Earthing of power installations exceeding 1 kV a.c.

This European Standard contains the requirements for the design and erection of earthing 111 systems of electrical installations, in systems with nominal voltage above 1 kV a.c., so as to 112 provide safety and proper functioning for the use intended.

Erdung von Starkstromanlagen mit Nennwechselspannungen über 1 kV

Diese Europäische Norm ist anwendbar zur Festlegung von Anforderungen für die Projektierung und Errichtung von Erdungsanlagen für Starkstromanlagen in Netzen mit Nennwechselspannungen über 1 kV und einer Nennfrequenz bis einschließlich 60 Hz, um damit eine sichere und störungsfreie Funktion im bestimmungsgemäßen Betrieb sicherzustellen. Im Sinne dieser Norm gilt als eine Starkstromanlage eine der folgenden: a) Schalt- und Umspannanlagen, einschließlich Schaltanlagen zur Speisung von Bahnanlagen; b) elektrische Anlagen auf Masten oder in Türmen, Schaltgeräte und/oder Transformatoren außerhalb abgeschlossener elektrischer Betriebsstätten; c) eine (oder mehrere) Stromerzeugungsanlage(n) an einem räumlich begrenzten Ort; die Anlage enthält Generatoren und Transformatoren mit zugehörigen Schaltgeräten und elektrischen Hilfseinrichtungen. Verbindungen zwischen Stromerzeugungsanlagen an unterschiedlichen Orten sind ausgeschlossen; d) das elektrische Netz einer Fabrik, Industrieanlage oder anderer industrieller, landwirtschaftlicher, gewerblicher oder öffentlicher Räumlichkeiten. In Starkstromanlagen können unter anderem folgende Betriebsmittel vorkommen: - Drehende elektrische Maschinen; - Schaltgeräte; - Transformatoren und Reaktoren; - Stromrichter; - Kabel; - Verdrahtungen; - Batterien; - Kondensatoren; - Erdungsanlagen; - Gebäude und Umzäunungen, die zu einer abgeschlossenen elektrischen Betriebsstätte gehören; - zugehörige Schutz-, Steuerungs- und Hilfssysteme; - große Luftdrosselspulen. ANMERKUNG Grundsätzlich haben Festlegungen von Betriebsmittelnormen Vorrang vor dieser Norm. Diese Europäische Norm gilt nicht für die Projektierung und Errichtung von Erdungsanlagen für eine der folgenden: - Freileitungen und Kabeln zwischen getrennten Anlagen; - elektrische Bahnen; - Bergwerksausrüstungen und -anlagen; - Leuchtröhrenanlagen; - Anlagen auf Schiffen und off-shore-Plattformen; - elektrostatischen Einrichtungen (z.B. Elektrofilter, Pulverbeschichtungsanlagen); - Prüffeldern; - medizinischen Einrichtungen, zum Beispiel medizinischen Röntgeneinrichtungen. Diese Europäische Norm gilt nicht für die Anforderungen zur Durchführung von Arbeiten unter Spannung an elektrischen Anlagen.

Prises de terre des installations électriques en courant alternatif de puissance supérieure à 1 kV

Ozemljitev elektroenergetskih postrojev, ki presegajo 1 kV izmenične napetosti

Ta evropski standard vsebuje zahteve za načrtovanje in postavitev ozemljitve električnih inštalacij sistemov 111 v sisteme z nazivno napetostjo nad 1 kV izmeničnega toka, tako da 112 zagotavljajo varnost in primerno delovanje za predvideno uporabo.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
11-Mar-2009
Publication Date
06-Dec-2010
Current Stage
6100 - Translation of adopted SIST standards (Adopted Project)
Start Date
19-Aug-2013
Due Date
18-Aug-2014
Completion Date
31-Mar-2015

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 50522:2011
01-januar-2011
1DGRPHãþD
SIST HD 637 S1:1999
2]HPOMLWYHPRþQRVWQLKLQãWDODFLMNLSUHVHJDMRN9L]PHQLþQHQDSHWRVWL
Earthing of power installations exceeding 1 kV a.c.
Erdung von Starkstromanlagen mit Nennwechselspannungen über 1 kV

Prises de terre des installations électriques en courant alternatif de puissance supérieure

à 1 kV
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 50522:2010
ICS:
29.240.01 2PUHåMD]DSUHQRVLQ Power transmission and
GLVWULEXFLMRHOHNWULþQHHQHUJLMH distribution networks in
QDVSORãQR general
SIST EN 50522:2011 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 50522:2011
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 50522:2011
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 50522
NORME EUROPÉENNE
November 2010
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 29.120.50 Supersedes HD 637 S1:1999 (partially)
English version
Earthing of power installations exceeding 1 kV a.c.
Prises de terre des installations Erdung von Starkstromanlagen mit
électriques en courant alternatif de Nennwechselspannungen über 1 kV
puissance supérieure à 1 kV

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2010-11-01. CENELEC members are bound to comply

with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard

the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on

application to the Central Secretariat or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified

to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus,

the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia,

Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
CENELEC
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B - 1000 Brussels

© 2010 CENELEC - All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC members.

Ref. No. EN 50522:2010 E
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 50522:2011
EN 50522:2010 – 2 –
Foreword

This European Standard was prepared by the Technical Committee CENELEC TC 99X, Power

installations exceeding 1 kV a.c. (1,5 kV d.c.). It was submitted to formal vote and was accepted by

CENELEC as EN 50522 on 2010-11-01.
Together with EN 61936-1:2010 this document supersedes HD 637 S1:1999.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN and CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

The following dates were fixed:
– latest date by which the EN has to be implemented
at national level by publication of an identical
(dop) 2011-11-01
national standard or by endorsement
– latest date by which the national standards conflicting
with the EN have to be withdrawn (dow) 2013-11-01
NOTE The text identical with IEC 61936-1 is written in italics.
__________
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN 50522:2011
– 3 – EN 50522:2010
Contents

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................6

2 Normative references .........................................................................................................................7

3 Terms and definitions .........................................................................................................................8

3.1 General definitions ...................................................................................................................8

3.2 Definitions concerning installations ..........................................................................................8

3.3 Definitions concerning safety measures against electric shock ...............................................9

3.4 Definitions concerning earthing ................................................................................................9

4 Fundamental requirements ..............................................................................................................18

4.1 General requirements ............................................................................................................18

4.2 Electrical requirements ...........................................................................................................18

4.3 Safety criteria .........................................................................................................................19

4.4 Functional requirements .........................................................................................................20

5 Design of earthing systems ..............................................................................................................20

5.1 General ..................................................................................................................................20

5.2 Dimensioning with respect to corrosion and mechanical strength .........................................20

5.3 Dimensioning with respect to thermal strength ......................................................................21

5.4 Dimensioning with regard to touch voltages ..........................................................................23

6 Measures to avoid transferred potential ...........................................................................................27

6.1 Transferred potential from High voltage systems to Low voltage systems ............................27

6.2 Transferred potentials to telecommunication and other systems ..........................................28

7 Construction of earthing systems .....................................................................................................29

7.1 Installation of earth electrodes and earthing conductors .......................................................29

7.2 Lightning and transients .........................................................................................................29

7.3 Measures for earthing on equipment and installations ..........................................................30

8 Measurements ..................................................................................................................................30

9 Maintainability ...................................................................................................................................30

9.1 Inspections .............................................................................................................................30

9.2 Measurements .......................................................................................................................30

Annex A (normative) Method of calculating permissible touch voltages .......................................31

Annex B (normative) Touch voltage and body current .....................................................................32

B.1 Calculation of permissible touch voltage ...............................................................................32

B.2 Calculation of prospective permissible touch voltage ............................................................33

Annex C (normative) Type and minimum dimensions of earth electrode materials ensuring

mechanical strength and corrosion resistance ..........................................................................36

Annex D (normative) Current rating calculation of earthing conductors and earth electrodes ...37

Annex E (normative) Description of the recognized specified measures M ...................................41

Annex F (normative) Measures on earthing systems to reduce the effects of high frequency

interference ....................................................................................................................................44

Annex G (normative) Detailed measures for earthing of equipment and installations ..................45

G.1 Fences around substation installations .................................................................................45

G.2 Pipes .....................................................................................................................................45

G.3 Traction rails ..........................................................................................................................45

G.4 Pole mounted transforming and/or switching installations ....................................................45

G.5 Secondary circuits of instrument transformers ......................................................................46

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN 50522:2011
EN 50522:2010 – 4 –

Annex H (normative) Measuring touch voltages ...............................................................................47

Annex I (informative) Reduction factors related to earth wires of overhead lines and metal

sheaths of underground cables ...................................................................................................48

I.1 General ...................................................................................................................................48

I.2 Typical values of reduction factors of overhead lines and cables (50 Hz) ..............................48

Annex J (informative) Basis for the design of earthing systems .....................................................50

J.1 Soil resistivity ..........................................................................................................................50

J.2 Resistance to earth ................................................................................................................50

Annex K (informative) Installing the earth electrodes and earthing conductors ............................54

K.1 Installation of earth electrodes ...............................................................................................54

K.2 Installation of earthing conductors .........................................................................................54

Annex L (informative) Measurements for and on earthing systems ................................................56

L.1 Measurement of soil resistivities ............................................................................................56

L.2 Measurement of resistances to earth and impedances to earth ............................................56

L.3 Determination of the earth potential rise ................................................................................57

L.4 Elimination of interference and disturbance voltages for earthing measurements ................58

Annex M (normative) Details on site inspection and documentation of earthing systems ..........61

Annex N (informative) The use of reinforcing bars in concrete for earthing purpose ...................62

Annex O (informative) Global Earthing System .................................................................................63

Annex P (normative) Special national conditions .............................................................................64

Annex Q (informative) A-deviations ....................................................................................................65

Figure 1 - Example for the surface potential profile and for the voltages in case of current carrying

earth electrodes ......................................................................................................................................14

Figure 2 - Example for currents, voltages and resistances for an earth fault in a transformer

substation with low impedance neutral earthing .....................................................................................15

Figure 3 - Essential components of earth fault currents in high voltage systems ..................................17

Figure 4 - Permissible touch voltage ......................................................................................................25

Figure 5 - Design of earthing systems, if not part of a global earthing system (C1 of 5.4.2 ), with

regard to permissible touch voltage U by checking the earth potential rise U or the touch voltage

Tp E

U .........................................................................................................................................................26

Figure B.1 - Scheme of the touching circuit ............................................................................................34

Figure B.2 - Examples for curves U = f (t ) for different additional resistances R = R + R ...........35

vTp f F F1 F2

Figure D.1 - Short circuit current density G for earthing conductors and earth electrodes relative to

the duration of the fault current t ...........................................................................................................38

Figure D.2 - Continuous current I for earthing conductors ....................................................................40

Figure J.1 - Resistance to earth of horizontal earth electrodes (made from strip, round material or

stranded conductor) for straight or ring arrangement in homogeneous soil ...........................................51

Figure J.2 - Resistance to earth of earth rods, vertically buried in homogeneous soil ...........................52

Figure J.3 - Typical values for the resistance to earth of a cable with earth electrode effect

depending on the length of the cable and the soil resistivity...................................................................53

Figure L.1 - Example for the determination of the impedance to earth by the heavy-current

injection method......................................................................................................................................60

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN 50522:2011
– 5 – EN 50522:2010

Table 1 - Relevant currents for the design of earthing systems .............................................................22

Table 2 - Minimum requirements for interconnection of low voltage and high voltage earthing

systems based on EPR limits .................................................................................................................28

Table B.1 - Permissible body current I depending on the fault duration t .............................................32

B f

Table B.2 - Total human body impedance Z related to the touch voltage U for a current path

B T

hand to hand ...........................................................................................................................................32

Table B.3 - Calculated values of the permissible touch voltage U as a function of the fault

duration t ................................................................................................................................................33

Table B.4 - Assumption for calculations with additional resistances ......................................................33

Table D.1 - Material constants ................................................................................................................37

Table D.2 - Factors for conversion of continuous current from 300 °C final temperature to another

final temperature .....................................................................................................................................38

Table E.1 - Conditions for the use of recognized specified measures M to ensure permissible

touch voltages U (see Figure 4) ...........................................................................................................41

Table J.1 - Soil resistivities for frequencies of alternating currents (Range of values, which were

frequently measured) ..............................................................................................................................50

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 50522:2011
EN 50522:2010 – 6 –
1 Scope

This European Standard is applicable to specify the requirements for the design and erection of earthing

systems of electrical installations, in systems with nominal voltage above 1 kV a.c. and nominal frequency

up to and including 60 Hz, so as to provide safety and proper functioning for the use intended.

For the purpose of interpreting this standard, an electrical power installation is considered to be one of the

following:
a) substation, including substation for railway power supply;
b) electrical installations on mast, pole and tower;

switchgear and/or transformers located outside a closed electrical operating area;

c) one (or more) power station(s) located on a single site;

the installation includes generators and transformers with all associated switchgear and all electrical

auxiliary systems. Connections between generating stations located on different sites are excluded;

d) the electrical system of a factory, industrial plant or other industrial, agricultural, commercial or public

premises.

The electrical power installation includes, among others, the following equipment:

– rotating electrical machines;
– switchgear;
– transformers and reactors;
– converters;
– cables;
– wiring systems;
– batteries;
– capacitors;
– earthing systems;
– buildings and fences which are part of a closed electrical operating area;
– associated protection, control and auxiliary systems;
– large air core reactor.

NOTE In general, a standard for an item of equipment takes precedence over this standard.

This European Standard does not apply to the design and erection of earthing systems of any of the

following:
– overhead and underground lines between separate installations;
– electric railways;
– mining equipment and installations;
– fluorescent lamp installations;
– installations on ships and off-shore installations;

– electrostatic equipment (e.g. electrostatic precipitators, spray-painting units);

– test sites;
– medical equipment, e.g. medical X-ray equipment.

This European Standard does not apply to the requirements for carrying out live working on electrical

installations.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN 50522:2011
– 7 – EN 50522:2010
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.
EN 60529, Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code) (IEC 60529)
EN 60909, Short-circuit currents in three-phase a.c. systems (IEC 60909)

HD 60364-1, Low-voltage electrical installations – Part 1: Fundamental principles, assessment of general

characteristics, definitions (IEC 60364-1, modified)

HD 60364-4-41, Low-voltage electrical installations – Part 4-41: Protection for safety – Protection against

electric shock (IEC 60364-4-41, modified)

IEC 60050(151):2001, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) – Part 151: Electrical and magnetic

devices

IEC 60050(195):1998, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) – Part 195: Earthing and protection

against electric shock

IEC 60050(601):1985, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) – Part 601: Generation,

transmission and distribution of electricity – General

IEC 60050(602):1983, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) – Part 602: Generation,

transmission and distribution of electricity – Generation

IEC 60050(604):1987, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) – Part 604: Generation,

transmission and distribution of electricity – Operation

IEC 60050(605):1983, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) – Part 605: Generation,

transmission and distribution of electricity – Substations

IEC 60050(826):2004, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) – Part 826: Electrical installations

IEC 60287-3-1, Electric cables – Calculation of the current rating – Part 3-1: Sections on operating

conditions – Reference operating conditions and selection of cable type

IEC/TS 60479-1:2005, Effects of current on human beings and livestock – Part 1: General aspects

IEC 60949:1988, Calculation of thermally permissible short-circuit currents, taking into account non-

adiabatic heating effects

IEC/TS 61000-5-2, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 5: Installation and mitigation

guidelines – Section 2: Earthing and cabling
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN 50522:2011
EN 50522:2010 – 8 –
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1 General definitions
3.1.1
electrical equipment

item used for such purposes as generation, conversion, transmission, distribution or utilization of electric

energy, such as electric machines, transformers, switchgear and controlgear, measuring instruments,

protective devices, wiring systems, current-using equipment
[IEV 826-16-01]
3.1.2
rated value

value of a quantity used for specification purposes, established for a specified set of operating conditions

of a component, device, equipment, or system
[IEV 151-16-08]
3.1.3
high voltage
voltage exceeding 1 000 V a.c.
3.1.4
low voltage
voltage not exceeding 1 000 V a.c.
3.1.5
operation

all activities, including both electrical and non-electrical work activities, necessary to permit the power

installation to function
NOTE These activities include switching, controlling, monitoring and maintenance
3.2 Definitions concerning installations
3.2.1
closed electrical operating area

room or location for operation of electrical installations and equipment to which access is intended to be

restricted to skilled or instructed persons or to lay personnel under the supervision of skilled or instructed

persons, e.g. by opening of a door or removal of protective barrier only by the use of a key or tool, and

which is clearly marked by appropriate warning signs
3.2.2
substation

part of a power system, concentrated in a given place, including mainly the terminations of transmission or

distribution lines, switchgear and housing and which may also include transformers. It generally includes

facilities necessary for system security and control (e.g. the protective devices)

NOTE According to the nature of the system within which the substation is included, a prefix may qualify it.

EXAMPLES: transmission substation (of a transmission system), distribution substation, 400 kV substation, 20 kV substation.

[IEV 605-01-01]
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN 50522:2011
– 9 – EN 50522:2010
3.2.3
power station

installation whose purpose is to generate electricity and which includes civil engineering works, energy

conversion equipment and all the necessary ancillary equipment
[IEV 602-01-01]
3.2.4
installations of open design

installations where the equipment does not have protection against direct contact

3.2.5
installations of enclosed design
installations where the equipment has protection against direct contact
NOTE For degrees of enclosure protection see EN 60529.
3.3 Definitions concerning safety measures against electric shock
3.3.1
protection against direct contact

measures which prevent persons coming into hazardous proximity to live parts or those parts which could

carry a hazardous voltage, with parts of their bodies or objects (reaching the danger zone)

3.3.2
protection in case of indirect contact

protection of persons from hazards which could arise, in event of fault, from contact with exposed

conductive parts of electrical equipment or extraneous conductive parts
3.3.3
enclosure

part providing protection of equipment against certain external influences and, in any direction, protection

against direct contact
3.4 Definitions concerning earthing
3.4.1
(local) earth

part of the Earth which is in electric contact with an earth electrode and the electric potential of which is

not necessarily equal to zero

NOTE The conductive mass of the earth, whose electric potential at any point is conventionally taken as equal to zero.

[IEV 195-01-03, modified]
3.4.2
reference earth
(remote earth)

part of the Earth considered as conductive, the electric potential of which is conventionally taken as zero,

being outside the zone of influence of the relevant earthing arrangement
NOTE The concept “Earth” means the planet and all its physical matter.
[IEV 195-01-01, modified]
3.4.3
earth electrode

conductive part, which may be embedded in a specific conductive medium, e.g. in concrete or coke, in

electric contact with the Earth
[IEV 195-02-01]
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN 50522:2011
EN 50522:2010 – 10 –
3.4.4
earthing conductor

conductor which provides a conductive path, or part of the conductive path, between a given point in a

system or in an installation or in equipment and an earth electrode
[IEV 195-02-03]

NOTE Where the connection between part of the installation and the earth electrode is made via a disconnecting link,

disconnecting switch, surge arrester counter, surge arrester control gap etc., then only that part of the connection permanently

attached to the earth electrode is an earthing conductor.
3.4.5
protective bonding conductor
protective conductor for ensuring equipotential bonding
3.4.6
earthing system

arrangement of connections and devices necessary to earth equipment or a system separately or jointly

[IEV 604-04-02]
3.4.7
earth rod
earth electrode consisting of a metal rod driven into the ground
[IEV 604-04-09]
3.4.8
structural earth electrode

metal part, which is in conductive contact with the earth or with water directly or via concrete, whose

original purpose is not earthing, but which fulfils all requirements of an earth electrode without impairment

of the original purpose

NOTE Examples of structural earth electrodes are pipelines, sheet piling, concrete reinforcement bars in foundations and the

steel structure of buildings, etc.
3.4.9
electric resistivity of soil, 
resistivity of a typical sample of soil
3.4.10
resistance to earth, R
real part of the impedance to earth
3.4.11
impedance to earth, Z

impedance at a given frequency between a specified point in a system or in an installation or in equipment

and reference earth

NOTE The impedance to earth is determined by the directly connected earth electrodes and also by connected overhead earth

wires and wires buried in earth of overhead lines, by connected cables with earth electrode effect and by other earthing systems

which are conductively connected to the relevant earthing system by conductive cable sheaths, shields, PEN conductors or in

another way.
3.4.12
earth potential rise (EPR), U
voltage between an earthing system and reference earth
3.4.13
potential
voltage between an observation point and reference earth
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN 50522:2011
– 11 – EN 50522:2010
3.4.14
(effective) touch voltage, U
voltage between conductive parts when touched simultaneously

NOTE The value of the effective touch voltage may be appreciably influenced by the impedance of the person in electric contact

with these conductive parts.
[IEV 195-05-11, modified]
3.4.15
prospective touch voltage, U

voltage between simultaneously accessible conductive parts when those conductive parts are not being

touched
[IEV 195-05-09, modified]
3.4.16
step voltage, U

voltage between two points on the earth’s surface that are 1 m distant from each other, which is

considered to be the stride length of a person
[IEV 195-05-12]
3.4.17
transferred potential

potential rise of an earthing system caused by a current to earth transferred by means of a

connected conductor (for example a metallic cable sheath, PEN conductor, pipeline, rail) into areas

with low or no potential rise relative to reference earth resulting in a potential difference occurring

between the conductor and its surroundings (Figure 1).

NOTE The definition also applies where a conductor, which is connected to reference earth, leads into the area of the potential

rise.
3.4.18
stress voltage

voltage appearing during earth fault conditions between an earthed part or enclosure of equipment or

device and any other of its parts and which could affect its normal operation or safety

3.4.19
global earthing system

equivalent earthing system created by the interconnection of local earthing systems that ensures, by the

proximity of the earthing systems, that there are no dangerous touch voltages

NOTE 1 Such systems permit the division of the earth fault current in a way that results in a reduction of the earth potential rise at

the local earthing system. Such a system could be said to form a q
...

SLOVENSKI SIST EN 50522
STANDARD
januar 2011
Ozemljitev elektroenergetskih postrojev, ki presegajo 1 kV izmenične
napetosti
Earthing of power installations exceeding 1 kV a.c.

Prises de terre des installations électriques en courant alternatif de puissance

supérieureŕ 1 kV
Erdung von Starkstromanlagen mit Nennwechselspannungen über 1 kV
Referenčna oznaka
ICS 29.240.01 SIST EN 50522:2011 (sl)
Nadaljevanje na straneh II in III ter od 1 do 64

© 2015-04. Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 50522 : 2011
NACIONALNI UVOD

Standard SIST EN 50522 (sl), Ozemljitev elektroenergetskih postrojev, ki presegajo 1 kV izmenične

napetosti, 2011, ima status slovenskega standarda in je istoveten evropskemu standardu EN 50522

(en), Earthing of power installations exceeding 1 kV a.c., 2010.
NACIONALNI PREDGOVOR

Evropski standard EN 50522:2010 je pripravil tehnični odbor CLC/TC 99X Elektroenergetski postroji,

ki presegajo 1 kV a. c. (1,5 kV d.c.).

Slovenski standard SIST EN 50522:2011 je prevod evropskega standarda EN 50522:2010. V primeru

spora glede besedila slovenskega prevoda v tem standardu je odločilen izvirni evropski standard v

angleškem jeziku. Slovensko izdajo standarda je potrdil Strokovni svet za področja elektrotehnike,

informacijske tehnologije in telekomunikacij.

Odločitev za privzem tega standarda je v novembru 2010 sprejel Strokovni svet SIST za področja

elektrotehnike, informacijske tehnologije in telekomunikacij.
ZVEZA Z NACIONALNIMI STANDARDI

S privzemom tega evropskega standarda veljajo za omejeni namen referenčnih standardov vsi

standardi, navedeni v izvirniku, razen standarda, ki je že sprejet v nacionalno standardizacijo:

SIST EN 60529 Stopnja zaščite, ki jo zagotavlja ohišje (koda IP) (IEC 60529:1989)

SIST EN 60909 Kratkostični toki v trifaznih izmeničnih sistemih

SIST HD 60364-1 Nizkonapetostne električne inštalacije – 1. del: Temeljna načela,

ocena splošnih karakteristik, definicije (IEC 60364-1:2005,
spremenjen)

SIST HD 60364-4-41 Nizkonapetostne električne inštalacije – 4-41. del: Zaščitni ukrepi –

Zaščita pred električnim udarom (IEC 60364-4-41:2005, spremenjen)

SIST IEC 60050-151:2006 Mednarodni elektrotehniški slovar – Poglavje 151: Električne in magnetne

naprave

SIST IEC 60050-195:2001 Mednarodni elektrotehniški slovar – Poglavje 195: Ozemljitev in zaščita

pred električnim udarom (in pri njem)

SIST IEC 60050(602):1999 Mednarodni elektrotehniški slovar – Poglavje 602: Proizvodnja, prenos in

razdeljevanje električne energije – Proizvodnja

SIST IEC 60050-604:1997 Mednarodni elektrotehniški slovar – Poglavje 604: Proizvodnja, prenos in

razdeljevanje električne energije – Obratovanje

SIST IEC 60050(605):1999 Mednarodni elektrotehniški slovar – Poglavje 605: Proizvodnja, prenos in

razdeljevanje električne energije – Postaje

SIST IEC 60050-826:2006 Mednarodni elektrotehniški slovar – 826. del: Električne inštalacije

SIST-TS IEC/TS 60479-1:2006 Vplivi električnega toka na človeka in živali – 1. del: Splošno

SIST IEC/TR 61000-5-2:1998 Elektromagnetna združljivost (EMC) – 5. del: Smernice za namestitev in

ublažitev – 2. razdelek: Ozemljevanje in kabljenje
OSNOVA ZA IZDAJO STANDARDA
– privzem standarda EN 50522:2010
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SIST EN 50522 : 2011
PREDHODNA IZDAJA
– SIST HD 637 S1:1999, Elektroenergetske naprave nad 1 kV izmenične napetosti
OPOMBE

– Povsod, kjer se v besedilu standarda uporablja izraz “evropski standard”, v SIST EN 50522:2011

to pomeni “slovenski standard”.
– Nacionalni uvod in nacionalni predgovor nista sestavni del standarda.

– Ta nacionalni dokument je istoveten EN 50522:2010 in je objavljen z dovoljenjem

CEN/CENELEC
Upravni center
Avenue Marnix 17
B-1000 Bruselj

This national document is identical with EN 50522:2010 and is published with the permission of

CEN /CENELEC
Management Centre
Avenue Marnix 17
B -1000 Brussels
III
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SIST EN 50522 : 2011

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EVROPSKI STANDARD EN 50522
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM november 2010
ICS 29.120.50 Nadomešča HD 637 S1:1999 (delno)
Slovenska izdaja
Ozemljitev elektroenergetskih postrojev, ki presegajo 1 kV izmenične napetosti

Earthing of power installations Prises de terre des installations Erdung von Starkstromanlagen mit

exceeding 1 kV a.c. électriques en courant alternatif de Nennwechselspannungen uber 1 kV

puissance supérieureŕ 1 kV

Ta evropski standard je CENELEC sprejel 1. novembra 2010. Člani CENELEC morajo izpolnjevati

notranje predpise CEN/CENELEC, ki določajo pogoje, pod katerimi dobi ta standard status

nacionalnega standarda brez kakršnih koli sprememb.

Najnovejši seznami teh nacionalnih standardov in njihovi bibliografski podatki se na zahtevo lahko

dobijo pri Centralnem sekretariatu ali katerem koli članu CENELEC.

Ta evropski standard obstaja v treh uradnih izdajah (angleški, francoski in nemški). Izdaje v drugih

jezikih, ki jih člani CENELEC na lastno odgovornost prevedejo in izdajo ter prijavijo pri Centralnem

sekretariatu, veljajo kot uradne izdaje.

Člani CENELEC so nacionalni organi za standarde Avstrije, Belgije, Bolgarije, Cipra, Češke republike,

Danske, Estonije, Finske, Francije, Grčije, Hrvaške, Islandije, Irske, Italije, Latvije, Litve,

Luksemburga, Madžarske, Malte, Nemčije, Nizozemske, Norveške, Poljske, Portugalske, Romunije,

Slovaške, Slovenije, Španije, Švedske, Švice in Združenega kraljestva.
CENELEC
Evropski komite za standardizacijo v elektrotehniki
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
Upravni center: Avenue Marnix 17, B - 1000 Bruselj

© 2010 CENELEC Lastnice avtorskih pravic so vse države članice CENELEC Ref. oznaka EN 50522:2010 E

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN 50522 : 2011
Predgovor

Ta evropski standard je pripravil tehnični odbor CENELEC/TC 99X Elektroenergetski postroji, ki

presegajo 1 kV izmenične napetosti (1,5 kV enosmerne napetosti). Standard je bil predložen v

formalno glasovanje in ga je CENELEC sprejel 1. novembra 2010 kot EN 50522.
Ta dokument skupaj z EN 61936-1:2010 nadomešča HD 637 S1:1999.

Opozoriti je treba na možnost, da bi lahko bil kateri od elementov tega mednarodnega standarda

predmet patentnih pravic. CEN in CENELEC ne odgovarjata za identifikacijo nobene od teh patentnih

pravic.
Določena sta bila naslednja datuma:
– zadnji datum, do katerega mora EN dobiti status
nacionalnega standarda bodisi z objavo istovetnega
besedila ali z razglasitvijo (dop) 2011-11-01
– zadnji datum, ko je treba razveljaviti nacionalne
standarde, ki so z EN v nasprotju (dow) 2013-11-01
OPOMBA: Besedilo, ki je enako z IEC 61936-1, je zapisano poševno.
__________
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SIST EN 50522 : 2011
VSEBINA Stran

Predgovor ................................................................................................................................................. 2

1 Področje uporabe ................................................................................................................................. 6

2 Zveze s standardi ................................................................................................................................. 7

3 Izrazi in definicije .................................................................................................................................. 7

3.1 Splošne definicije .............................................................................................................................. 7

3.2 Definicije v zvezi s postroji ................................................................................................................ 8

3.3 Definicije v zvezi z varnostnimi ukrepi proti električnemu udaru....................................................... 9

3.4 Definicije v zvezi z ozemljitvijo .......................................................................................................... 9

4 Osnovne zahteve ............................................................................................................................... 18

4.1 Splošne zahteve .............................................................................................................................. 18

4.2 Električne zahteve ........................................................................................................................... 18

4.3 Varnostna merila ............................................................................................................................. 19

4.4 Funkcionalne zahteve ..................................................................................................................... 20

5 Načrtovanje ozemljitvenih sistemov ................................................................................................... 20

5.1 Splošno .......................................................................................................................................... 20

5.2 Dimenzioniranje glede na korozijo in mehansko trdnost ............................................................... 20

5.3 Dimenzioniranje glede na toplotno obremenitev ............................................................................ 21

5.4 Dimenzioniranje glede na napetosti dotika ..................................................................................... 22

6 Ukrepi za preprečitev prenosa potenciala .......................................................................................... 27

6.1 Preneseni potencial z visokonapetostnega omrežja na nizkonapetostno omrežje ........................ 27

6.2 Preneseni potenciali v telekomunikacijske in druge sisteme .......................................................... 28

7 Gradnja ozemljitvenih sistemov ......................................................................................................... 29

7.1 Namestitev ozemljil in ozemljitvenih vodnikov ................................................................................ 29

7.2 Strela in prehodni pojavi.................................................................................................................. 29

7.3 Ukrepi za ozemljitev na opremi in napravah .................................................................................. 30

8 Meritve................................................................................................................................................ 30

9 Vzdrževalnost ..................................................................................................................................... 30

9.1 Pregledi ........................................................................................................................................... 30

9.2 Meritve ............................................................................................................................................ 30

Dodatek A (normativni): Metoda izračuna dopustnih napetosti dotika .................................................. 31

Dodatek B (normativni): Napetost dotika in tok skozi telo ..................................................................... 32

B.1 Izračun dopustne napetosti dotika .................................................................................................. 32

B.2 Izračun pričakovane dopustne napetosti dotika ............................................................................. 33

Dodatek C (normativni): Vrste materialov in najmanjše mere ozemljil, ki zagotavljajo mehansko

trdnost in korozijsko odpornost ......................................................................................................... 36

Dodatek D (normativni): Izračun tokovne obremenljivosti ozemljitvenih vodnikov in ozemljil ............... 37

Dodatek E (normativni): Opis priznanih posebnih ukrepov M ................................................................ 41

Dodatek F (normativni): Ukrepi na ozemljitvenih sistemih za zmanjšanje vplivov

visokofrekvenčnega motenja ............................................................................................................... 43

Dodatek G (normativni): Posebni ukrepi za ozemljitev opreme in postrojev ......................................... 44

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SIST EN 50522 : 2011

G.1 Ograje okrog postrojev postaje ...................................................................................................... 44

G.2 Cevovodi ........................................................................................................................................ 44

G.3 Tračnice .......................................................................................................................................... 44

G.4 Jamborski transformatorski in/ali stikalni postroji ........................................................................... 44

G.5 Sekundarni tokokrogi instrumentnih transformatorjev .................................................................... 45

Dodatek H (normativni): Meritve napetosti dotika .................................................................................. 46

Dodatek I (informativni): Redukcijski faktorji zaščitnih vrvi nadzemnih vodov in kovinskih

zaslonov podzemnih kablov ................................................................................................................ 47

I.1 Splošno ............................................................................................................................................ 47

I.2 Tipične vrednosti redukcijskih faktorjev za nadzemne vode in kable (50 Hz) ................................. 47

Dodatek J (informativni): Osnove za načrtovanje ozemljitvenih sistemov. ............................................ 49

J.1 Upornost zemlje .............................................................................................................................. 49

J.2 Upornost proti zemlji ....................................................................................................................... 49

Dodatek K (informativni): Vgradnja ozemljil in ozemljitvenih vodnikov .................................................. 53

K.1 Vgradnja ozemljil ............................................................................................................................ 53

K.2 Vgradnja ozemljitvenih vodnikov .................................................................................................... 53

Dodatek L (informativni): Meritve za ozemljitvene sisteme in na njih .................................................... 55

L.1 Meritve upornosti zemlje ................................................................................................................. 55

L.2 Meritev upornosti proti zemlji in impedanc proti zemlji ................................................................... 55

L.3 Določitev dviga ozemljitvenega potenciala ..................................................................................... 56

L.4 Odpravljanje motenja in motilnih napetosti pri meritvah ozemljitve ................................................ 57

Dodatek M (normativni): Podrobnosti o gradbenem nadzoru in dokumentaciji

ozemljitvenih sistemov ......................................................................................................................... 59

Dodatek N (informativni): Uporaba armaturnega jekla v betonu v ozemljitvene namene ..................... 60

Dodatek O (informativni): Globalni ozemljitveni sistem ......................................................................... 61

Dodatek P (normativni): Posebni nacionalni pogoji ............................................................................... 62

Dodatek Q (informativni): A-deviacije .................................................................................................... 63

Slika 1: Primer poteka potenciala na površini zemlje in napetosti, kadar skozi ozemljilo teče tok ........ 14

Slika 2: Primer tokov, napetosti in upornosti pri zemeljskem stiku v transformatorski postaji

z nizkoimpedančno ozemljitvijo nevtralne točke ............................................................................... 15

Slika 3: Bistvene komponente tokov zemeljskega stika v visokonapetostnih omrežjih ......................... 17

Slika 4: Dopustna napetost dotika ......................................................................................................... 25

Slika 5: Načrtovanje ozemljitvenih sistemov, če niso del globalnega ozemljitvenega sistema

(5.4.2, C1), glede na dopustno napetost dotika U s preverjanjem dviga ozemljitvenega

potenciala U ali napetosti dotika U . ................................................................................................ 26

E T

Slika B.1: Nadomestna shema za dotikalni tokokrog ............................................................................ 34

Slika B.2: Primeri krivulj UvTp= f (tf) pri različnih dodatnih upornostih RF = RF1 + RF2 .............................. 35

Slika D.1: Gostota kratkostičnega toka G za ozemljitvene vodnike in ozemljila glede na trajanje

toka okvare tf ..................................................................................................................................... 38

Slika D.2: Trajni tok I za ozemljitvene vodnike ..................................................................................... 40

Slika J.1: Upornost proti zemlji vodoravnih ozemljil (iz traku, okroglega materiala ali vrvi)

pri ravnem polaganju ali krožno v homogeni zemljini .......................................................................... 50

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SIST EN 50522 : 2011

Slika J.2: Upornost proti zemlji paličnih ozemljil, navpično zakopanih v homogeno zemljino ............... 51

Slika J.3: Tipične vrednosti za upornost proti zemlji kabla z ozemljitvenim učinkom v odvisnosti

od dolžine kabla in upornosti zemlje ................................................................................................... 52

Slika L.1: Primer ugotavljanja impedance proti zemlji po tokovno-napetostni metodi ........................... 58

Preglednica 1: Toki, ki se upoštevajo za načrtovanje ozemljitvenih sistemov ....................................... 22

Preglednica 2: Minimalne zahteve za medsebojno povezavo nizko- in visokonapetostnega

ozemljitvenega sistema na podlagi omejitve dviga ozemljitvenega potenciala (EPR) ..................... 28

Preglednica B.1: Dopustni tok skozi telo IB v odvisnosti od trajanja okvare tf ....................................... 32

Preglednica B.2: Skupna impedanca človeškega telesa Z v odvisnosti od napetosti dotika U

T T

za pot toka od roke do roke .............................................................................................................. 33

Preglednica B.3: Izračunane vrednosti dopustne napetosti dotika U v odvisnosti

od trajanja okvare tf ........................................................................................................................... 33

Preglednica B.4: Predpostavke za računanje z dodatnimi upornostmi ................................................. 33

Preglednica D.1: Konstante materialov .................................................................................................. 37

Preglednica D.2: Faktorji za pretvorbo trajnega toka s končne temperature 300 ºC

na drugo končno temperaturo ........................................................................................................... 38

Preglednica E.1: Pogoji za uporabo priznanih posebnih ukrepov M za zagotovitev dopustnih

napetosti dotika UTp (glej sliko 4) ...................................................................................................... 41

Preglednica J.1: Upornosti zemlje za frekvence izmeničnih tokov (območje pogosto izmerjenih

vrednosti) .......................................................................................................................................... 49

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SIST EN 50522 : 2011
1 Področje uporabe

Ta evropski standard se uporablja pri določanju zahtev za načrtovanje in gradnjo ozemljitvenih

sistemov elektroenergetskih postrojev v omrežjih z nazivno napetostjo nad 1 kV izmenično in nazivno

frekvenco z vključno 60 Hz, da bi bilo zagotovljeno varno in primerno delovanje pri predvideni uporabi.

Za tolmačenje tega standarda se šteje, da je elektroenergetski postroj eden od naslednjih:

a) transformatorska postaja, vključno z železniškimi napajalnimi postajami,

b) električni postroj na stebru, drogu in stolpu; stikalna oprema in/ali transformatorji, postavljeni

zunaj zaprtega električnega obratovališča,

c) ena elektrarna (ali več elektrarn), postavljena(-e) na enem mestu; postroj vključuje generatorje in

transformatorje z vsemi pripadajočimi stikalnimi napravami in vsemi električnimi pomožnimi

sistemi. Povezave med postroji za proizvodnjo električne energije na različnih mestih so

izključene,

d) električno omrežje tovarne, industrijskega obrata ali drugih industrijskih, kmetijskih, obrtnih ali

javnih prostorov.
Elektroenergetski postroj vključuje, med drugim, naslednjo opremo:
– električne rotacijske stroje,
– stikalno opremo,
– transformatorje in dušilke,
– pretvornike,
– kable,
– sisteme ožičenja,
– baterije,
– kondenzatorje,
– ozemljitvene sisteme,
– stavbe in ograje, ki so del zaprtega električnega obratovališča,
– pripadajoče zaščitne, krmilne in pomožne sisteme,
– velike dušilke z zračnim jedrom.

OPOMBA: Na splošno ima standard za posamezno opremo prednost pred tem standardom.

Ta evropski standard se ne uporablja za načrtovanje in gradnjo ozemljitvenih sistemov za nobenega

od naslednjih:
– nadzemne in podzemne vode med krajevno ločenimi postroji,
– električne železnice,
– rudniško opremo in naprave,
– naprave s fluorescenčnimi sijalkami,
– naprave na ladjah in naprave na morju,

– elektrostatično opremo (npr. elektrostatične filtre, enote za lakiranje z brizganjem),

– preskuševališča,
– medicinsko opremo, npr. medicinsko rentgensko opremo.

Ta evropski standard se ne uporablja za zahteve za izvajanje montažnih del na električnih postrojih

pod napetostjo.
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SIST EN 50522 : 2011
2 Zveze s standardi

Spodaj navedeni standardi so nujno potrebni pri uporabi tega dokumenta. Pri datiranem sklicevanju

se upoštevajo samo navedene izdaje. Pri nedatiranem sklicevanju se upoštevajo zadnje izdaje

navedenih dokumentov (vključno s popravki in dopolnili).
EN 60529 Stopnje zaščite, ki jo zagotavlja ohišje (koda IP) (IEC 60529)
EN 60909 Kratkostični toki v trifaznih izmeničnih sistemih (IEC 60909)

HD 60364-1 Nizkonapetostne električne inštalacije – 1. del: Temeljna načela, ocena

splošnih karakteristik, definicije (IEC 60364-1:2005, spremenjen)

HD 60364-4-41 Nizkonapetostne električne inštalacije – 4-41. del: Zaščitni ukrepi – Zaščita

pred električnim udarom (IEC 60364-4-41:2005, spremenjen))

IEC 60050(151):2001 Mednarodni elektrotehniški slovar – Poglavje 151: Električne in magnetne

naprave

IEC 60050(195):1998 Mednarodni elektrotehniški slovar – Poglavje 195: Ozemljitev in zaščita pred

električnim udarom (in pri njem)

IEC 60050(601):1985 Mednarodni elektrotehniški slovar – Poglavje 601: Proizvodnja, prenos in

razdeljevanje elektrike – Splošno

IEC 60050(602):1983 Mednarodni elektrotehniški slovar – Poglavje 602: Proizvodnja, prenos in

razdeljevanje elektrike – Proizvodnja

IEC 60050(604):1987 Mednarodni elektrotehniški slovar – Poglavje 604: Proizvodnja, prenos in

razdeljevanje elektrike – Obratovanje

IEC 60050(605):1983 Mednarodni elektrotehniški slovar – Poglavje 605: Proizvodnja, prenos in

razdeljevanje elektrike – Postaje

IEC 60050(826):2004 Mednarodni elektrotehniški slovar – 826. del: Električne inštalacije

IEC 60287-3-1 Električni kabli – Izračun tokovne obremenljivosti – 3-1. del: Sekcije za

obratovalne pogoje – Referenčni obratovalni pogoji in izbira tipa kabla

IEC/TS 60479-1:2005 Vplivi električnega toka na človeka in živali – 1. del: Splošno

IEC 60949:1988 Izračun toplotno dopustnega kratkostičnega toka, upoštevaje neadiabatno

segrevanje

IEC/TS 61000-5-2 Elektromagnetna združljivost (EMC) – 5. del: Smernice za namestitev in

ublažitev – 2. razdelek: Ozemljevanje in kabljenje
3 Izrazi in definicije
V tem dokumentu se uporabljajo naslednji izrazi in definicije.
3.1 Splošne definicije
3.1.1
električna oprema

predmet, ki se uporablja za proizvodnjo, pretvarjanje, prenos, razdeljevanje ali uporabo električne

energije, kot so (električni) stroji, transformatorji, stikalne in krmilne naprave, merilni instrumenti, zaščitne

naprave, oprema za inštalacijski sistem in električni porabniki
[IEV 826-16-01]
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SIST EN 50522 : 2011
3.1.2
naznačena vrednost

vrednost veličine, ki se uporablja za navajanje specifikacij in ustreza določenemu naboru obratovalnih

pogojev za sestavni del, napravo, opremo ali sistem
[IEV 151-16-08]
3.13
visoka napetost
izmenična napetost, ki presega 1 000 V
3.1.4
nizka napetost
izmenična napetost, ki ne presega 1 000 V
3.1.5
obratovanje

vse dejavnosti, vključno z električnimi in tudi neelektričnimi, ki so potrebne za funkcioniranje

elektroenergetskega postroja

OPOMBA: Te dejavnosti vključujejo preklapljanje, krmiljenje, spremljanje in vzdrževanje.

3.2 Definicije v zvezi s postroji
3.2.1
zaprto električno obratovališče

prostor ali lokacija za obratovanje električnih postrojev in opreme, do katere je dostop omejen in

dovoljen samo strokovnim ali poučenim osebam ali osebam pod nadzorom strokovnih ali poučenih

oseb, npr. z odprtjem vrat ali z odstranitvijo zaščitne pregrade samo z uporabo ključa ali ustreznega

orodja, in ki je jasno označena z ustreznimi opozorilnimi znaki
3.2.2
postaja

del električnega omrežja, ki zaseda določen prostor in vsebuje v glavnem priključke prenosnih ali

distribucijskih vodov, stikalne aparate in ohišja, ki lahko vsebujejo transformatorje. Na splošno vsebuje

postrojenja za varnost in vodenje omrežja (npr. zaščitne naprave)

OPOMBA: Predpona lahko določa transformatorsko postajo glede na vrsto omrežja, v katero je vključena.

PRIMER: Prenosna postaja (prenosnega omrežja), razdelilna (distribucijska) postaja, 400 kV postaja, 20 kV postaja.

[IEV 605-01-01]
3.2.3
elektrarna

postroj za proizvodnjo elektrike, ki obsega gradbene objekte, opremo za pretvarjanje energije in vso

potrebno pomožno opremo
[IEV 602-01-01]
3.2.4
postroji odprte izvedbe
postroji, kjer oprema ni zaščitena pred neposrednim dotikom
3.2.5
postroji zaprte izvedbe
postroji, kjer je oprema zaščitena pred neposrednim dotikom
OPOMBA: Za stopnje zaščite ohišij glej EN 60529.
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SIST EN 50522 : 2011
3.3 Definicije v zvezi z varnostnimi ukrepi proti električnemu udaru
3.3.1
zaščita pred neposrednim dotikom

ukrepi, ki preprečujejo osebam, da bi z deli svojih teles ali predmetov prišle v nevarno bližino delov

pod napetostjo ali tistih delov, ki bi lahko bili pod nevarno napetostjo (doseganje nevarnega območja)

3.3.2
zaščita pri posrednem dotiku

zaščita oseb pred nevarnostjo, ki lahko nastane ob okvari zaradi stika z izpostavljenimi prevodnimi

deli električne opreme ali tujimi prevodnimi deli
3.3.3
ohišje

del, ki zagotavlja zaščito opreme pred določenimi zunanjimi vplivi in v vseh smereh zaščito pred

neposrednim dotikom
3.4 Definicije v zvezi z ozemljitvijo
3.4.1
(okolna) zemlja

del Zemlje, ki je v električnem stiku z ozemljilom in katerega električni potencial ni nujno enak nič

OPOMBA: Prevodna masa zemlje, za katero se električni potencial v kateri koli točki dogovorno šteje, da je enak nič.

[IEV 195-01-03, spremenjeno]
3.4.2
referenčna zemlja
(oddaljena zemlja)

del Zemlje, ki se obravnava kot prevoden, katerega električni potencial je po dogovoru nič in je zunaj

vplivnega območja drugih ozemljitvenih naprav
OPOMBA: Pojem Zemlja pomeni planet in vse njegove fizikalne zadeve.
[IEV 195-01-01, spremenjeno]
3.4.3
ozemljilo

prevodni del, ki je lahko zakopan v poseben prevodni medij, npr. beton ali zemljino, in je v električnem

stiku z Zemljo
[IEV 195-02-01]
3.4.4
ozemljitveni vodnik

vodnik, ki zagotavlja prevodno pot ali del prevodne poti med dano točko v omrežju ali v inštalaciji ali v

opremi in ozemljilom
[IEV 195-02-03]

OPOMBA: Kjer je povezava med delom inštalacije in ozemljilom izvedena z ločljivo povezavo, ločilnom stikalom, števcem

odvedenih prenapetosti, iskrilom prenapetostnega odvodnika itd., je ozemljitveni vodnik samo tisti del

povezave, ki je trajno povezan z ozemljilom.
3.4.5
vodnik za zaščitno izenačitev potencialov
zaščitni vodnik, ki zagotavlja izenačitev potencialov
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SIST EN 50522 :
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