Railway applications - Measurement of vertical forces on wheels and wheelsets - Part 2: Test in workshop for new, modified and maintained vehicles

This European Standard applies to the measurement of vertical wheel forces of railway vehicles in maintenance workshops and at manufacturing sites. It also deals with derived quantities that are used to describe the vehicle’s vertical wheel force distribution.
The standard defines the assessment and acceptance criteria for the measurement process. The requirements for this assessment support the specification, the design and the operation of the measurement process. It is considered that the measurements are made either statically or quasi-statically. This standard is applicable to all railway vehicles.
The commercial weighing of vehicles is not covered by the scope of this standard, nor does it define in which cases the wheel forces of a vehicle will be measured.

Bahnanwendungen - Messung von vertikalen Rad- und Radsatzkräften - Teil 2: Test im Werk für neue, umgebaute und instandgesetzte Fahrzeuge

Diese Europäische Norm gilt für die Messung der Radaufstandskräfte von Schienenfahrzeugen in Instandsetzungswerkstätten und an Produktionsstätten. Sie behandelt außerdem abgeleitete Größen, die zur Beschreibung der Radaufstandskraftverteilung des Fahrzeugs verwendet werden.
Die Norm legt die Beurteilungs- und Zulassungskriterien für den Messprozess fest. Die Anforderungen für diese Beurteilung unterstützten die Spezifikation, die Auslegung und die Durchführung des Messprozesses. Es wird berücksichtigt, dass die Messungen entweder statisch oder quasi-statisch erfolgen. Diese Norm gilt für alle Schienenfahrzeuge.
Das kommerzielle Wiegen von Fahrzeugen fällt nicht in den Anwendungsbereich dieser Norm, in der auch nicht festlegt wird, in welchen Fällen die Radaufstandskräfte eines Fahrzeugs gemessen werden.

Applications ferroviaires - Mesurage des forces verticales à la roue et à l'essieu - Partie 2 : Essai en atelier des véhicules neufs, modifiés ou maintenus

La présente Norme européenne s'applique à la mesure des charges verticales aux roues des véhicules ferroviaires dans les ateliers de maintenance et sur les sites de fabrication. Elle aborde également les grandeurs dérivées utilisées pour décrire la répartition des charges verticales aux roues d’un véhicule.
Cette norme définit les critères d'évaluation et d'acceptation pour le processus de mesure. Les exigences d'évaluation portent sur la spécification, la conception et le fonctionnement du processus de mesure. On considère que les mesures sont réalisées de manière statique ou quasi statique. La présente norme s'applique à tous les véhicules ferroviaires.
Le poids en service commercial des véhicules n'est pas couvert par le domaine d'application de la présente Norme, laquelle ne définit pas non plus dans quels cas les charges aux roues d'un véhicule sont mesurées.

Železniške naprave - Meritve vertikalnih kolesnih in osnih obremenitev - 2. del: Preskus v delavnici za nova, spremenjena in vzdrževana vozila

Ta evropski standard se uporablja za merjenje vertikalnih kolesnih obremenitev železniških vozil v vzdrževalnih delavnicah in proizvodnih obratih. Obravnava tudi izpeljane količine, ki se uporabljajo za opis porazdelitve vertikalne obremenitve koles vozila.
Standard določa kriterije za ocenjevanje in sprejemljivost merilnega postopka. Zahteve za to oceno podpirajo specifikacijo, zasnovo in delovanje merilnega postopka. Meritve se opravljajo bodisi statično bodisi kvazistatično. Ta standard se uporablja za vsa železniška vozila.
Komercialno tehtanje vozil ne spada na področje uporabe tega standarda niti ne določa, v katerih primerih bodo merjene kolesne obremenitve vozila.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
21-Dec-2016
Publication Date
07-May-2019
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
18-Apr-2019
Due Date
23-Jun-2019
Completion Date
08-May-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 15654-2:2019
01-junij-2019
Železniške naprave - Meritve vertikalnih kolesnih in osnih obremenitev - 2. del:
Preskus v delavnici za nova, spremenjena in vzdrževana vozila

Railway applications - Measurement of vertical forces on wheels and wheelsets - Part 2:

Test in workshop for new, modified and maintained vehicles

Bahnanwendungen - Messung von vertikalen Rad- und Radsatzkräften - Teil 2: Test im

Werk für neue, umgebaute und instandgesetzte Fahrzeuge

Applications ferroviaires - Mesurage des forces verticales à la roue et à l'essieu - Partie 2

: Essai en atelier des véhicules neufs, modifiés ou maintenus
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 15654-2:2019
ICS:
45.060.01 Železniška vozila na splošno Railway rolling stock in
general
SIST EN 15654-2:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 15654-2:2019
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SIST EN 15654-2:2019
EN 15654-2
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
April 2019
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 45.060.01
English Version
Railway applications - Measurement of vertical forces on
wheels and wheelsets - Part 2: Test in workshop for new,
modified and maintained vehicles

Applications ferroviaires - Mesurage des forces Bahnanwendungen - Messung von vertikalen Rad- und

verticales à la roue et à l'essieu - Partie 2 : Essai en Radsatzkräften - Teil 2: Test im Werk für neue,

atelier des véhicules neufs, modifiés ou maintenus umgebaute und instandgesetzte Fahrzeuge

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 28 February 2019.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 15654-2:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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EN 15654-2:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 7

4 Measurement process ................................................................................................................................... 7

4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 7

4.2 Measurement equipment ............................................................................................................................. 8

4.2.1 Description of the measurement equipment ........................................................................................ 8

4.2.2 Measurement method ................................................................................................................................... 8

4.2.3 Measurement device ...................................................................................................................................... 9

4.3 Vehicle .............................................................................................................................................................. 13

4.3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 13

4.3.2 Description of the vehicle ......................................................................................................................... 13

4.3.3 Preparation of vehicle ................................................................................................................................ 14

4.4 Measurement procedure ........................................................................................................................... 15

4.4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 15

4.4.2 Number of wheels measured simultaneously ................................................................................... 15

4.4.3 Number of repeated measurements ..................................................................................................... 15

4.4.4 Handling between repeated measurements ...................................................................................... 15

4.4.5 Measuring direction / orientation of the vehicle ............................................................................. 15

4.4.6 Vehicle movement (propelling device, crane, coupling status) .................................................. 15

4.5 Environment .................................................................................................................................................. 16

4.6 Operator .......................................................................................................................................................... 16

4.7 Measurement report ................................................................................................................................... 16

4.7.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 16

4.7.2 Results to be reported ................................................................................................................................ 16

4.7.3 Other information to be reported .......................................................................................................... 17

5 Metrological confirmation ........................................................................................................................ 18

5.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 18

5.2 Specification of measurement process ................................................................................................. 18

5.3 Calibration ...................................................................................................................................................... 19

5.3.1 Static calibration of the force measurement unit ............................................................................. 19

5.3.2 Quasi-static calibration of forces ............................................................................................................ 20

5.4 Verification (Acceptance testing) ........................................................................................................... 20

5.4.1 Measurement of track ................................................................................................................................ 20

5.4.2 Acceptance criteria of force measuring unit (static) ....................................................................... 20

5.4.3 Acceptance testing for quasi-static (dynamic) measurement systems .................................... 21

5.5 Investigation on total uncertainty of measurement process ....................................................... 22

5.6 Periodic Verification ................................................................................................................................... 22

5.6.1 Specification of interval ............................................................................................................................. 22

5.6.2 Force measurement device(s) and location of contact point ....................................................... 22

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Annex A (normative) Symbols and units ........................................................................................................... 23

Annex B (informative) Influence Parameters / components of uncertainty ....................................... 26

B.1 Influence of transverse displacement ................................................................................................... 26

B.2 Influence of cant/cross level .................................................................................................................... 26

B.3 Influence of twist .......................................................................................................................................... 26

B.4 Influence of damping ................................................................................................................................... 29

B.5 Cross wind effects ......................................................................................................................................... 30

B.6 Influence of temperature ........................................................................................................................... 30

Annex C (informative) Investigation on uncertainty of measurement process .................................. 31

C.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 31

C.2 Test procedure .............................................................................................................................................. 31

C.3 Test results ...................................................................................................................................................... 41

Annex D (informative) Gauging procedure ...................................................................................................... 43

Annex E (informative) Additional quantities relating to the wheel load distribution ..................... 44

E.1 Examples for additional quantities ........................................................................................................ 44

E.2 Quantities for analysis of wheel load distributions ......................................................................... 45

Annex F (informative) Measurement report form ......................................................................................... 48

Annex G (informative) Migration rule for this European Standard ........................................................ 58

Annex ZA (informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential

Requirements of EU Directive 2008/57/EC aimed to be covered............................................... 59

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 61

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EN 15654-2:2019 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 15654-2:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 256 “Railway

applications”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2019, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by October 2019.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive 2008/57/EC.

For relationship with EU Directive 2008/57/EC, see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of

this document.

This document is the second part of a three-part standard collectively referred to as Railway

applications — Measurement of vertical forces on wheels and wheelsets and which covers:

— static and quasi-static wheel force measurements of new, modified or maintained rail vehicles in

workshops and

— the evaluation of derived quantities such as the vertical wheelset forces, axle loads and other

quantities that describe the vertical wheel force distribution of a vehicle.

Part 1: On-track measurement sites for vehicles in service deals with the measurement of wheel forces

and axle loads of in-service rail vehicles.

Part 3: Approval and verification of on-track measurement sites for vehicles in service (CEN/TR) is in

preparation and deals with the approval and verification of local measuring sites in-service.

A migration rule is specified in Annex G.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
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Introduction

There are many national and local procedures and methods for the measurement of wheel forces of

new, modified and maintained vehicles in use across Europe.

The existing multiplicity of different procedures and methods of calculating parameters can lead to

confusion in the interpretation of test data. By having a common set of defined assessment quantities

the possibility of confusion and misinterpretation is reduced.

To achieve comparable results for the same vehicle, when the wheel forces are measured at different

sites the uncertainty of the whole measurement process needs to be assessed.

The current situation leads in some cases to non-comparable results from different sites. The normative

requirements of this standard are based on current experience but these will not necessarily lead to

comparable results, being obtained, when a vehicle is measured on two or more different systems. In

order to improve this situation, methods are described in the informative part of this standard, to

assess the relevant uncertainties of the whole measuring process.
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EN 15654-2:2019 (E)
1 Scope

This document applies to the measurement of vertical wheel forces of railway vehicles in maintenance

workshops and at manufacturing sites. It also deals with derived quantities that are used to describe the

vehicle’s vertical wheel force distribution.

The document defines the assessment and acceptance criteria for the measurement process. The

requirements for this assessment support the specification, the design and the operation of the

measurement process. It is considered that the measurements are made either statically or quasi-

statically. This document is applicable to all railway vehicles.

The commercial weighing of vehicles is not covered by the scope of this document, nor does it define in

which cases the wheel forces of a vehicle will be measured.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 13848-1, Railway applications – Track - Track geometry quality – Part 1: Characterisation of track

geometry

EN 14363, Railway applications - Testing and Simulation for the acceptance of running characteristics of

railway vehicles - Running Behaviour and stationary tests
EN 15663, Railway applications - Vehicle reference masses

EN ISO 1101, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) - Geometrical tolerancing - Tolerances of form,

orientation, location and run-out (ISO 1101)

EN ISO 7500-1:2015, Metallic materials - Calibration and verification of static uniaxial testing machines -

Part 1: Tension/compression testing machines - Calibration and verification of the force-measuring system

(ISO 7500-1:2015)

EN ISO 10012, Measurement management systems - Requirements for measurement processes and

measuring equipment (ISO 10012)

ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007, International vocabulary of metrology - Basic and general concepts and

associated terms (VIM)
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EN 15654-2:2019 (E)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007 and those

listed below apply in this document.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
individual static (vertical) wheel force

static vertical part of the total wheel force at the reference point D of the wheel profile as specified in

EN 13715, when all the reference points of a vehicle are in a horizontal plane and with the vehicle at

rest

Note 1 to entry: Where the symbol Q is used, j is the axle number and k is the side of the vehicle on which

F0,jk
the wheel is located:
— k = R denotes the right-hand side in the coordinate system of the vehicle;
— k = L denotes the left-hand side in the coordinate system of the vehicle.

Note 2 to entry: For standard gauge applications the lateral distance between the reference points of a wheelset

is 1 500 mm. For other applications such as special wheel profiles or other gauges this definition should be

applied using the same principle.

Note 3 to entry: The static vertical wheel force is the result obtained by the measurement process described in

this standard.
3.2
single measurement

value representing the wheel force of one wheel from one measurement unit which forms a part of the

measurement device
3.3
measurement results
documented results

results for wheel forces and derived quantities evaluated in one regular measurement process for the

report
4 Measurement process
4.1 General

The measurement process is the set of operations, devices and procedures, performed on the vehicle to

evaluate its vertical wheel forces.

The measurement process and its influence parameters are illustrated in Figure 1.

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EN 15654-2:2019 (E)
Figure 1 — Measurement process of vertical wheel force
4.2 Measurement equipment
4.2.1 Description of the measurement equipment

The measurement equipment shall be described and documented in a manner that all users can

understand.
4.2.2 Measurement method
4.2.2.1 Static Measurements

Static measurements are made with the vehicle at rest and standing on the measurement devices.

Static measurements are performed:

— wheelset by wheelset (requiring for example one measurement section according to Figure 2),

— running gear by running gear (requiring for example one measurement section according to

Figure 2 for each wheelset of the running gear), or
— for the whole vehicle (by one device).
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4.2.2.2 Quasi Static (Dynamic) Measurements

Quasi-static measurements are made when the vehicle is moved along the measuring track. The aim is

to obtain from the vehicle running at low speed representative measurements which under ideal

conditions will be similar to those that can be obtained from the vehicle in the stationary condition.

A number of test runs shall be made at a slow and nearly constant speed (for example at up to

5 km/h ± 2 km/h on the measuring track).

To minimize dynamic effects on the uncertainty of the measurement, the speed shall be low and the

track quality good. The vertical movement of the vehicle body shall be negligible.

4.2.2.3 Measurements of vehicle under twist

Measurements with the vehicle under twist are taken with the vehicle located on a device that applies

twist.

Vertical wheel forces and the applied twist are measured continuously while the twist is being applied

to the running gear or to the vehicle both in a positive and in a negative direction with respect to a

horizontal reference plane. A full hysteresis loop shall be performed. The result of this measurement is

the mean value between the maximum and minimum force measured in the horizontal reference plane

(position without twist).

This method reduces the influence of hysteresis on measuring results. The type and the amplitude of

the applied twist (vehicle or bogie twist or both) shall be specified taking into account the

characteristics of the suspension system of the vehicle.

NOTE Results achieved by the application of vehicle and/or bogie test twist according to EN 14363 are

adequate.
4.2.3 Measurement device

4.2.3.1 Force measurement device (load cells, strain gauges, shear-force sensors, etc.)

The force measurement device converts the mechanical force into a proportional signal that is then

processed and transferred to an output device. The measurement device consists of a structure that

supports the wheelset, the measuring sensors, the processing instrumentation and a displaying device.

A force measurement device may consist of different sections that are located at different points along

the track. Each section consists usually of two units. Each unit provides one single measurement

(see Figure 2). Each unit usually contains one or more load cells, strain gauges or shear-force sensors.

Measurement devices shall be manufactured and tested according to generally accepted standards.

NOTE Information about the use of strain gauge installations is given in Annex D.

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Key
1 measurement device
2 measurement section including units A and B
3 measurement section including units C and D
4 displaying device

Figure 2 — Example for measurement device consisting of two measurement sections (four

units)
4.2.3.2 Location of contact points (Running surface, flange top, axle boxes)

The contact points between the vehicle wheels and the measurement devices are usually on the wheel

tread profiles at/or near to the reference points shown in Figure 3.

Other contact points on the wheel flange or on the axle box can be used. In these cases, Q (the vertical

wheel forces at the reference points) shall be calculated from the measured values taking into account

the difference between the location of the contact point and the reference point.

Key
1 vertical wheel force Q
2 reference point D

3 possible locations of contact point (running surface, flange, axle box) for measurement device

Figure 3 — Reference points and typical contact point areas on a wheelset
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4.2.3.3 Alignment of contact points / Track characteristics definition

The following geometric characteristics are specified with the intention of ensuring that the contact

points of the wheel treads of the vehicle are in a horizontal plane.

The whole section of a track where contact points of the wheelsets of a measured vehicle are positioned

during the measurement procedure shall be nominally plane, straight and untwisted.

For the geometry of the measurement device (usually the track) the following tolerance requirements

shall be applied:

1) the flatness tolerance (see EN ISO 1101) of the rail tops (on running surface, see EN 13848-1) at the

possible positions of the wheelsets along the track inside a measured running gear shall not exceed

1 mm;

2) the algebraic difference in the cross levels (see EN 13848-1) at the positions of any two wheelsets

of a running gear shall not exceed 1 mm;

3) the flatness tolerance (see EN ISO 1101) of the rail tops at possible positions of wheelsets along the

track in a measured running gear and any possible position of the wheelsets of an adjacent running

gear belonging to the same vehicle body shall not exceed 2 mm;

4) the algebraic difference between the mean values of the cross levels (see EN 13848-1) at the

positions of the wheelsets in a measured running gear and any possible position of the wheelsets of

an adjacent running gear belonging to the same vehicle body shall not exceed 2 mm;

5) the straightness tolerance (see EN ISO 1101) of the centre line of the track (evaluated in the range

up to 14 mm below top of rails) shall not exceed 10 mm. This applies to the distance between the

wheelsets in a measured running gear and any possible position of the wheelsets of an adjacent

running gear belonging to the same vehicle body;

6) The longitudinal gradient of a reference plane given by the possible positions of the wheelsets of

two adjacent running gear shall not exceed 0,4 %. The lateral gradient shall not exceed 0,1 %.

NOTE 1 The requirement related to the longitudinal gradient of the reference plane allows to measure one

running gear in a lifted position (for example on the flanges).

If the car bodies of measured vehicles are connected by a device that transfers torsional moments

around the longitudinal axis, the influence of further running gear shall be considered as specified in

Table 1.

It is possible to apply larger tolerances than given in Table 1 for vehicles with more than two connected

car bodies. In this case an analysis shall be performed in order to demonstrate that the uncertainties of

the measured wheel forces are not dominated by these larger tolerances (see Annex B).

If measurements are not taken on a track, the alignment of the contact points on the support (e.g. under

the flange or under the axle box) shall be made in way that it is ensured, that the alignment of the

reference points D of the wheel treads of the vehicle follow equivalent rules. The effect of vertical

deflections due to the load of a representative vehicle shall be respected for the flatness measurements

(see above requirements 1 and 3 and in Table 1).

For the above requirements related to the algebraic differences between two cross levels (2 and 4 and

in Table 1) deflections can be neglected, if the difference between the vertical deflections of the left and

right rail at the same wheelset position does not exceed 0,2 mm.

This specification is a minimum specification. In some cases a better track quality is useful. Annex B

gives more information about the influence of track quality on the measured results.

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NOTE 2 Experience has shown that butt welds between rails, rail joints and the use of worn rails lead to

problems with compliance with the requirements.
Table 1 — Requirements of the geometry for the measurement device
Area wheelset 1 Area wheelset 2 Flatness tolerance Algebraic difference in
(see EN ISO 1101) of the cross levels
the rail tops on running (see EN 13848-1) at the
surface positions of any two
mm wheelsets
Possible positions of Possible positions of the
the wheelsets along wheelsets along the track inside
1 1
the track inside a a measured running gear
measurement section
Possible positions of Possible positions of wheelsets
the wheelsets along along the track in a measured
the track inside a running gear and any possible
measurement section position of the wheelsets of an 2 2
adjacent r
...

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