Determination of rf field strength, power density and sar in the vicinity of radiocommunication base stations for the purpose of evaluating human exposure

This document provides methods for the determination of radio-frequency (RF) field strength
and specific absorption rate (SAR) in the vicinity of radiocommunication base stations (RBS)
for the purpose of evaluating human exposure.
This document:
a) considers intentionally radiating RBS which transmit on one or more antennas using one
or more frequencies in the range 110 MHz to 100 GHz;
b) considers the impact of ambient sources on RF exposure at least in the 100 kHz to
300 GHz frequency range;
c) specifies the methods to be used for RF exposure evaluation for compliance assessment
applications, namely:
1) product compliance – determination of compliance boundary information for an RBS
product before it is placed on the market;
2) product installation compliance – determination of the total RF exposure levels in
accessible areas from an RBS product and other relevant sources before the product
is put into service;
3) in-situ RF exposure assessment – measurement of in-situ RF exposure levels in the
vicinity of an RBS installation after the product has been taken into operation;
d) describes several RF field strength and SAR measurement and computation methodologies
with guidance on their applicability to address both the in-situ evaluation of installed RBS
and laboratory-based evaluations;
e) describes how surveyors, with a sufficient level of expertise, establish their specific
evaluation procedures appropriate for their evaluation purpose;
f) provides guidance on how to report, interpret and compare results from different
evaluation methodologies and, where the evaluation purpose requires it, determine a
justified decision against a limit value;
g) provides short descriptions of the informative example case studies given in the
companion Technical Report IEC TR 62669 [1].

Bestimmung der HF-Feldstärke, der Leistungsdichte und der spezifischen Absorptionsrate (SAR) in der Nachbarschaft von Funkkommunikations-Basisstationen zur Ermittlung der menschlichen Exposition

Détermination de l'intensité de champ de radiofréquences, de la densité de puissance et du DAS à proximité des stations de base de radiocommunication dans le but d'évaluer l'exposition humaine

IEC 62232:2017 donne des méthodes de détermination du champ de radiofréquences (RF) et du débit d'absorption spécifique (DAS) à proximité des stations de base de radiocommunication (RBS) dans le but d'évaluer l'exposition humaine. Le présent document: - examine des RBS rayonnant intentionnellement qui transmettent sur une ou plusieurs antennes dans la plage de fréquences de 110 MHz à 100 GHz; - étudie l'impact des sources ambiantes d'exposition RF au moins dans la plage de fréquences de 100 kHz à 300 GHz; - spécifie les méthodes d'évaluation de l'exposition RF à utiliser pour les applications d'appréciation de la conformité, à savoir: - conformité du produit: détermination des informations sur la frontière de conformité des produits RBS avant leur commercialisation; - conformité de l'installation du produit: détermination des niveaux d'exposition RF totaux dans les zones accessibles depuis un produit RBS et les autres sources pertinentes avant la mise en service du produit; - appréciation de l'exposition RF sur site: mesure des niveaux d'exposition RF à proximité d'une installation RBS après la mise en service du produit; - décrit plusieurs méthodologies de mesure et de calcul de l'intensité de champ de radiofréquences et du DAS avec des recommandations relatives à leur applicabilité pour couvrir tant l'évaluation sur site des RBS installées que les évaluations en laboratoire; - décrit la manière dont un vérificateur ayant des compétences suffisantes établit ses propres procédures d'évaluation, en fonction de ses objectifs d'évaluation; - fournit des recommandations quant à la manière de rendre compte, d'interpréter et de comparer les résultats obtenus à partir de différentes méthodologies d'évaluation et, lorsque l'objectif de l'évaluation l'exige, prendre une décision justifiée en vertu d'une valeur limite donnée; - fournit, à titre informatif, de brèves descriptions d'exemples d'études de cas dans le cadre de la comparaison avec le rapport technique IEC 62669 Cette deuxième édition annule et remplace la première édition parue en 2011, dont elle constitue une révision technique.

Določitev RF poljske jakosti, gostote moči in SAR v okolici radiokomunikacijskih baznih postaj za namene ocenjevanja izpostavljenosti ljudi

Ta dokument podaja metode za določitev radiofrekvenčne (RF) poljske jakosti, gostote moči in specifične hitrosti absorpcije (SAR), v okolici radiokomunikacijskih baznih postaj (RBS) za namene ocenjevanja izpostavljenosti ljudi.
Ta dokument:
a) upošteva namenoma sevajočo radiokomunikacijsko postajo, ki oddaja z eno ali več antenami, ki uporabljajo eno ali več frekvenc v območju od 110 MHz do 100 GHz;
b) upošteva vpliv virov iz okolja na izpostavljenost radijskim frekvencam v frekvenčnem območju vsaj od 100 kHz do 300 GHz;
c) določa metode, ki se uporabljajo za vrednotenje izpostavljenosti radijskim frekvencam za oceno skladnosti, in sicer:
1) skladnosti izdelka – določitev informacij o omejitvi skladnosti za radiokomunikacijsko bazno postajo, preden je dana na trg;
2) skladnosti namestitve izdelka – določitev ravni skupne izpostavljenosti radijskim frekvencam v dostopnih območjih pri radiokomunikacijski bazni postaji in drugih zadevnih virov, preden se izdelek začne uporabljati;
3) ocena izpostavljenosti radijskim frekvencam na kraju samem – merjenje ravni izpostavljenosti radijskim frekvencam na kraju samem v bližini radiokomunikacijske bazne postaje, ko izdelek začne obratovati;
d) opisuje več metodologij za merjenje in izračun radiofrekvenčne poljske jakosti in specifične hitrosti absorpcije z navodili za njihovo uporabo pri obravnavi vrednotenja nameščene radiokomunikacijske bazne postaje na kraju samem in vrednotenj v laboratoriju;
e) opisuje, kako nadzorniki z ustreznim strokovnim znanjem, vzpostavijo svoje posebne postopke vrednotenja, ki so primerni za njihov namen vrednotenja;
f) podaja navodila za poročanje o rezultatih, njihovo razlago in primerjanje rezultatov različnih metodologij vrednotenja ter, če to zahteva namen vrednotenja, navodila za določanje utemeljene odločitve glede mejne vrednosti;
g) vključuje kratek opis informativnih vzorčnih študij primerov, podanih v spremljevalnem tehničnem poročilu IEC TR 62669 [1].

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
18-Mar-2019
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
18-Feb-2019
Due Date
25-Apr-2019
Completion Date
19-Mar-2019

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.NRPXQLNDFLMVNLKDetermination of rf field strength, power density and sar in the vicinity of radiocommunication base stations for the purpose of evaluating human exposure17.240Merjenje sevanjaRadiation measurements13.280Varstvo pred sevanjemRadiation protectionICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 62232:2017SIST EN 62232:2019en01-april-2019SIST EN 62232:2019SLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST EN 50400:2006/AC:2012SIST EN 50492:2009SIST EN 50492:2009/A1:2014SIST EN 50400:2006/A1:2014SIST EN 50383:2010SIST EN 50383:2010/AC:2013SIST EN 50400:20061DGRPHãþD

SIST EN 62232:2019
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 62232

December 2017 ICS 13.280; 17.240 Supersedes EN 50383:2010, EN 50400:2006, EN 50492:2008 English Version

Determination of RF field strength, power density and SAR in the vicinity of radiocommunication base stations for the purpose of evaluating human exposure (IEC 62232:2017)

Détermination des champs de radiofréquences, densité de puissance et du DAS aux environs des stations de base utilisées pour les communications radio dans le but d'évaluer l'exposition humaine (IEC 62232:2017)

Bestimmung der HF-Feldstärke, der Leistungsdichte und der spezifischen Absorptionsrate (SAR) in der Nachbarschaft von Funkkommunikations-Basisstationen zur Ermittlung der menschlichen Exposition (IEC 62232:2017) This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2017-09-27. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions. CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization

Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23,

B-1040 Brussels © 2017 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN 62232:2017 E SIST EN 62232:2019

EN 62232:2017 2 European foreword The text of document 106/397/FDIS, future edition 2 of IEC 62232, prepared by IEC/TC 106 "Methods for the assessment of electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields associated with human exposure" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and approved by CENELEC as EN 62232:2017.

The following dates are fixed: • latest date by which the document has to be implemented at national level by publication of an identical national standard or by endorsement (dop) 2018-06-27 • latest date by which the national standards conflicting with the document have to be withdrawn (dow) 2020-09-27

This document supersedes EN 50400:2006 + AC:2011 + A1:2012, EN 50383:2010 + AC:2013 and EN 50492:2008 + A1:2014.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Endorsement notice The text of the International Standard IEC 62232:2017 was approved by CENELEC as a European Standard without any modification. In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards indicated:

ISO/IEC 17025 NOTE Harmonized as EN ISO/IEC 17025. CISPR 16-4-2 NOTE Harmonized as EN 55016-4-2. SIST EN 62232:2019

EN 62232:2017 3 Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE 1

Where an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2

Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available here: www.cenelec.eu.

Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 62209-1 -

Human exposure to radio frequency fields from hand-held and body-mounted wireless communication devices - Human models, instrumentation, and procedures - Part 1: Procedure to determine the specific absorption rate (SAR) for hand-held devices used in close proximity to the ear (frequency range of 300 MHz to 3 GHz) EN 62209-1 -

IEC 62209-2 -

Human exposure to radio frequency fields from hand-held and body-mounted wireless communication devices - Human models, instrumentation, and procedures - Part 2: Procedure to determine the specific absorption rate (SAR) for wireless communication devices used in close proximity to the human body (frequency range of 30 MHz to 6 GHz) EN 62209-2 -

IEC 62479 -

Assessment of the compliance of low power electronic and electrical equipment with the basic restrictions related to human exposure to electromagnetic fields (10 MHz to 300 GHz) EN 62479 -

IEC 62311 -

Assessment of electronic and electrical equipment related to human exposure restrictions for electromagnetic fields (0 Hz - 300 GHz) EN 62311 -

SIST EN 62232:2019
SIST EN 62232:2019
IEC 62232 Edition 2.0 2017-08 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD

Determination of RF field strength, power density and SAR in the vicinity of radiocommunication base stations for the purpose of evaluating human exposure

INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
ICS 13.280; 17.240
ISBN 978-2-8322-4635-1
® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission ®

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor. SIST EN 62232:2019 colourinside

– 2 – IEC 62232:2017 © IEC 2017 CONTENTS FOREWORD ......................................................................................................................... 12 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 14 1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 15 2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 15 3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 16 4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ..................................................................................... 22 4.1 Physical quantities ................................................................................................ 22 4.2 Constants ............................................................................................................. 23 4.3 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................. 23 5 Quick start guide and how to use this document ............................................................ 24 5.1 Overview............................................................................................................... 24 5.2 Quick start guide ................................................................................................... 24 5.3 How to use this document ..................................................................................... 26 5.4 Worked case studies ............................................................................................. 27 6 Evaluation processes for product compliance, product installation compliance and in-situ RF exposure assessments .................................................................................. 27 6.1 Evaluation process for product compliance ........................................................... 27 6.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 27 6.1.2 Establishing compliance boundaries .............................................................. 27 6.1.3 Iso-surface compliance boundary definition ................................................... 28 6.1.4 Simple compliance boundaries ...................................................................... 28 6.1.5 Methods for establishing the compliance boundary ........................................ 30 6.1.6 Uncertainty .................................................................................................... 32 6.1.7 Reporting ....................................................................................................... 32 6.2 Evaluation process used for product installation compliance ................................. 33 6.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 33 6.2.2 General evaluation procedure for product installations ................................... 33 6.2.3 Product installation data collection ................................................................. 34 6.2.4 Simplified product installation evaluation process .......................................... 35 6.2.5 Assessment area selection ............................................................................ 37 6.2.6 Measurements ............................................................................................... 39 6.2.7 Computations ................................................................................................ 40 6.2.8 Uncertainty .................................................................................................... 41 6.2.9 Reporting ....................................................................................................... 41 6.3 Evaluation processes for in-situ RF exposure assessment .................................... 42 6.3.1 General requirements, source determination and site analysis ....................... 42 6.3.2 Measurement procedures .............................................................................. 44 6.3.3 Uncertainty .................................................................................................... 45 6.3.4 Reporting ....................................................................................................... 45 6.4 Averaging procedures ........................................................................................... 46 6.4.1 Spatial averaging ........................................................................................... 46 6.4.2 Time averaging .............................................................................................. 46 7 Determining the evaluation method ................................................................................ 46 7.1 Overview............................................................................................................... 46 7.2 Process to determine the evaluation method ......................................................... 46 7.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 46 SIST EN 62232:2019

IEC 62232:2017 © IEC 2017 – 3 –

7.2.2 Establishing the evaluation points in relation to the source-environment plane ............................................................................................................. 47 7.2.3 Exposure metric selection .............................................................................. 49 8 Evaluation methods ....................................................................................................... 49 8.1 Overview............................................................................................................... 49 8.2 Measurement methods .......................................................................................... 50 8.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 50 8.2.2 RF field strength measurements .................................................................... 50 8.2.3 SAR measurements ........................................................................................ 51 8.3 Computation methods ........................................................................................... 52 9 Uncertainty .................................................................................................................... 53 10 Reporting....................................................................................................................... 54 10.1 General requirements ........................................................................................... 54 10.2 Report format ........................................................................................................ 54 10.3 Opinions and interpretations ................................................................................. 55 Annex A (informative)

Source environment plane and

guidance on the evaluation method selection ................................................................................................................... 56 A.1 Guidance on the source-environment plane .......................................................... 56 A.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 56 A.1.2 Source-environment plane example ............................................................... 56 A.1.3 Source regions .............................................................................................. 57 A.2 Select between computation or measurement approaches .................................... 63 A.3 Select measurement method ................................................................................. 64 A.3.1 Selection stages ............................................................................................ 64 A.3.2 Selecting between field strength and SAR measurement approaches ............. 64 A.3.3 Selecting between broadband and frequency-selective measurement ............ 65 A.3.4 Selecting RF field strength measurement procedures .................................... 66 A.4 Select computation method ................................................................................... 66 A.5 Additional considerations ...................................................................................... 68 A.5.1 Simplicity ....................................................................................................... 68 A.5.2 Evaluation method ranking ............................................................................ 68 A.5.3 Applying multiple methods for RF exposure evaluation .................................. 68 Annex B (normative)

Evaluation methods ............................................................................. 69 B.1 Overview............................................................................................................... 69 B.2 Evaluation parameters .......................................................................................... 69 B.2.1 Overview ....................................................................................................... 69 B.2.2 Coordinate systems ....................................................................................... 69 B.2.3 Reference points ........................................................................................... 70 B.2.4 Variables ....................................................................................................... 70 B.3 Measurement methods .......................................................................................... 73 B.3.1 RF field strength measurements .................................................................... 73 B.3.2 SAR measurements ...................................................................................... 104 B.4 Computation methods ......................................................................................... 114 B.4.1 Overview and general requirements ............................................................. 114 B.4.2 Formulas ..................................................................................................... 115 B.4.3 Basic algorithms .......................................................................................... 123 B.4.4 Advanced computation methods .................................................................. 129 B.5 Extrapolation from the evaluated SAR / RF field strength to the required assessment condition.......................................................................................... 150 SIST EN 62232:2019

– 4 – IEC 62232:2017 © IEC 2017 B.5.1 Extrapolation method ................................................................................... 150 B.5.2 Extrapolation to maximum RF field strength using broadband measurements ............................................................................................. 151 B.5.3 Extrapolation to maximum RF field strength for frequency and code selective measurements .............................................................................. 151 B.5.4 Influence of traffic in real operating network ................................................ 152 B.6 Summation of multiple RF fields .......................................................................... 152 B.6.1 Applicability ................................................................................................. 152 B.6.2 Uncorrelated fields ...................................................................................... 153 B.6.3 Correlated fields .......................................................................................... 153 B.6.4 Ambient fields .............................................................................................. 153 Annex C (informative)

Rationale supporting simplified product installation criteria.............. 154 C.1 General ............................................................................................................... 154 C.2 Class E2 ............................................................................................................. 154 C.3 Class E10 ........................................................................................................... 155 C.4 Class E100 ......................................................................................................... 155 C.5 Class E+ ............................................................................................................. 157 Annex D (informative)

Guidance on comparing evaluated parameters

with a limit value................................................................................................................................... 159 D.1 Overview............................................................................................................. 159 D.2 Information required to compare evaluated value against limit value ................... 159 D.3 Performing a limit comparison at a given confidence level................................... 159 D.4 Performing a limit comparison using a process based assessment scheme ......... 160 Annex E (informative)

Uncertainty ...................................................................................... 161 E.1 Background......................................................................................................... 161 E.2 Requirement to estimate uncertainty ................................................................... 161 E.3 How to estimate uncertainty ................................................................................ 162 E.4 Guidance on uncertainty and assessment schemes ............................................ 162 E.4.1 General ....................................................................................................... 162 E.4.2 Overview of assessment schemes ............................................................... 162 E.4.3 Examples of assessment schemes .............................................................. 163 E.4.4 Assessment schemes and compliance probabilities ..................................... 166 E.5 Guidance on uncertainty ..................................................................................... 168 E.5.1 Overview ..................................................................................................... 168 E.5.2 Measurement uncertainty and confidence levels .......................................... 169 E.6 Applying uncertainty for compliance assessments ............................................... 170 E.7 Example influence quantities for field measurements .......................................... 170 E.7.1 General ....................................................................................................... 170 E.7.2 Calibration uncertainty of measurement antenna or field probe .................... 171 E.7.3 Frequency response of the measurement antenna or field probe ................. 171 E.7.4 Isotropy of the measurement antenna or field probe .................................... 173 E.7.5 Frequency response of the spectrum analyser ............................................. 173 E.7.6 Temperature response of a broadband field probe ....................................... 173 E.7.7 Linearity deviation of a broadband field probe .............................................. 173 E.7.8 Mismatch uncertainty ................................................................................... 173 E.7.9 Deviation of the experimental source from numerical source ........................ 174 E.7.10 Meter fluctuation uncertainty for time varying signals ................................... 174 E.7.11 Uncertainty due to power variation in the RF source .................................... 174 E.7.12 Uncertainty due to field gradients ................................................................ 174 SIST EN 62232:2019

IEC 62232:2017 © IEC 2017 – 5 –

E.7.13 Mutual coupling between measurement antenna or isotropic probe and object .......................................................................................................... 176 E.7.14 Uncertainty due to field scattering from the surveyor’s body ........................ 177 E.7.15 Measurement device .................................................................................... 178 E.7.16 Fields out of measurement range ................................................................. 178 E.7.17 Noise ........................................................................................................... 179 E.7.18 Integration time ........................................................................................... 179 E.7.19 Power chain ................................................................................................. 179 E.7.20 Positioning system ....................................................................................... 179 E.7.21 Matching between probe and the EUT ......................................................... 179 E.7.22 Drifts in output power of the EUT, probe, temperature, and humidity ............ 179 E.7.23 Perturbation by the environment .................................................................. 179 E.8 Example influence quantities for RF field strength computations by ray tracing or full wave methods ............................................................................... 180 E.8.1 General ....................................................................................................... 180 E.8.2 System ........................................................................................................ 180 E.8.3 Technique uncertainties ............................................................................... 181 E.8.4 Environmental uncertainties ......................................................................... 181 E.9 Influence quantities for SAR measurements ......................................................... 182 E.9.1 General ....................................................................................................... 182 E.9.2 Post-processing ........................................................................................... 182 E.9.3 Device holder .............................................................................................. 182 E.9.4 Test sample positioning ............................................................................... 183 E.9.5 Phantom shell uncertainty ............................................................................ 184 E.9.6 SAR correction / target liquid permittivity and conductivity ............................ 184 E.9.7 Liquid permittivity and conductivity measurements ....................................... 184 E.9.8 Liquid temperature ....................................................................................... 185 E.10 Influence quantities for SAR calculations ............................................................. 185 E.11 Spatial averaging ................................................................................................ 185 E.11.1 General ....................................................................................................... 185 E.11.2 Small-scale fading variations ....................................................................... 186 E.11.3 Error on the estimation of local average power density ................................ 186 E.11.4 Error on the estimation of local average power density ................................ 187 E.11.5 Characterization of environment statistical properties .................................. 187 E.11.6 Characterization of different averaging schemes.......................................... 188 E.12 Influence of human body on probe measurements of the electrical field strength .............................................................................................................. 192 E.12.1 Simulations of the influence of human body on probe measurements based on the Method of Moments (Surface Equivalence Principle) .............. 192 E.12.2 Comparison with measurements .................................................................. 194 E.12.3 Conclusions ................................................................................................. 194 Annex F (informative)

Technology-specific guidance .......................................................... 195 F.1 Overview to guidance on specific technologies ................................................... 195 F.2 Summary of technology-specific information ....................................................... 195 F.3 Guidance on spectrum analyser settings ............................................................. 199 F.3.1 Overview of spectrum analyser settings ....................................................... 199 F.3.2 Detection algorithms .................................................................................... 199 F.3.3 Resolution bandwidth and channel power processing .................................. 200 F.3.4 Integration per service ................................................................................. 202 F.4 Constant power components ............................................................................... 203 SIST EN 62232:2019

– 6 – IEC 62232:2017 © IEC 2017 F.4.1 TDMA/FDMA technology .............................................................................. 203 F.4.2 WCDMA/UMTS technology .......................................................................... 203 F.4.3 OFDM technology ........................................................................................ 204 F.5 WCDMA measurement and calibration using a code domain analyser ................. 204 F.5.1 WCDMA measurements – General............................................................... 204 F.5.2 Requirements for the code domain analyser ................................................ 204 F.5.3 Calibration ................................................................................................... 205 F.6 Wi-Fi measurements ........................................................................................... 207 F.6.1 General ....................................................................................................... 207 F.6.2 Integration time for reproducible measurements .......................................... 207 F.6.3 Channel occupation ..................................................................................... 208 F.6.4 Some considerations ................................................................................... 208 F.6.5 Scalability by channel occupation ................................................................ 209 F.6.6 Influ

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