg med letoma 2010 in 2020.
Tehnologije medsebojnega vplivanja, ki se uporabljajo izključno pri:
• samostojnih, neomrežnih proizvodih in storitvah;
• pomožnih napravah;
• proizvodih in storitvah, povezanih z varnostjo in varovanjem;
niso predmet tega dokumenta, čeprav za nekatere izmed njih smernice lahko veljajo.
Splošna vprašanja zasnove uporabniških vmesnikov (npr. kognitivna delovna obremenitev), ki vplivajo na uporabnost in dostopnost uporabniških vmesnikov za e-storitve, prav tako niso predmet tega dokumenta.
Bralci, ki jim je namenjen ta dokument, so tudi načrtovalci, izdelovalci in dobavitelji vseh proizvodov in storitev IKT, ki bodo v prihodnjo ponudbo vključevali nove tehnologije medsebojnega vplivanja uporabnikov. Raziskovalci lahko izsledke tega dokumenta koristno vključijo v zelo zgodnje faze svojih raziskav.
Pričakuje se, da se bo ta dokument uporabljal v zgodnjih fazah načrtovanja novih proizvodov ali e-storitev, s čimer se bo zagotovilo upoštevanje meril pri vseh stopnjah postopka načrtovanja in uvajanja proizvoda. Taka uporaba bi morala zagotoviti, da je nastali proizvod ali e-storitev pri svoji zasnovi čim bolj brez ovir.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
08-Jun-2011
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
12-Apr-2011
Due Date
17-Jun-2011
Completion Date
09-Jun-2011

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-V ETSI/EG 202 848 V1.1.1:2011
01-julij-2011

ýORYHãNLGHMDYQLNL +) 9NOMXþXMRþHHVWRULWYH]DYVH2SWLPL]LUDQMHGRVWRSQRVWL

LQXSRUDEDQDVOHGQMHJDXSRUDEQLNDWHKQRORJLMHPHGVHERMQHJDYSOLYDQMD

Human Factors (HF) - Inclusive eServices for all: Optimizing the accessibility and the use

of upcoming user-interaction technologies
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EG 202 848 Version 1.1.1
ICS:
03.080.01 Storitve na splošno Services in general
35.240.01 Uporabniške rešitve Application of information
informacijske tehnike in technology in general
tehnologije na splošno
SIST-V ETSI/EG 202 848 V1.1.1:2011 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-V ETSI/EG 202 848 V1.1.1:2011
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SIST-V ETSI/EG 202 848 V1.1.1:2011
ETSI EG 202 848 V1.1.1 (2011-02)
ETSI Guide
Human Factors;
Inclusive eServices for all: Optimizing the accessibility and
the use of upcoming user-interaction technologies
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SIST-V ETSI/EG 202 848 V1.1.1:2011
2 ETSI EG 202 848 V1.1.1 (2011-02)
Reference
DEG/HF-00109
Keywords
Design for All, accessibility, user, interface,
interaction
ETSI
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Users of the present document should be aware that the document may be subject to revision or change of status.

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If you find errors in the present document, please send your comment to one of the following services:

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© European Telecommunications Standards Institute 2011.
All rights reserved.
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GSM® and the GSM logo are Trade Marks registered and owned by the GSM Association.

ETSI
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SIST-V ETSI/EG 202 848 V1.1.1:2011
3 ETSI EG 202 848 V1.1.1 (2011-02)
Contents

Intellectual Property Rights ................................................................................................................................ 4

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. 4

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ 4

1 Scope ........................................................................................................................................................ 6

2 References ................................................................................................................................................ 6

2.1 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 7

2.2 Informative references ........................................................................................................................................ 7

3 Definitions and abbreviations ................................................................................................................... 7

3.1 Definitions .......................................................................................................................................................... 7

3.2 Abbreviations ..................................................................................................................................................... 8

4 Rationale ................................................................................................................................................... 9

5 Method ................................................................................................................................................... 10

6 Roadmaps of user interaction technologies ............................................................................................ 11

6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 11

6.1.1 Contents of the user interaction technology roadmaps ............................................................................... 11

6.1.2 Contents of the technology properties ........................................................................................................ 12

6.1.3 Key Design for All solutions ...................................................................................................................... 12

6.2 Acoustic/audio input technologies roadmap ..................................................................................................... 14

6.3 Kinaesthetic input technologies roadmap ......................................................................................................... 29

6.4 Presence/location/proximity-based input technologies roadmap...................................................................... 41

6.5 Recognition/mood/activity-based input technologies roadmap ........................................................................ 49

6.6 Smell-based input technologies roadmap ......................................................................................................... 65

6.7 Touch-based input technologies roadmaps ....................................................................................................... 68

6.8 Visual input technologies roadmap .................................................................................................................. 80

6.9 Acoustic/audio output technologies roadmap ................................................................................................... 85

6.10 Haptic/tactile output technologies roadmap ................................................................................................... 101

6.11 Smell-based output technologies roadmap ..................................................................................................... 113

6.12 Taste-based output technologies roadmap ...................................................................................................... 118

6.13 Visual output technologies roadmap .............................................................................................................. 123

Annex A: Alphabetic list of user interaction technologies ................................................................ 166

Annex B: Bibliography ........................................................................................................................ 169

History ............................................................................................................................................................ 172

ETSI
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Intellectual Property Rights

IPRs essential or potentially essential to the present document may have been declared to ETSI. The information

pertaining to these essential IPRs, if any, is publicly available for ETSI members and non-members, and can be found

in ETSI SR 000 314: "Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs); Essential, or potentially Essential, IPRs notified to ETSI in

respect of ETSI standards", which is available from the ETSI Secretariat. Latest updates are available on the ETSI Web

server (http://webapp.etsi.org/IPR/home.asp).

Pursuant to the ETSI IPR Policy, no investigation, including IPR searches, has been carried out by ETSI. No guarantee

can be given as to the existence of other IPRs not referenced in ETSI SR 000 314 (or the updates on the ETSI Web

server) which are, or may be, or may become, essential to the present document.
Foreword

This ETSI Guide (EG) has been produced by ETSI Technical Committee Human Factors (HF).

Introduction

Europe, as well as other economically developed areas, is facing a number of social and economic challenges including

an ageing population and high expectations with regard to quality of life, in particular in healthcare, environmental and

transportation concerns. These changes in society are also reflected in new requirements for products and services

resulting from changing sensory, cognitive and physical abilities of their users.

Experience shows a predominant pattern of products and services being offered that do not take sufficiently into

account the needs of people with mild or severe impairments. This tendency contributes to create gaps between people

with disabilities and the average population regarding the usage of Information and Communication Technologies

(ICT). Two reasons for this state of affairs can be identified. First, companies do not see a business case in offering

barrier-free products. Secondly, product and eService developers are often unaware of the requirements of customers

with impairments, neither are they familiar with appropriate design solutions that in many cases are not very demanding

in terms of research and development (R&D) and production costs.

The motivation for the development of barrier-free services and technologies can be regarded as demand driven,

i.e. users, organisations and policy makers express needs that they are not able to satisfy today with existing eService

offerings and products. Adopting a Design for All approach should be perceived as an opportunity as it can frequently

lead to innovative design solutions that bring benefits to all users, increasing the overall attractiveness of product

offerings.

The present document addresses relevant user requirements by taking a long-term approach in ensuring that new ICT

will consider the various needs of all users (including older users and those with disabilities) at the time when the

technology is first deployed, not as an afterthought as has been the case for many significant previous technological

developments.

Building a Design for All approach into the design process of devices and services will ensure that these products have

the broadest possible range of application by users with different abilities and users in different contexts. Fully utilising

the provisions in the present document will enable manufacturers and suppliers to demonstrate that they have

understood and overcome potential accessibility barriers that would otherwise have been created by new interaction

technologies that they are using. Adopting such a planned inclusive design approach can be utilised as a positive

marketing message that can be given when introducing such products.

Furthermore, adopting the provisions given in the present document will also significantly reduce the risk that

manufacturers and suppliers who employ future interaction technologies will introduce products that fail to meet the

needs of all sectors of society. Such use of the provisions will thus help industry to avoid the twin penalties of:

• the damage to corporate image that results from the introduction of products that are seen to discriminate

against and exclude sectors of society that command widespread public sympathy;
ETSI
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• the very high costs of having to retrospectively and rapidly re-engineer products in order to ensure that they no

longer exclude sectors of society that have already been alienated by previous versions of the product.

Adopting the provisions in the present document may reduce the likelihood that device manufactures and eService

providers become the subject of regulation. By doing so, they will be well prepared to comply with any standards or

regulation that may in the future be implemented to achieve an inclusive approach to private and public procurement.

ETSI
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1 Scope

The present document provides guidance for the user interaction design of telecommunication devices and services that

are likely to become available for large-scale rollout to consumers in the next five to ten years. In particular, the

document identifies provisions that have to be made in order to ensure that forthcoming interaction technologies

deployed in devices and services will be usable by all users including older people and/or people with disabilities.

The present document lists user interaction technologies likely to be employed in future devices and services in the

form of a technology roadmap. For each identified technology, key characteristics specified include:

• user requirements impacted by the technology;
• benefits and accessibility barriers that will result from deployment;

• solutions related to accessibility barriers (both those benefiting disabled users only as well as those being

useful for all users in different contexts).

Measures are identified that need to be addressed prior to the large-scale implementation of those technologies in order

to ensure their usability by users with the widest range of characteristics.

Within the scope of the document are those interaction technologies that are likely to be used in information and

communication products and services and are likely to achieve a mass-market breakthrough between 2010 and 2020.

Interaction technologies that are exclusively used in:
• stand-alone, off-line products and services;
• assistive devices;
• safety and security-related products and services;

are not within the scope of the present document, even though the guidelines may also apply to some of them.

General user interface design issues (e.g. cognitive workload) that affect the usability and accessibility of user interfaces

for eServices are also outside of the scope of the present document.

The intended readers of the present document are the designers, manufacturers and suppliers of all ICT products and

services that may use new user interaction technologies in their future offerings. Researchers benefit from the present

document by integrating its findings into their research at a very early stage.

It is expected that the present document should be utilised in the earliest stages of the planning of a new product or

eService to ensure that the measures proposed can be taken into account during all stages of the product design and

implementation process. Such usage should ensure that the resulting product or eService is as barrier free in its design

as possible.
2 References

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

reference document (including any amendments) applies.

Referenced documents which are not found to be publicly available in the expected location might be found at

http://docbox.etsi.org/Reference.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.
ETSI
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2.1 Normative references

The following referenced documents are necessary for the application of the present document.

Not applicable.
2.2 Informative references

The following referenced documents are not necessary for the application of the present document but they assist the

user with regard to a particular subject area.

[i.1] ETSI EG 202 116: "Human Factors (HF); Guidelines for ICT products and services; "Design for

All"".

[i.2] ETSI TR 102 849: "Human Factors (HF); Inclusive eServices for all; Background analysis of

future interaction technologies and supporting information".

[i.3] ISO TR 29138-1: "Information technology - Accessibility considerations for people with

disabilities - Part 1: User needs summary".

[i.4] ISO 9241-920: "Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 920: Guidance on tactile and

haptic interactions".
[i.5] The Center for Universal Design, NC State University.
NOTE: Available at http://www.design.ncsu.edu/cud/about_ud/udprinciplestext.htm.

[i.6] ISO 9241-20: "Ergonomics of human-system interaction. Accessibility guidelines for

information/communication technology (ICT) equipment and services".

[i.7] ETSI EG 202 417: "Human Factors (HF); User education guidelines for mobile terminals and

services".

[i.8] ETSI TR 102 068: "Human Factors (HF); Requirements for assistive technology devices in ICT".

[i.9] ETSI ES 202 076: "Human Factors (HF); User Interfaces; Generic spoken command vocabulary

for ICT devices and services".
3 Definitions and abbreviations
3.1 Definitions

For the purposes of the present document, the following terms and definitions apply:

augmented reality: augmented reality displays are those in which the image is of a primarily real environment, which

is enhanced, or augmented, with computer-generated imagery

NOTE: More generally, augmented reality can be defined as any media that is specific to user's location or

context, which is displayed in order to augment or enhance user's specific reality.

Design for All: design of products to be accessible and usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the

need for specialized adaptation
eService: See service.

eService cluster: collection of multiple (electronic) services aggregating into one (joint, often more abstract) eService

haptic: passive perception through the sense of touch
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input modality: sense or channel through which a human can receive the output of an ICT device or service

EXAMPLE: Visual modality.
interaction modality: input modality or output modality
interaction technology: See user interaction technology.
modality: See sensory modality.
multimodal: relating to multiple input modalities and/or output modalities

multimodality: simultaneous support of multiple input modalities and/or output modalities

output modality: channel through which a sensor, device or service can receive the input from the human

EXAMPLE: Kinaesthetic modality.

sensory modality: sense or channel through which a human can send input to or receive output from an ICT device or

service
EXAMPLE: Kinaesthetic modality.

service: complete capability, including terminal equipment functions, for communication between users, systems and

applications, according to agreed protocols

tactile: perception through the sense of touch while actively moving parts of the body

user interaction technology: any instrument, equipment or technical system enabling a user to interactively

communicate with a device or service

user interface: physical and logical interface through which a user communicates with a device or service

3.2 Abbreviations
For the purposes of the present document, the following abbreviations apply:
AAC Augmented and Alternative Communication
ADC Analogue-to-Digital Converter
AEC Acoustic Echo Cancellation
AR Augmented Reality
AT Assistive Technology
AVSR Audio-Visual Speech Recognition
BSS Blind Source Separation
CSCW Computer Supported Co-operative Work
DOF Degrees of Freedom
DSR Distributed Speech Recognition
DTW Dynamic Time Warping
DVB-S Digital Video Broadcasting, Satellite television
DVD Digital Versatile Disk (also known as digital video disk)
DVDD Direct Volume Display Devices
FOV Field Of View
GPS Global Positioning System
GUI Graphical User Interface
HD High Definition
HDTV High Definition Television
HMD Head-Mounted Displays
HRTF Head-Related Transfer Function
HUD Head-Up Displays
ICT Information and Communication Technologies
IR Infrared
LCD Liquid Crystal Display
LED Light-emitting diode
MEMS Micro-Electromechanical Systems
ETSI
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NFC Near Field Communication (wireless)
NGN Next Generation Network
OIV Obscured Information Visualization
OLED Organic Light Emitting Diode
PC Personal Computer
PDF Portable Document Format
PIR Passive Infrared Sensor
QoS Quality of Service
R&D Research and Development
RF Radio Frequency
RFID Radio-Frequency Identification
RSVP Rapid Serial Visual Presentation
SID Spatially Immersive Display
TTS Text-To-Speech
UI User Interface
WAI Web Accessibility Initiative
WCG Wide-Colour Gamut
WFS Wave Field Synthesis
4 Rationale

An analysis of the deployment of existing services and their user interfaces shows a common pattern of addressing the

requirements of older people and those with disabilities significantly after the initial availability of innovative new user

interaction technologies. This pattern is so common because new and sometimes disruptive technologies are usually

developed for and targeted at mainstream consumers, or at narrow target groups of early adopters, the wealthy or the

technology-aware.

Those new and/or disruptive technologies did not initially include the easy accommodation of the requirements of

people with disabilities. Subsequent measures for compensating these shortcomings have often been late and costly.

Examples of technologies deployed without appropriate consideration for the requirements of users with disabilities are

listed in table 4.1.
Table 4.1: Examples of accessibility gaps in consumer products
Technology Accessibility weaknesses

Personal computer (PC) The first PCs with character-based user interfaces were easily usable by blind

users with a Braille-keyboard device. The advent of graphical user interfaces
(GUI) suddenly excluded blind users until screen readers became available.
The Internet The problems are similar to the ones described for the PC, as early

communications services (e.g. gopher services and first E-mail services) were text

based and were later replaced by graphical interfaces such as web browsers. The
Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) stepped in late, and took long to evolve if
compared to the very dynamic development of web technologies.

Document file formats Documents produced in image-based versions of the PDF-format are not

accessible to blind users.

Digital music or media players Many classic cassette players have mechanical switches and mechanisms that

rely on the physical insertion and turning of a cassette to select different audio

segments. However, modern digital music players are increasingly relying on

on-screen interfaces with few, if any, physical controls to offer suitable feedback

and are therefore unsuitable for people with poor eyesight.

Biometric systems Biometric applications are more and more used for supporting authorisation and

access control. People with disabilities (e.g. physical or speech impairments) are

likely to face barriers as users of these systems. Multimodality may contribute to

accessibility in this field, as well as to higher levels of performance and user
acceptance.

The introduction of forthcoming applications and technologies such as ambient intelligence, ubiquitous communications

and others enabled by Next Generation Networks (NGN) should not follow the same pattern, but adopt a true "Design

for All" approach instead. This implies that the specific requirements of older users and users with disabilities should be

taken into account prior to the large-scale introduction of such technologies. These requirements lead to provisions that

should be made prior to or at the introduction of new technologies in order to meet the needs of all users.

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Emerging user interaction technologies may pose interaction challenges that still remain unaddressed by available

standards on generic accessibility of ICT products and services. One of the reasons for this may be that certain

modalities (e.g. haptic/tactile) have acquired an increasing importance in user interfaces, whereas previously they have

been used mainly as a complement to other modalities (e.g. visual and auditory). Furthermore, new interaction

paradigms (e.g. augmented reality) still lack a holistic analysis of their accessibility implications. The present document

addresses these and further issues attempting to identify relevant future interaction technologies and appropriate Design

for All provisions.

Implementing the provisions in the present document can result in a higher average revenue per user for eService

providers and an increased customer base for device manufacturers. Ensuring that the needs of older users and users

with disabilities are addressed in the initial release of a product or eService will avoid the additional re-development

costs incurred by the need to address this in later product releases.

Adapting new services and devices according to these provisions will result in inclusion for all users, regardless of their

age and impairments. Delivering services and devices that are accessible from the start will empower users,

strengthening trust in their ability to master new technologies designed to improve their quality of life. Switching to a

new eService or device will be easier for users when the provisions in the present document are adopted.

Previous ETSI work has produced an excellent basis for educating device and eService designers about the

requirements of older users and users with disabilities by illustrating design principles for barrier-free products and

services. One example of the many ETSI publications on barrier-free design is [i.1].

However, the current literature, including the documents published by ETSI, largely focuses on existing technologies.

The developers of innovative new technologies may be unaware of these resources and, if they are, it may not be

possible to apply guidance from these resources to the development of new technologies. The present document

addresses both the need for an analysis that anticipates the demands of new technologies and for the development of

guidance that is suitable for these forthcoming technologies.
5 Method

The technology roadmaps and technology properties listed in clause 6 were identified using a combination of desk

research and expert consultation. It included literature research and interviews with experts and stakeholders. The

development of the Design for All provisions in the present document resulted from an analysis of the options which

designers and manufactures have during the design of new services or access devices. Details of the working method

are described in [i.2].

Existing and forthcoming eServices were analyzed and grouped into eService clusters such as eHealth, eGovernment

and eLearning (see table 5.1). In order to systematically identify potential accessibility barriers to those eServices and

appropriate solutions, each interaction technology listed in clause 6 has been assessed against a set of generic user

requirements related to ICT accessibility. The main aim was to identify those user requirements that may create

accessibility barriers when making use of novel and emerging interaction technologies.

Table 5.1: eService Clusters
eService Clusters Explanations

eGovernment services eGovernment services include authentication services, electronic application for

id-cards, passports, driver's licenses, etc., remote payment of supplies like energy

and water, as well as eTax services that include the electronic filing of tax forms,

electronic payment of taxes and communication with tax offices.

eHealth services eHealth services are, among others telecare services, remote health monitoring,

access to patient data, remote diagnosis and electronic prescription services.

Social services delivered through Social services delivered through electronic means comprise remote supervision of

electronic means people in need, ICT-supported caretaking (incl. robotics applications), social

communities, electronic support for old people in need, messaging services, sharing

services for
...

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